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蘇伊文教授:「教師職業倦怠研究的回顧與前瞻」--未來的研究方向 (下)
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蘇伊文教授:「教師職業倦怠研究的回顧與前瞻」--未來的研究方向 (下)



肆、教師職業倦怠研究未來可行的方向

教師職業倦怠研究至今二十餘年,屬於新興的研究方向,所以,未來有著非常大的發展空間。從這個回顧中,至少我們可發現三個可發展的方向:

一、 研究者所建議藉由教育改革行動,以徹底解決教師職業倦怠問題必須更具體可行,因為教育本身保守的本質似乎沒有太大的空間以從事革新與改變。除此之外,官僚體制的決策行為,已使教育工作者,和其他行業比較,較容易接受和安於外在的控制(Kierstead,1983)。

比如說,不少的研究建議減少教師工作量,改進校長、教育行政工作者和教育工作者的人際關係以減少教師職業倦怠發生的機率,但是,當筆者檢視校長、教育行政工作者和督導者的壓力來源,赫然發現這些人也同樣感受來自於更高層次教育行政單位的壓力(Kierstead,1983;Sarros,1986;Murray,1987;Katz,1988)。

由此可知,教師職業倦怠問題並非只是一個學校的問題,而是整個教育系統的問題。因此,研究者在從事各項教育改革提案時,必須考慮教育系統中的許多環節,否則,這些提案或建議終將成為紙上作業而已。未來的研究需要更具體而實際,而最重要的是一次採取一小步驟較為切合實用。
  
二、直至1980年代結束,大多數的研究以統計量化研究為主要研究方法而調查某些因素和教師職業倦怠的相關性。筆者幾乎沒發現以實驗研究方法改變某項變數以比較差異性,例如,可以設計不同的領導型態以比較其對教師職業倦怠的影響力。當然,研究者也可以用質的研究法,如人種誌研究法(Ethnography)或個案研究法(Case study)從事深度的探討。

三、人口變數與教師職業倦怠之相關性,在1980年代並無具體的結論,研究者可以繼續調查和探討。

四、學者所提出的解決之方,尤其針對教師個人的建議是否具體可行而有效,有待進一步的實驗與觀察。

五、教學活動是教師和學生間交互運作的活動,而根據上述研究指出,教室管理行為和學生學習動機也是教師職業倦怠的來源。然而,至1980年代結束,幾乎沒有研究注重學生人格特質的研究,也就是說,什麼特質的學生使教師感覺最難處理而備受壓力,終於導致教師職業倦怠的現象?

Cherniss(1980)認為客戶抱持期望程度的深淺、客戶動機和能力和強弱程度、客戶主控意念的強弱程度,以及客戶是否站在批評者的立場去吹毛求疵,都將造成從事助人行業者的滿意或壓力。因而,未來的教師職業倦怠研究可從事於學生人格特質的研究和學生問題的種類探討,也可以從已發生職業倦怠的教師班級中,調查學生們如何看待自己與教師的關係。

伍、結 語

  教師職業倦怠現象被教育工作者及社會大眾深切關懷著,因為,在身體上、情緒上或態度上感覺疲竭的教師將無法有良好的教學表現而對學生的學習也會產生負面的影響。因而,研究者們非常努力的從為〝教師職業倦怠〞下定義、描述症狀、發現造成〝教師職業倦怠〞的來源,進而提出各種不同的解決方法以協助教師預防及克服這種症狀。

這篇回顧與前瞻旨在清楚的呈現教師職業倦怠研究從1970年代到1990年代的走向,以提供讀者參考。由於筆者對教育領導行為的關心,所以,本文特別詳細述介領導型態與教師職業倦怠的相關研究。

教師職業倦怠是一個新的研究領域,許多未竟的研究工作正等著研究者們努力探討。筆者願藉本文喚起有心人一起投入這個領域中。


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Education, 1993, 1, 105-120
Institute of Elementary Education, Taichung Teachers College

THE TRENDS OF TEACHER BURNOUT RESEARCH

I-Wen Su

ABSTRACT

This paper was an attempt to provide readers a clear picture about the trends of teacher burnout research done in 1970s and 1980s. Based on previous reviews on teacher burnout studies of 1970s, the paper reviewed, compared and summarized the teacher burnout literature of 1980s. The Implications for further investigation into the differences among demographic variables; the influences of leadership style and effects of students’ characteristics were also suggested.


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