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老人言-11 (中翻英)
2013/04/23 00:15:34瀏覽267|回應0|推薦2

選自《大戴禮記哀公問第四十一》(《禮記哀公問第二十七》略同)。

Excerpted from The Book of Rites Compiled by Dai Sr., “King Ai’s Questions, No. 41.”  (Similar to the Book of Rites (by Dai Jr.), “King Ai’s Questions, No. 27.”)

 

【譯文】孔子說,古代從事政治的人,以愛養人民為最重要,所以能得到治理。愛養人民,禮最重要,所以能得到治理。禮,以恭敬為最重要,恭敬要達到極致。因此君子以至誠恭敬的心,實踐與民相親之道。如果捨棄恭敬,就是遺棄相親之道。如果沒有愛,就不能相親;如果沒有恭敬心,就不能端正行為。仁愛與誠敬,這就是政教的根本啊!

[Explanation]  Confucius said that politicians in ancient times would deem the nurturing of people with love as the most important thing; as a result, their governance was excellent.  Propriety is the greatest manifestation of nurturing people with love and for the state to be well governed.  Reverence is the greatest manifestation of Propriety, the utmost of respects.  Therefore, a gentleman will use the utmost sincerity and respect to treat his people as if kin.  If respect is abandoned, it is the same as abandoning the way of kinship.  Without love, there will be no affinity; without respect, there will be no correct behavior.  Love and respect are the basics of governance.

 

  三代明王之政,必敬其妻子也,有道。妻也者,親之主也,敢不敬與?子也,親之後也者,親之後也,敢不敬與?君子無不敬也。敬身為大,身也者,親之枝也,敢不敬與?不能敬其身,是傷其親,傷其本,傷其枝也。

            In the governance of the sagacious kings of the Three Dynasties (of Shia, Shang, and Zhou), there must be the respect for the children and wives; this is the Way.  The wife is the head caretaker of one’s parents, dare anyone not show respect? Children are the descendants of one’s parents, dare anyone not show respect?  There is nothing a gentleman does not respect.  The greatest is the respect for the body.  The body is branched from (an extension of) the parents, dare anyone not show respect?  To disrespect one’s body is to harm one’s parents; injure the roots also injures the branches.

選自《孔子家語》卷十(《大戴禮記哀公問第四十一》略同)

Excerpted from Family Discourse of Confucius, vol. 10, (Similar to the Book of Rites Compiled by Dai Sr., “King Ai’s Questions, No. 41.”)

 

  【譯文】往古夏、商、周三代的賢明之王執政,一定敬重自己的妻子兒女,這是有很深的道理。因為妻子是一家之主,,怎能不尊重呢?子女是祖先的後代,怎麼能不尊重呢?因此,君子沒有不敬重的人。

[Explanation]  In the governance of the sagacious kings of the Three Dynasties of Shia, Shang, and Zhou, there must be the respect for one’s wife and children; this policy is very profund.  The wife is the head caretaker of one’s parents, how dare anyone not to show respect?  Children are the descendants of the ancestors, how dare anyone not show respect?  There is nothing a gentleman does not respect. 

然而,說到敬,最重要的就是敬重自己。因為自己是父母所生,承先接後的關鍵,怎麼能不敬呢?不敬重自己,就是損害自己的父母;損害父母就是斬傷自己的根本,斬傷根本,那麼它的枝葉也要跟著受到傷害

In the discussion of respect, the greatest respect is to respect oneself, the body and the mind.  The body is given by the parents, as a nexus of one’s ancestors and descendants, how dare anyone not show respect?  To disrespect one’s body is to harm to one’s parents; causing harm to one’s parents is like cutting off one’s roots, injuring the roots will also injure the branches.

 

禮有三本。天地者,性之本也;先祖者,類之本也;君師者,治之本也。無天地焉生?無先祖焉出?無君師焉治?

Rites have three basics.  Heaven and Earth are the basis of nature; ancestors are the basis of clans; leaders and teachers are the basis of governance.  Without heaven and earth how can anything propagate?  Without ancestors where does the clan come from?  Without leaders and teachers who can govern a country?

選自《大戴禮記》第四十二篇 禮三本。

Excerpted from The Book of Rites Compiled by Dai Sr., Ch. 42, “The Three Basics of Rites.”

 

  【譯文】禮有三個根本,天地,是能生萬事萬物的根本;先祖,是人類的根本;君師,是治理的根本。沒有天地怎能生養萬物;沒有先祖怎會有人類產生;沒有君師怎能得到好的教化和治理呢!

[Explanation]  Rites have three basics.  Heaven and Earth are the basis of nature that propagates all things; ancestors are the basis of clans; leaders and teachers are the basis of governance.  Without heaven and earth how can anything propagate?  Without ancestors where do clans come from?  Without leaders and teachers how can a country be governed and the people educated?

 

 

  孔子曰:「以舊禮為無所用而去之者,必有亂患。故婚姻之禮廢,則夫婦之道苦,而淫辟之罪多矣。鄉飲酒之禮廢,則長幼之序失,而爭鬥之獄繁矣。聘射之禮廢,則諸侯之行惡,而盈溢之敗起矣。

            Confucius said: “To abolish old rituals because they were useless, there certainly will be chaos.  If the marriage ceremonies are abandoned, the way of couples will be miserable, and the sins of adultery will be common.  If the ritual of libation in villages becomes obsolete, the order between the elder and the younger will be lost, the crimes caused by competition and struggles for power and profits will be numerous.  If the etiquette for court appearances and the ritual of archery are abandoned, the evil deeds committed by lords and the ruination caused by extravagance (overabundance) will rise.

喪祭之禮廢,則臣子之恩薄,而倍死忘生之禮眾矣。凡人之知,能見已然,不能見將然。禮者,禁於將然之前;而法者,禁於已然之後。是故法之用易見,而禮之所為生難知也。曰禮云,禮云,貴絕惡於未萌,而起敬於微眇;使民日徙善遠罪,而不自知也。」

If the rites of offerings and funerals are abandoned, the subjects and children will not remember to be grateful; people who betray the dead and forget the living will be numerous.  Ordinary people can only see what is obvious but cannot see into the future.  Rituals are performed to prevent what will happen in the future; laws are executed to prohibit what have already happened.  Thus the effects of the law are easy to observe, but the benefits of rituals are difficult to know.  People often ask why the ritual?  Why the ritual? The importance of ritual is in the prohibition of evils before they were born; the subtle rise of reverence in the mind (at the minutest place during the progression of the ceremony); and it can make people cultivate goodness and abstain from wrongdoings daily without knowing it.”

選自《大戴禮記》第四十六篇禮察

Excerpted from The Book of Rites Compiled by Dai Sr., “Contemplation of Rites, Ch. 46.”

 

【譯文】孔子說:「認為舊禮無用而去除,必然會有惑亂憂患。所以婚姻的禮儀廢除,那麼夫婦的相處之道就會產生苦難,則放蕩淫亂的罪行就會多起來。鄉里飲酒的禮節廢除,那麼,長幼的次序就會喪失,從而令彼此爭奪打鬥的官司多了起來。聘射的禮節廢除了,諸侯們行為就會惡劣,那麼因驕傲自滿而導致的敗落就跟著發生了。喪祭的禮儀廢除,臣子就會薄情寡義,背叛死者忘記祖先的人就多起來了。

[Explanation]  Confucius said: “To abolish old rituals because they were useless, there certainly will be chaos and sufferings.  If the marriage ceremonies are abandoned, the way of couples will be miserable, and the sins of adultery will be common. If the ritual of libation in villages becomes obsolete, the order between the elder and the younger will be lost, the fights and lawsuits caused by competition and struggles for power and profits will be numerous.  If the etiquette of court appearances and the ritual of archery are abandoned, the evil deeds committed by lords and the ruination caused by arrogance and extravagance will rise.  If the rites of offerings and funerals are abolished, the court subjects and children will be fickle, ungrateful, and disloyal; more people will betray the dead and forget the living. 

凡人的智慧,能看到已經發生的情況,卻看不到將要發生的事情。禮就是在惡事發生之前先行禁止;而法則在惡事發生之後再進行懲治。因此法令的作用容易看到,而禮所產生的效果就很難知道。禮啊、禮啊,是貴在斷絕惡行在未發生之前,從極微小的地方培養起恭敬心,使人民在不知不覺中日日向善遷移,遠離罪惡。

The wisdom of ordinary people can only see what has already happened but cannot see into future events.  Rituals are performed to prohibit evils before they happen; laws are executed to punish crimes that have already happened.  Thus, the effects of the law are easy to observe, but the benefits of rituals are difficult to understand.  People may ask why the ritual!  Why the ritual?  The importance of ritual is in its prevention and prohibition of evils before they occur, and the subtlety of ritual is the rise of reverence in people’s heart at the minutest places during the progression of the ceremonies.  It can make people cultivate goodness and abstain from wrongdoings daily without knowing it. 

 

  為人主計,莫如安審取捨。取捨之極定於內,安危之萌應於外也。安者,非一日而安也;危者,非一日而危也;皆以積然,不可不察也。善不積不足以成名,惡不積不足以滅身。而人之所行,各在其取捨。

            The calculations of a person (for his ruler) are no more than the wise determination of what to take and what to discard.  Taking and/or discarding to the fullest extent will ensure social order and can terminate external (foreign) dangers at their incipient stage.  Safety does not happen in one day; danger does not appear in one day, either.  They occur by accumulation, one cannot fail to observe this.  Goodness without accumulation is not enough to make one reputable; wickedness without accumulation is not enough to cause one’s ruination.  Hence, a person’s cultivation is determined by his takings and discards.

選自《大戴禮記˙禮察》第四十六篇

Excerpted from The Book of Rites Compiled by Dai Sr., “Contemplation of Rites, Ch. 46.”

 

【譯文】為人君者考量的,莫過於審慎取捨的原則,而取捨的標準決定於內心,而安危的萌芽已應現於外界了。因為安定不是一天造成的;危難也不是一天就會形成的,安和危都是源於善惡的積累而成,這個道理不能不明察。善行不積累就不足以成就美好的名聲;惡行不積累也不足以身敗名裂。因而,每個人的行為都在於自己內心的取捨。

[Explanation]  The calculations of a gentleman ruler are no more than the wise determination of what to take and what to discard.  Taking and discarding to the fullest extent will ensure peace internally (social order); its external manifestations are the inceptions of safety and danger (and can terminate external dangers at their incipient stage).  Safety does not happen in one day; danger does not appear in one day, either.  They occur due to the accumulation of goodness or wickedness of a person.  One must understand this principle.    Goodness without accumulation is not enough to make one reputable; wickedness without accumulation is not enough to cause one’s ruination.  Thus, a person’s cultivation is determined by one’s takings and discards.

 

以禮義治之者積禮義,以刑罰治之者積刑罰。刑罰積而民怨倍,禮義積而民親和。

To govern with propriety and righteousness will accumulate propriety and righteousness; to reign with sentencing and punishments will accumulate sentencing and punishments.  The accumulation of sentences and punishments will multiply people’s resentment; the accumulation of propriety and righteousness will make people harmonious and treat each other as family.

選自《大戴禮記˙禮察第四十六篇》

Excerpted from The Book of Rites Compiled by Dai Sr., “Contemplation of Rites, Ch. 46.”

 

【譯文】用禮義治理天下,積累的就是由禮義而帶來的良好社會風氣;用刑罰治理天下,積累的就是由刑罰帶來的乖戾怨怨。刑罰積累,人民就會怨恨背叛;禮義積累,人民就會親密和睦。

[Explanation]  To govern with propriety and righteousness will result in good social mores caused by the accumulation of propriety and righteousness; to rule with sentencing and punishments will result in hatred and violence as a caused by the accumulation of sentencing and punishments.  The accumulation of sentences and punishments will make people resentful and rebellious; the accumulation of propriety and righteousness will make people harmonious and treat each other as family.

 

 

湯武置天下于仁義禮樂,而德澤廣育四夷,累子孫三十余世,歷年久六八百歲,此天下共聞之也;秦王置天下法令刑罰,德澤無一有,而怨毒盈世,民憎惡如仇讎,禍幾及身,子孫誅絕,此天下所共見也。

King Tong of Shang Dynasty and King Wu of Zhou Dynasty governed their empires with benevolence, righteousness, propriety, and music; their meritorious governance embraced, benefitted, and nurtured the tribal peoples in the four corners of the world.  Their descendants were kings of their empires for more than 30 generations.  The Tong Dynasty lasted for six hundred years, the Zhou Dynasty for eight hundred years.  The First Emperor of Chin ruled his Chin Dynasty with law and punishment.  His governance was without any merit except for the accumulation of people’s resentment and hatred for more than a generation.  People hated him as if their archenemy.  His tyranny caused his own assassinations and the annihilation of his descendants.  These were seen by all the people under the sky.

夫用禮樂仁義為天下者,行五六百歲猶存;用法令為天下者,十餘年即亡。是非明斅(音笑)大驗乎!今人或言禮義不如法令,教化不如刑罰,人主胡不承殷周秦事以觀之乎?

In conclusion, to govern with benevolence, righteousness, propriety, and music in order to benefit the world, such government can last for more than five to six hundred years; to rule the world with law and order, such government cannot survive for more than a decade.  This is the greatest evidence and clearest teachings of the right and wrong ways of governance!  People nowadays may comment that to rule with propriety and righteousness is not as effective as to rule with law and order; cultivation and transformation is not as well as sentencing and punishment; when making such comments why not contemplate the governances of the dynasties of Shang, Zhou, and Chin?

選自《大戴禮記禮察第四十六》

Excerpted from The Book of Rites Compiled by Dai Sr., “Contemplation of Rites, Ch. 46.”

 

【譯文】商湯王和周武王以仁義禮樂來立國育民,並且德澤廣被於四方的少數民,子孫累世尊榮於天下三十多代,歷經了六百到八百年之久。這是天下所聞知的事。秦始皇以法令刑法來建立國家,對人民沒有絲毫的德澤,而怨恨毒害盈滿於世間,人民對他的憎恨厭惡,就像面對仇人冤家一樣。禍亂幾乎就發生在秦始皇自己身上,他的子孫被誅殺滅絕,這是天下人共同看見的事。

[Explanation]  King Tong of Shang Dynasty and King Wu of Zhou Dynasty governed their empires with benevolence, righteousness, propriety, and music, their meritorious governances embraced, benefitted, and nurtured the tribal peoples in the four corners of the world, their descendants were kings and nobles of their empires for more than 30 generations, and the Tong Dynasty lasted for six hundred years, the Zhou Dynasty for eight hundred years.  Every one had heard of these.  The Emperor of the Chin Dynasty ruled with laws and punishments.  His governance was without any merit except for the accumulation of people’s resentments and hatred for more than a generation.  People hated him as if their archenemy.  His tyranny caused his own assassinations and the annihilation of his descendants.  These were seen by all the people under the sky.

用禮樂仁義治理天下的殷朝和周朝,國運長達五、六百年;而用法令刑罰治理天下的秦朝,只有短短十幾年就覆滅了。使用法令治理天下的人,十幾年就會滅亡。這難道不是顯明的教誨和實驗結果嗎?如今有的人說禮義不如法令,教化不如刑罰,那當權者為何不繼承商、周、秦三朝的治理方式來觀察成敗之效呢?

In conclusion, to govern with benevolence, righteousness, propriety, and music, as the dynasties of Shang and Zhou, in order to benefit the world, such government can last for more than five to six hundred years; to rule the world with law and order, such government cannot survive for more than a decade.  This is the greatest evidence and clearest teachings of the right and wrong ways of governance!  People nowadays may comment that to govern with propriety and righteousness is not as effective as to rule with law and order; cultivation and transformation are not as well as sentencing and punishment; when making such comments why not contemplate the governances of the dynasties of Shang, Zhou, and Chin?

 

 

殷為天子,三十一世六百二十九年,而周受之。周為天子,三十七世八百六十七年,而秦受之。秦為天子,二世而亡,凡十有五年。人性非甚相遠也,何殷周有道之長,而秦無道之暴,其故可知也。

The Dynasty of Shang (also called Yin) lasted for 629 years with 31 kings.  It was followed by the Dynasty of Zhou, which lasted for 867 years with 37 kings.  Thereafter, the Dynasty of Chin was established, which lasted only for 15 years with 2 kings.  The human temperaments are not widely different, but why is it the governance of the dynasties of Shang and Zhou can last for such a long time, and the tyranny of Chin was so short; the causes for their differences are discernable.

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