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老人言-4(中翻英)
2013/04/13 04:32:57瀏覽507|回應0|推薦3

                   左傳曰:「夫上之所為,民之歸也。上所不為,而民或為之,是以加刑罰焉。若上之所為,而民亦為之,乃其所也,又可禁乎。」

Chronicles by Zhuo stated “As the deeds of the upper class, so forge the deeds of the commoners. Deeds done by the commoners, but not done by the upper class, will be punished.  If whatever the upper class will do, the commoners will do as well, as a fashion, how can such deeds be prohibited?”

選自《群書治要》卷五之《左傳襄公》。

Excerpted from A Compendium of Books on the Essentials of Governing, vol. 5, “Chronicles by Zhuo, Duke of Xiang.”

 

【譯文】《左傳》說:「居於上位者的所作所為,百姓會趨向效法。上位的人所不做的事情,百姓有人做了,因此就對他們加以刑罰,就沒有人敢不警戒。如果居上位者所做的,人民也跟著做了,上行下效是勢所必然的事;百姓也做,那是勢所必然,又怎麼禁止得了呢?」

[Translation]  The Chronicles by Zhuo stated that the behaviors of the people of high status will be followed by the public.  Those behaviors, not done by the upper class but done by the commoners, will be punished, thereby every one will be cautious of them.  Since whatever the upper class will do, the public will imitate; it is a natural conclusion that the public will simulate the actions of the upper class.  In such a case, how can the public actions copied from the upper class be prohibited?”

 

  易曰:天行健,君子以自強不息。

The Book of Changes stated that as the Heaven orbits constantly, so should a gentleman strive to better himself tirelessly.

 

選自《群書治要》卷一之《周易·乾卦》

Excerpted from A Compendium of Books on the Essentials of Governing, vol. 1, “Book of Changes (Oracles), Hexagram of the Creative (the Heaven).”

 

【譯文】乾卦《象傳》說:乾卦象徵天道運行的剛健而永恆,君子應當效法天道,自我奮發圖強,永不止息。

[Translation] The Hexagram of Chen (the Creative), as stated in the Commentary of the Oracles, symbolized by the untiring power and constancy of the Heaven’s movement, encourages a gentleman to imitate the way of Heaven, to conscientiously strive to better himself, never ending or tiring.

 

保合大和,萬國咸寧。

In conformity with the Great Harmony, all countries will unite in peace.

 

選自《群書治要》卷一之《周易·乾卦》

Excerpted from A Compendium of Books on the Essentials of Governing, vol. 1, “Book of Changes, Hexagram of the Creative (the Heaven).”

 

【譯文】若能夠常存和諧、和平、和順,這樣就能廣利萬物,不失其正,令天地萬物各居其位,一團和氣,從而給天下萬國帶來安寧、太平。

[Translation]  If all can constantly persevere in harmony, peace, and obedience, all things will be widely benefited; all things in between Earth and Heaven will be rightfully placed, without losing justice; thus, a harmonious ambience will be created, and all the countries in the world will be peaceful and secure.

 

                   君子體仁足以長人,嘉會足以合禮,利物足以和義,貞固足以幹事。君子行此四德,居上不驕,在下不憂。

A gentleman’s embodiment of benevolence can make him a leader; his assemblage of excellences is enough to make him conform to propriety; benefitting all things makes him conform to righteousness sufficiently; and his perseverance will make him successful.  A gentleman, practicing these four virtues, will not be arrogant at an exalted position, or anxious at the bottom rung.

選自《群書治要》卷一之《周易·乾卦》

Excerpted from A Compendium of Books on the Essentials of Governing, vol. 1, “Book of Changes, Hexagram of the Creative (the Heaven).”

 

【譯文】君子能躬行仁道,博愛眾生,所以足以領導人;君子能使萬物嘉美集會,足以符合於禮法;利益萬物,使物各得其所,足以和順於義理;守持正道,堅定不移,足以成就一番事業。君子能夠實行這四種德行,居於上位而能夠不驕傲,安然處於下位而不以為憂。

[Translation] A gentleman who practices benevolence and shows loving-kindness to all sentient beings is capable enough to lead the people; his assemblage of all excellent things will make him conform to propriety sufficiently; benefitting all things and placing them accordingly are enough for him to conform to righteousness; abiding by the correct ways with perseverance is sufficient to make him accomplished in his career.  A gentleman, practicing these four virtues, will not be arrogant although exalted and will be content and not worry about being at the bottom rung.

 

  同聲相應,同氣相求。

Sounds of the same pitch will resonate, similar smells will merge.

 

選自《群書治要》卷一之《周易·乾卦》

Excerpted from A Compendium of Books on the Essentials of Governing, vol. 1, “Book of Changes, Hexagram of the Creative (the Heaven ).”

 

【譯文】同樣的聲音能產生共鳴,同樣的氣味會相互融合,即同類的事物相互感應。指志趣、意見相同的人互相響應,自然地結合在一起。以此言聖賢能夠令天下萬民各居其位、萬事各得其所。

[Translation]  Sounds of the same pitch will vibrate together, similar smells will merge together; in other words, things of the same kind will respond to each other.  It also means that people of same aspirations and opinions will have a rapport and will naturally unite together.  This adage expresses that the saints and sages can make all the people in the world to be suitably positioned and all things properly placed.

 

                   夫大人者,與天地合其德,與日月合其明,與四時合其序,與鬼神合其吉凶。天且弗違,而況於人乎?

For a superior man, his virtues conform to the virtues of heaven and earth, his clarity/wisdom conforms to the luminosity of the sun and the moon, his timing conforms to the order of the four seasons, and his fortune and misfortune conform to the reward and punishment (auspice and ferocity) of the ghosts and gods.  Even the Heaven cannot topple such a man, how can any humans do so?

選自《群書治要》卷一之《周易·乾卦》

Excerpted from A Compendium of Books on the Essentials of Governing, vol. 1, “Book of Changes, Hexagram of the Creative (the Heaven).”

 

 

【譯文】聖人的德行與天地一樣,覆載萬民、化育萬物;其智慧如同日月一樣普照世界各個地方;他賞罰嚴明,言行、動作有節,順乎自然,如四季運行一樣有序不紊;他管理政事,合乎福善禍淫之大道,與鬼神合其吉凶,絲毫不違背天理。上天尚且不違背聖人以德治國,更何況是人呢?

[Translation]  The virtues of a saint is like heaven and earth, supporting and sheltering all humans, transforming and nurturing all things; his wisdom is like the sun and the moon, illuminating every corner of the world; he rewards and punishes with clarity and severity, his speech and actions are appropriate, in accordance with nature, as the movement of the four seasons in an orderly fashion without any havoc; his administration of governmental affairs conforms to the Grand Way, which rewards the virtuous and punishes the wicked, and also corresponds to the fortune and misfortune meted out by the ghosts and gods, without any violation of the mandates of Heaven.  Even the Heaven cannot topple a saint governing his country with virtues, how could any humans do so?

【編按】淨空老法師在講經中指出:大人就是聖人。從前,中國人讀書,是志在聖賢,不是在做官、發財,而是以希聖希賢為教育的目標。所以從前教學的目標是「聖、賢、君子」,君子是最下面的,君子上面是賢人,再上面是聖人。

[Editor’s notes]  V. M. Chin Kung has pointed out during a sutra lecture:  a superior person means a saint.  In the old days, the aspirations of the Chinese scholars are to be saints and sages, not to be government officials, or to be rich; in other words, their educational goal is to become saints and sages.  Therefore, the goal of education in the old days is “saint, sage, and gentleman.”  Gentleman is at the last, the one before a gentleman is a sage, and on top of the sage is a saint.

『聖人與天地合其德』,天是乾德,地是坤德,天地養育萬物。聖人的心胸跟天地一樣,對一切萬物沒有分別心,清淨、平等、慈悲,這稱之為大,這是真大!在佛法講,「心包太虛,量周沙界」,就是這個意思。

 With respect to “[T]he saint conforms his virtues to the virtues of heaven and earth,” the virtue of heaven is “creativity,” the virtue of the earth is “receptivity,” the heaven and earth nurture all things.  The mind of the saint is the same as heaven and earth, without any differentiation towards any thing, pure, equal, and compassionate, thus it is called “grand,” truly magnificent!  In Buddhism, this is called “the heart that embraces the universe, as immeasurable as the number of all the worlds turn into dusts.”  This is the meaning of “grand.”

『與日月合其明』,明是講智慧,智慧像日月一樣的光明。

 With respect to “conforms to the clarity of the sun and the moon,” clarity means wisdom, wisdom as bright as the luminosity of the sun and the moon.

底下兩句是講他的德用,『與四時合其序』。這是講他的一切言行動作順乎自然,一絲毫不勉強,在政治上就順乎民情。老百姓喜歡的,他喜歡;老百姓不喜歡的,他也不喜歡。

The last two phrases refer to the effect of his virtues, “conform to the order of the four seasons.”  This phrase describes that, effortlessly, all his speech and actions are in accordance with nature; hence his administration will follow the will of the people.  Whatever the people likes, he will like; whatever the people dislikes, he will dislike.

所以他推行的政治是仁治,沒有一個人不歡喜的,不會違背民情。就像四時,春夏秋冬這個順序一樣,不會顛倒,不會錯亂,不會失時。他所守的是原理原則,他的做法,在什麼時候,在什麼處所,應該要怎麼做法,活活潑潑,這是大人,這是真正有智慧。

So the political system he developed and implemented is a government of benevolence; no one will dislike it, it is without any violation of people’s will.  It is like the four seasons, in the order of spring, summer, autumn, and winter, without disorder, without confusion, and without missing its timing.  The principles and guidelines he followed, the methods he adopted, at what time, in what place, what to do, how to do, are all full of vibrance.  This is a superior man, this is true wisdom.

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