拉斯馮提爾之Dogma 95 "95宣言" (1995)
DOGMA 95 counters the individual film by the principle of presenting an indisputable set of rules known as THE VOW OF CHASTITY.
In 1960 enough was enough! The movie had been cosmeticised to death, they said; yet since then the use of cosmetics has exploded.
The “supreme” task of the decadent film-makers is to fool the audience. Is that what we are so proud of? Is that what the “100 years” have brought us? Illusions via which emotions can be communicated? ... By the individual artist’s free choice of trickery?
Predictability (dramaturgy) has become the golden calf around which we dance. Having the characters’ inner lives justify the plot is too complicated, and not “high art”. As never before, the superficial action and the superficial movie are receiving all the praise.
The result is barren. An illusion of pathos and an illusion of love.
To DOGMA 95 the movie is not illusion!
Today a technological storm is raging of which the result is the elevation of cosmetics to God. By using new technology anyone at any time can wash the last grains of truth away in the deadly embrace of sensation. The illusions are everything the movie can hide behind.
DOGMA 95 counters the film of illusion by the presentation of an indisputable set of rules known as THE VOW OF CHASTITY.
The Vow of Chastity
I swear to submit to the following set of rules drawn up and confirmed by DOGMA 95:
1. Shooting must be done on location. Props and sets must not be brought in (if a particular prop is necessary for the story, a location must be chosen where this prop is to be found).
2. The sound must never be produced apart from the images or vice versa. (Music must not be used unless it occurs where the scene is being shot). 3. The camera must be hand-held. Any movement or immobility attainable in the hand is permitted. (The film must not take place where the camera is standing; shooting must take place where the film takes place).
4. The film must be in colour. Special lighting is not acceptable. (If there is too little light for exposure the scene must be cut or a single lamp be attached to the camera).
5. Optical work and filters are forbidden.
6. The film must not contain superficial action. (Murders, weapons, etc. must not occur.)
7. Temporal and geographical alienation are forbidden. (That is to say that the film takes place here and now.)
8. Genre movies are not acceptable.
9. The film format must be Academy 35 mm.
10. The director must not be credited. Furthermore I swear as a director to refrain from personal taste! I am no longer an artist. I swear to refrain from creating a “work”, as I regard the instant as more important than the whole. My supreme goal is to force the truth out of my characters and settings. I swear to do so by all the means available and at the cost of any good taste and any aesthetic considerations.
Thus I make my VOW OF CHASTITY
Copenhagen, Monday 13 March 1995 On behalf of DOGMA 95, Lars von Trier, Thomas Vinterberg
自1995年逗馬宣言（Dogme 95）誕生，1998年謹守「貞潔誓言」（The Vow of Chastity）的「逗馬一號」作品《那一個晚上》（Festen）在坎城影展大放異彩至今已十年，經逗馬官網認可的作品累計達到195部，討論逗馬帶給當代電影製作的影響的相關影評、學術論文與紀錄片仍繼續誕生，拉斯．馮．提爾（Lars von Trier）與湯瑪斯．溫特堡（Thomas Vinterberg）卻早已拋棄了這些戒律，在2002年的紀錄片《解構逗馬宣言》〔De Lutrede（The Purified）〕中與另兩位革命夥伴大談規則限制的不切實際。究竟當年的逗馬宣言，是全球電影藝術的新浪潮？是一波電影美學革命？是面對「電影已死」的救援行動？是反動？是回歸？是挑釁？還是根本只是一場玩笑？
逗馬一號《那一個晚上》與逗馬二號《白癡》（The Idiots）從故事內容到技術上，由內而外皆以極不尋常的挑釁姿態存在著。相較之下，四位簽署逗馬宣言的導演中，由年紀最大、一向關注青少年題材的索倫．克拉－雅布克森（Soren Kragh-Jacobsen）所執導的逗馬第三號作品《敏郎之歌》（Mifunes sidste sang），無疑是一次難得親切討好的示範。索倫．克拉雅布克森與新銳影人安德斯．湯瑪士．詹森（Anders Thomas Jensen）合編的劇本，一改頭兩部逗馬作品給觀眾的「極端」桀驁與不適，優美如詩的田園影像配上推展起伏相當符合通俗三幕劇的公式架構，幾個主要角色從犯錯到尋求自我救贖的鋪陳平易而動人，對當代都會觀眾來說頗有「療癒系電影」的功用。這對一老一少創作搭檔後來與《敏郎之歌》中表現優異的女星艾班．葉樂（Iben Hjejle）再度合作《愛情向前衝》（Skagerrak），也是索倫．克拉－雅布克森「妓女／聖母情結」（Madonna-whore complex）三部曲的第二部。《愛情向前衝》依舊是一段如《敏郎之歌》般甜美的心靈治療旅程，但這回並未冠上逗馬名號，宗教與童話色彩也更為濃厚，描述懷抱著罪惡感的女主角瑪莉陰錯陽差當上代理孕母後，依賴各方陌生人的善意得到救贖，其過程宛若聖經故事中聖母產子的現代翻版。......（節錄自電影欣賞第131期）