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本隊之戰術教範
2005/07/31 11:39:21瀏覽2120|回應2|推薦1

大綱--
1.單兵裝備
2.編組,通訊規定
3.任務編組,射擊紀律
4.住民地戰鬥準則
5.戰術運用參考原則

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第一部分:

單兵裝備
1.加入本隊成為隊員者請務必詳讀以下規定。

2.隊員應擁有以下裝備始可參加各次活動:電動空氣步槍或者相等威力的槍枝,作戰服裝,護目鏡或者防護面罩。其他裝備列為個人非必備裝備,得自行參酌情況攜帶。

3.槍支:隊員所擁有的槍枝,必須限定其槍口初速在110秒/公尺以下,並且使用BB彈不得超過0.25公克,其他附帶配備得自行安裝,唯嚴禁安裝刺刀等近戰武器。本教範建議各隊員得擁有至少一支的自動步槍,手槍,狙擊槍,輕機槍等在個人選配裝備之列。若自行改裝槍支成為可發射真槍子彈者,改裝者得自行負起一切責任。

4.作戰服裝:活動期間請穿著符合地貌之作戰服裝,得盡量避免一般平民服裝以及國軍徽誌以免困擾,另外不得穿著短褲,拖鞋,涼鞋等可能遭致危險的服裝。本教範建議個隊員擁有整套的迷彩野戰服裝,包含有上衣,長褲,帽子或頭盔,野戰鞋,手套等。戰術背心,腰帶,彈袋,槍套等個人裝備為選配裝備。

5.防護裝備:由於電動或空氣槍支所使用之BB但能有一定的殺傷力,本準則強制規定所有隊員在活動期間需攜帶防護裝備,在交戰期間必須全程佩掛直到回到休息區域,違反者如有意外須負起全部責任,並由本隊討論是否取消隊員資格。本準則所要求之防護裝備維護目鏡或者防護面罩,在使用前必須仔細檢查是否適用,以免發生意外。

6.其他:以上未列入本準則之裝備均為個人選配之裝備,各隊員得視情況攜帶,但是以下裝備嚴格禁止攜帶,真槍,刺刀或者真刀,炸藥,強光手電筒等易發生事故或者違反法令之物品。凡違反者除得負起一切責任外,本隊將保留開除之權利。

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第二部分

1.本部分是規定作戰期間的作戰編組與通信規定。

2.作戰編組:作戰期間本隊應當採取適當的編組方式以因應不同的情況,例如防禦態勢,進攻態勢,突擊,奇襲,埋伏,行進搜索等等,在各種狀況之間,各編組應當以最有效率的方式迅速組成,切不可拖泥帶水。基本上所有編組均應以兩人為最小編成單位。

A 防禦態勢:在防禦態勢下,我方應當以「機動彈性防禦」為準則,即引誘敵方進入我方設定之防禦火網內,故編組上至少應有一火力支援組與機動防衛組,若是情況允許應當扭轉情勢化被動為主動,採取主動出擊,進行「攻勢防禦」,故編組上需注意。後者應當在戰線誘引敵方進入圈套,結合前者之火力加以殲滅之。若情況不允許有在戰線外之機動防衛組,則應當平均打散兵力,進行靜態防線之彈性防禦。

B 正面推進:此一狀況應盡量避免,如有必要,則必須注意敵兵力及火力重點以打散我方火力,集中編組成為火力支援組,專門對付正面戰獻上之重點區域,其餘則為突擊組,隨時視情況突入敵後方以擴大戰果。

C 突擊:在所有進攻態勢中,此一作戰編組應當做為優先考量,此一狀況下,我方應起碼有一組火力支援組和一組突擊組,突擊組應當強調機動能力和快速火力,而火力支援組則應編入手頭上之較重型火力。火力支援組將以火力集中支援突擊組於重點區域之突破,並隨時伺機支援。

D 追擊:此一編組適用於敵人潰散後的追擊行動,編組上仍同於突擊編組,輕快之突擊組應當立刻尾隨敵兵力,而火力支援組則持續清掃戰場並掩護突擊組後方。

E 埋伏:此一編組適用於伏擊敵人之進攻或者後退,基本上如同設置陷阱,分成三組平均打散,兩翼各一組,底部一組,重型武器則應配置在封鎖通路的該組。

F 行進搜索:於行進搜索時應當分出一組尖兵斥候以先行探勘地形與敵情,該尖兵組應當輕裝且機動性高,待遭遇敵方時可以等待主力前來支援,或者可以迅速後退跟主力結合。

3.通信規定:狀況掌握與命令交換,均來自於良好之通信,故本隊所有隊員均應瞭解且正確運用通信之功能,以確保作戰任務之遂行與達成作戰目的。

A 通信代號:所有隊員應當擁有足以代表個人之無線電呼號,於作戰期間內均應全程使用該呼號,此一呼號不可與他人重複也不可難以記憶。

B 通信方式:主要分為口語,手勢及無線電三種,所有隊員應當學習此三種方式並交換運用之,以確保所有隊員均能徹底瞭解通信內容。

a 口語方面,作戰期間內如有需要才可使用,以避免音量過大而洩漏行蹤,且交談內容應當簡短,切忌不可喧嘩。
b 手勢方面,請參照版上「小組戰術」內基本手勢運用,以做為近距離通信用。

(1)CQB手勢參考連結http://home.kimo.com.tw/yingkuang.tw/SWAT/HTM04.htm
(2)美軍標準手是參考連結及部分講解
連結-http://www.specialoperations.com/Focus/Tactics/Hand_Signals/default.htm
部分手勢圖解-
2.1 Attention 注意-單手在側邊上方左右來回揮舞數次
2.7 Halt 停住-右手向上伸直
2.9 Advance or Move out 前進-右手伸直從後方向前揮動
2.12 Right or Left Turn 左右轉-右手水平向右側伸直,掌心向外
2.13 Slow Down 慢下來-右手水平向右側伸直,向下來回揮動數次
2.22 Messages Acknowledged 了解/收到訊息-手掌緊握並伸出大拇指
2.25 Fire 開火-右手向上伸直後向下擺動
2.27 Cease Fire 停火-右手掌擺在臉前掌心微向外,上下來回擺動數次
2.30 Assemble or Rally 集合-右手向上伸直並掌心向外,來回畫圓圈數次
2.33 Rush 加速前進-右手掌緊握伸至肩膀處,向上伸直來回數次
2.35 Enemy in Sight 視界內有敵人-舉起武器瞄向敵人概略位置
2.36 Take Cover 找掩護-右手掌心向下斜舉至45度,向下擺動
2.48 Cover My Move 掩護我-手舉至45度,再彎回放置在頭頂
2.63 Freeze 停住!-舉起拳頭與頭齊高

c 無線電通信方面,各隊員間聯絡應當注意通信紀律,尤其是需要「無線電靜默」時,交談時必須全程以代號互相稱呼,切不可長篇大論以免耽誤時機。

[部份口語及無線電通信用詞參考附註]-
Freeze: Everybody hold your position. All the soldiers should stay quiet and motionless. It usually means that the Point Man (or whoever made the signal) suspects that something is wrong and is still gathering information.
[停住!]所有人立即停止動作並保持靜默,以等待狀況清楚。
Hasty Ambush: Means "we're going to ambush the enemy". Usually made when the enemy looks vulnerable and when they seem to be heading toward the group. The soldiers should immediately take concealed firing positions.
[快速伏擊]當敵人看來脆弱可攻擊時,所有人立即就攻擊位置。
Attack! or Immediate Assault: Not the kind of thing you do every day! For sme reason, everybody should charge with weapons blazing. For example, if the group comes on the rear of an enemy position, or if another friendly unit needs immediate help. Also used on raids. Whoever gives the signal had better have a damn good reason.
[攻擊]立即發揚火力向敵人進攻。
Fall back: This means to start an orderly, guarded retreat. Usually done with the leapfrog method where one or two men at a time go back down the trail while the others stand guard. When the operation is complete the whole group should be back in their usual marching order, but heading in the oppposite direction.
[後撤]部隊即刻在護衛下進行有秩序的後退行動。
Ambush: Or, to put it another way, RUN! It means that the group is in immediate danger of being in an enemy ambush.
[遇襲]遭受敵伏擊,大家快找掩護或者離開吧...
Incoming: Means "TAKE COVER!" Some kind of indirect fire, like a mortar or an artillery shell, is coming into the group. Everybody should hit the dirt, scatter or find cover immediately.
[找掩護!]碰到炮火時最常用到。
Sniper: Reacting to a single sniper is a little different than reacting to an ambush. The entire group should open fire on the sniper's position. This may or may not kill the enemy, but it'll suppress his fire for the moment.
[狙擊手]遇到狙擊手時,所有人應向狙擊手的概略位置開火以壓制對方。

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第三部分

1.本部分係延續上一部分之作戰編組來規定任務編組之詳細事項,並且規定活動期間的射擊紀律。

2.任務編組:在確定作戰型態後,應當以任務編組之模式進行作戰編組,例如防禦態勢下應分成兩個任務組以遂行作戰目的,該任務組一為機動防禦組另一為火力支援組。每一組均應有明確之任務,如機動防禦組就應當以機動性的防衛作戰來達成任務,除非必要否則應盡量避免混淆。又,每一編組均應有一定的彈性,可以隨戰況變換編組。

3.任務編組之形式:

A 機動防禦組-用於防衛作戰上,最少編制為兩人,以資深者為小組長。該任務編組上以機動性為優先考量,以遲滯敵人或者引誘敵人進入陷阱為主。在行進搜索中,也可轉為斥候尖兵之用。

B 火力支援組-此一編組適用於所有作戰型態,最少編制應為三人,以資深者為小組長。該編制上應以火力發揚為優先考量,即能在短時間之內提供相當程度的火力以擊潰當面的敵軍或者對於重點區域敵軍進行壓制,例如擁有彈鼓或者機槍等兵器者為優先考量。

C 突擊組-此一編組適用於進攻或者追擊態勢上,最少編制為三人,以資深者為小組長。該任務編組頗類似機動防禦組,但是需要更強大的兵力以集中攻擊,故該編組只能多不能少。

4.其他靜態作戰任務上,可將上述任務編組混合或者平均分配,但均應考量到編有一支預備隊以應付緊急狀況。該預備隊之實力應當以逐退敵軍,甚至是擴大戰果。

5.射擊紀律:遇有下列狀況才可開火
A 領隊者通知一齊開火
B 敵人進入預定之開火區域
C 敵人接近至不得不開火的距離

6.嚴禁於以下狀況開火
A 敵人靠近至距離僅三公尺處
B 遇有民眾或者民房時
C 在生態保育區周遭或者區域內,除非獲得允許

[參考文件附註如下]--

1.火力運用-
Point Fire is when you're aiming at a particular target. For example, you might tell everyone to concentrate Point Fire on the enemy machinegun operator.
[集中火力]集中所有火力向特定目標攻擊,例如某機槍巢。

Area Fire means aiming at any available targets in a particular area.
[區域射擊]對某區域進行掃射。

Suppressive Fire means you're trying to get the enemy to keep his head down. This is the kind of shooting you do when somebody yells, "Cover me!"
[壓制(掩護)射擊]針對某行動(進攻或者轉進)而對敵方開火,以使對方無法還擊。

Grazing Fire is usually a straight, horizontal line laid down by machineguns. The idea is to continuously draw a line of bullets about 3 feet off the ground. That way, even if you can't see the enemy, you have a pretty good chance of hitting. Usually used then the enemy is charging toward you.
[掃射]通常用於機槍火力或者當敵人向我方陣線衝鋒時,在地面上空約六十公分處左右掃射形成彈幕,以使敵方停止於彈幕前。

2.進行伏擊-

Kill Zone is the area where you plan on shooting the enemy. It should be a place with limited or no cover, limited escape routes, and little or no opportunity for the enemy to return fire.
[狙殺區(口袋)]當敵人進入此區域時已無法逃脫只能被我方消滅。

Dead Spaces are areas out of sight of the ambushers. For example, a group on a hill may have a good view of the trail, but may not be able to see into a gully right below them. These areas should be booby trapped or targeted for accurate grenade fire.
[死角]當敵方進入此區域時,我方無法查知,甚為危險。

3.部隊分組-(參考用)

Assault Element is the unit responsible for the main attack. In an ambush, they would be assigned different firing areas in the kill zone.
[突擊組]主力進攻部隊。

Support Element is a back-up or reserve unit. In an ambush the Suppport Element is often set along possible escape routes so the enemy will be trapped.
[支援組]用以封鎖敵後路之用。

Security Elements have the responsibility for keeping everyone else safe. For example, if a unit had set up an ambush on a hill, the Security Element will patrol the back and sides of the hill to prevent a rear or flank attack.
[後備組]用以防衛我方之側翼及後方,以防止敵之逆襲。

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第四部份
住民地戰鬥參考文件連結-http://hk.geocities.com/technic_n_tactics_team/CQBclassroom.htm
http://www.mrc.idv.tw/csteamcqb1.htm
http://www.vpress.com.hk/gocontents.html
http://www.vpress.com.hk/go2contents.html

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第五部分

戰術運用注意原則-

1. Maintain the Objective: Every military operation must be directed toward a decisive, obtainable objective. In other words, if you can't describe the outcome you want, then you shouldn't be getting into the battle. A lot of folks would say that the lack of an objective was the main flaw in America's policies in Vietnam.
Having a stated objective that's known by the soldiers in an action is critical for them to be able to respond to changing conditions. Having the initiative to take advantage of a sudden enemy weakness, or to retreat in the face of an unexpected enemy strength, depends on everybody knowing the overall plan.
專注在目標上(任務導向),根據該目標及敵情研判去作整體規劃,而所有人也都應該清楚了解目標之所在以及如何執行計畫,甚至在面對流動的情況下也能應變而達成目標。

2. Watch you Concentrations: In ancient warfare everything was concentrated, because the armies were literally shoulder to shoulder. Modern weaponry makes dispersion essential. A single grenade or machinegun can kill crowds easily. As a general rule, everybody in Vietnam kept at least 5 yards apart at all times. The first limit to this dispersion is communications, you've got to keep close enough so that you can work as a team.
The second limit to dispersion is the need to concentrate attack power. The reason the ancient soldiers massed together was to concentrate their offensive power. In modern times, with long distance weapons, attack can be concentrated while the attackers remain dispersed. So units have to stay close enough to be able to coordinate and concentrate their weapons on a single target.
這段話套句名言[只許集中!不准分散!]固然現代戰鬥和通訊技術的發展不再像以前一樣必須大量集中兵力以決定勝負,但是在針對目標上仍然必須集中兵力(或者說火力比較恰當),固然看起來部隊是分散的,火力運用卻是集中的。

3. Be Prepared to Maneuver: Consider the brilliance of you enemy. Attack him with a superior force and he will break into pieces and melt away. Present him with a weak defense and he will form up a superior force and wipe you out. Forces must be organized so they can move quickly, both to attack and retreat.
Another aspect to maneuvering troops is maintaining a reserve. No matter how desperate a situation may look, it's vital to maintain a separate reserve that can respond to changing conditions.
保持機動性,這樣在突破後的擴張或者面對敵人進攻都能保持有較大的彈性,而不會被困死在陣地上。

4. Knowledge is Power: A small army with a good intelligence network is worth a lot more than a large army that's kept in the dark. The flip side of the intelligence issue is security. Always make it as difficult as possible for the enemy to get any information on your activities.
這段話簡單說就是必須運用情報偵蒐(電戰組該出場啦!)以及保持通信紀律。

5. Watch the Multipliers: The following formulas are ridiculously simplistic. Still, they may be valuable as general guidelines.
a. It costs twice as much to attack as to defend. History records that the attacker, even when wildly successful, loses a lot more men than the defender.
b. Attacking the enemy's flank, or rear attack, is twice as effective as attacking him in the front. Frontal assaults look good in the movies, scare the hell out of the enemy, and usually result in the virtual destruction of the attacking force.
c. Surprise doubles the effectiveness of any attack. Anytime you do something predictable your chances of getting wiped out are doubled.
d. Defense strength is directly proportional to fortification strength. In other words, holes, bunkers, and trenches can easily double the number of survivors in an attack.
數量優勢,不論在進攻防守上都是如此。例如以數倍之兵力進攻守方才有勝算,從側翼進攻則可得到加倍的效果,奇襲也是如此,防守上運用地形地勢(如壕溝,屋舍等)則能加強防守效果。

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參考用之網站連結
http://www.gamesofwar.de/Tactics/recon.html
此篇講到一些用語和簡單圖示
http://www.specialoperations.com/Focus/Tactics/
這網站講的都是世界各國特種部隊運用狀況
該網頁則是講美軍的小部隊戰術運用,還蠻齊全的

發表於2004/2/15 如有需要轉貼,請務必來信告知,謝謝

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Das Reich
等級:8
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那可是真人真事啊!
2005/08/03 14:18
那位槍隊朋友還真的帶幾個槍隊隊友去那裡「晉見」老大一番勒....哈

blackjack
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林森北路的路邊攤
2005/08/03 13:27

看到這篇「林森北路的路邊攤真是臥虎藏龍! 賣碗稞的老闆竟然是.........」不由得哈哈大笑!

http://city.udn.com/v1/blog/article/article.jsp?uid=zbv2004&f_ART_ID=23884

 

看來你的「本隊之戰術教範」還要增加一個──到林森北路的路邊攤去「試膽」喔!