網路城邦
上一篇 回創作列表 下一篇   字體:
群書治要360-1
2015/03/23 08:19:35瀏覽435|回應0|推薦3

Qunshu Zhiyao (A Compendium of the Essentials of Governance)    (Lecture 1)   by Professor Yuli Liu  2014/12/24

《群書治要》  (第集)  劉余莉教授  2014/12/24    檔名:

Respected friends, greetings! 尊敬的諸位朋友,大家好!

 

Today is December 24, 2014.  Its Christmas Eve in the West, a night for peace and joy.  To commence the lecture series of Qunshu Zhiyao (A Compendium of the Essentials of Governance) on Christmas Eve has an especially important meaning—that our wish for global peace may come true.

今天是公元二0一四年十二月二十四日,也就是西方人所說的平安夜。平安夜來講《群書治要》有著特別重要的意義,期許我們天下太平。

 

Qunshu Zhiyao is a compendium compiled during the reign of Emperor Taizong[1],  Shi-Min Lee, of the Tang Dynasty.  Comprehensively, it excerpted the essences on the subjects of personal cultivation, clan harmony (family order), governance of the state, and the maintenance of world peace from myriads of Chinese classic scriptures, philosophies (writings of the great philosophers), and history books written before the Tang Dynasty.  This compendium can be said to be the crème de la crème of the excellence of traditional Chinese culture.  Nowadays people have realized the importance of traditional culture and aspire to propagate such wonderful traditional culture.  But where shall we begin?  My answer is to begin with Qunshu Zhiyao, which can shorten our learning curve but maximize our benefits.

我們看《群書治要》這一本書,是唐太宗李世民的時候,把唐朝以前 經、史、子之中修身、齊家、治國、平天下的精髓都概括出來了。這本書可以說是中華優秀傳統文化的精華之精華。現在大家都知道傳統文化很重要,也希望弘揚中華優秀傳統文化。從哪裡學起?從《群書治要》學起,可以說是用時少而獲益多。

 

The edition we choose to study from, entitled Qunshu Zhiyao 360, is compiled by Chung Hua Cultural Education Centre (Malaysia).  The word (qún) in Qunshu Zhiyao is a phono-semantic compound of two Chinese characters ( jūn) and ( yáng, meaning “sheep”).  It originally means   “group,” to express the gathering of the same kind (of animals).  Sheep likes to flock together, therefore the word  is derived from the word “ (sheep).  Here, it is used as an adjective to describe a multitude of books (“shu” means books).      The word (zhì) in Qunshu Zhiyao means the governance of nations and the political maintenance of world peace.  In other words, Qunshu Zhiyao is a digest or synopsis that encompasses the essences and the principles of cultivation, family order, governance, and world peace from a multitude of books.   Anyone who understands the gist of this compendium controls as well the basic doctrines, methodologies, experiences, and teachings of the traditional Chinese governance of the state.

我們這次學習採取的是馬來西亞中華文化教育中心選編的《群書治要360》。《群書治要》的「群」是一個形聲字,从「羊」,「君」聲,本意作「輩」字解,乃同類相聚時之稱,羊性好群,故「群」从羊,在這裡「群」作形容詞,是眾的意思,這個「治」就是治國平天下的政治,《群書治要》就是把群書當中有關修齊治平的道理、精華概括出來。讀了這一部書,也就掌握了中國傳統治國理政的基本理論、方法、經驗和教訓。

 

Leaders who study Qunshu Zhiyao will understand what the most important quality of an excellent leader is.  Here, an excellent leader not only embraces the personal morals, ethical conducts, good characteristics, and multiple talents, but also include the methodologies and the art of his or her leadership.  For example, how to choose and observe a person in order to recruit true talents; how to govern a country, how to manage a business, and what is the key to effective team leadership; how to disseminate moral education that can penetrate into people’s hearts and can be implemented with results; how to stop corruption and promote a honest and clean government that cures corruption from the buried causes and not just the surface symptoms, etc.

領導者學習《群書治要》,可以懂得成為卓越領導最重要的是什麼。這裡既包括了領導者個人的道德品行、素質和能力,也包括一些領導的方法和藝術。譬如說如何選人、觀人,並且得到真正的人才;治理好一個國家、管理好一個企業、帶好一個團隊的關鍵是什麼;如何進行道德教育才是深入人心、行之有效的;如何反腐倡廉才能夠得到標本兼治的效果。

 

For the ordinary people, studying Qunshu Zhiyao can help them understand how to navigate the course of life to make it a smooth sailing; how to avoid calamities and retain merits; how to make life meaningful; and what kind of life pursuit is most important.  Of course, it also includes how to build up good relationships; to know the nexus to personal success or failure, glory or defamation, good fortune or ruination; how to change one’s destiny, how to turn disasters into blessings; and how to become a gentleman with a clean conscious, without regrets or remorse in good times or bad times (in the vicissitudes of life).

對於一般百姓來說,學習《群書治要》,可以懂得人生的道路應該怎樣走才更加順暢;如何趨吉避凶;怎樣的人生才是有意義的人生;人生應當追求什麼才是最重要的。當然這裡邊也包括如何處理好人際關係;一個人成敗、榮辱、禍福的關鍵何在;如何改變命運,轉禍為福;如何做到俯仰無愧,君子坦蕩蕩。

 

Especially, in Todays democracy people can vote in elections to choose the kind of leader that can truly benefit their country and to avoid choosing the wrong candidate that derails the entire country.  In addition, it can elevate ones morality, to have a happy and prosperous life, to make the family relations harmonious.  Furthermore, it can even to open up ones innate illuminating virtues, or to illustrate the illuminating virtues as stated in The Great Leaning,  in order to achieve the goal of  benefitting the self and others, awakening ones self-nature and others.   From the above, we can discern the importance of Qunshu Zhiyao as a compendium that every one should study seriously, and not just for the political leaders.

特別是在現在民主時代,做為一般的百姓,還要去參加選舉,選舉或者跟從什麼樣的領導,於國於己才真正有益,不會選錯人、走錯路。還能懂得如何提升自己的道德修養,如何經營幸福美滿的人生,如何和睦家庭,甚至懂得如何開啟自己本具的「明德」,也就是《大學》上所說的「明明德」,達到自利利人、自覺覺他的目的。從這裡我們看到《群書治要》確實很重要,每一個人都應該認真學習,不僅僅是領導者。

 

Before we begin to learn Qunshu Zhiyao 360, the Venerable Master Chin Kung had written a Preface fore the reprinting of Qunshu Zhiyao.  The Preface is concise and illuminating.  It introduced the circumstances under which Qunshu Zhiyao was compiled, the compendium’s historical contributions, the processes of its circulation, the learning methods, and its value to the modern world.  Hence, we shall study this Preface first.

在《群書治要360》正文開始之前,有尊敬的上淨下空老法師為《群書治要》重刊版所作的一篇序言,這篇序言簡要詳明,介紹了《群書治要》一書的編撰起因、歷史貢獻、流通過程、學習方法和當代價值等問題,下面我們就先一起學習這一篇序文。

 

Qunshu Zhiyao was compiled under the royal command of Emperor Taizong,  Shi-Min Lee, of the Tang Dynasty in the first year of Zhen Guan[2].”  We all know that Taizong, the second emperor of Tang Dynasty, was the second son of Emperor Gaozu[3] as well.   According to the Old Book of Tang History when he was born there was an auspicious sign of two dragons playing outside the door for three days before leaving.  When he was four years old, an intelligentsia of self-acclaimed fortune-teller fame came to visit Gaozong and told him that “you are a noble person and will have a noble son.”  After the intelligentsia saw Taizong, he praised him as having the “demeanor of dragon and phoenix, the presence of heaven and sun, and at the age of 20 shall benefit the world and pacify the people.”   Dragon and phoenix are symbols of emperors, or heaven’s son, in ancient China.  To praise him as having the “demeanor of dragon and phoenix, the presence of heaven and sun,” meant that he will be the heaven’s son, the real dragon, in other words the emperor of a dynasty.  Thereafter, he was named Shi-Min Lee, adopting from the predication that he “shall benefit the world (shì) and pacify the people (mín) .”

「《群書治要》是唐太宗李世民於貞觀初年下令編輯」。我們都知道唐太宗是唐高祖的第二個兒子,也是唐朝的第二個皇帝。據《舊唐書》記載,唐太宗出生的時候瑞相稀有,有兩條龍戲於門外,三天才離開。太宗在四歲的時候,有一位自稱善於看相的書生來拜見高祖,並且對他說,您是貴人,而且有貴子,當他看到太宗之後,稱讚他,「龍鳳之姿,天日之表,年將二十,必能濟世安民矣」。這個龍鳳,古代都是對天子的稱呼,說他是龍鳳之姿,天日之表,意思是說他以後是真龍天子,可以當皇帝的。後來就採取濟世安民之意做為他的名,取名為李世民。

 

Taizong ascended the throne in 626 A.D., and died in 649 A.D.  He ruled for 23 years and was one of the greatest emperors in Chinese history.  Some gave him the accolade of The Emperor in a Millennium.  Emperor Taizong of Tang is best known for his abilities to employ sagacious people, his willingness to accept admonitions from his subjects, his respect for Confucianism and Taoism (his emphasis on Law and order???), his diligence in governance, and his compassion for the people.   He ruled the empire with a council of erudite scholars (not generals), advocated frugality throughout the nation, allowing people to live comfortably without heavy taxation or corvée.  Consequently, the Tang Dynasty enjoyed unprecedented prosperity; people lived and worked in peace.  Taizong’s governance created the historically famous era known as the Reign of Zhenguan and all his measures laid a solid foundation for the Tang Dynasty to flourish for more than a century.

太宗是在公元六百二十六年即位,公元六百四十九年去世,在位二十三年,是中國歷史上的一代明君,有人稱讚他是千古一帝。唐太宗他以能用賢納諫、尊儒重道、勤政愛民著稱。他以文治天下,在國內力行節約,並且使百姓能夠休養生息,終於使得社會出現了國泰民安的局面,因而開創了歷史上著名的貞觀之治,為後來唐朝一百多年的盛世奠定了基礎。

 

How great indeed was the Reign of Zhenguan? We can observe its prosperity from three aspects.  First, agriculture achieved unprecedented development with a cornucopia of crops.  According to historical records, in the 6th and 7th years of Zhenguan, because of timely rains and winds which resulted in continuous harvests, people were able to travel to the northern provinces, such as Shandong (east of Mountain Hua), without bringing food with them; in other words, travelers can buy food locally.  Travelers entering the villages of Shandong Province would be received with great hospitality by farmers and gifted with food when leaving.  This had never happened before.  In the 8th and 9th years of Zhenguan, the field was roaming with cows and horses, people had food and clothing in abundance, no one locked doors at night, lost things on the road will not be taken,  and everywhere in the country was a scene of thriving prosperity and peace.  The harvest  continued in the 8th, 9th, 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th years of Zhenguan, resulting in the price of rice to drop from one bolt of silk per liter(?) to 4 or 5 dimes[A1] , eventually to 2 or 3 dimes.  From these records, we can discern the harvest of crops and the abundance of material goods during that period.

貞觀盛世到底好到什麼程度?我們可以從三個方面來看。首先當時的農業得到了空前的發展,物產豐富。根據史書的記載,貞觀六、七年風調雨順,連續豐收,像人們走到山東的那些地方[4],都可以不用帶多少糧食了,直接在路上就能買到。進了山東的村子,村民遇見路過的客人,一定會很豐盛的招待他們,有時候還會贈送給客人糧食,這是古時候從來沒有的。到了貞觀八、九年,牛馬遍野,百姓豐衣足食,夜不閉戶,路不拾遺,出現了一片欣欣向榮的升平景象。貞觀八年、九年、十三年、十四年、十五年、十六年,又是連續豐收,結果怎麼樣?結果糧價從每斗米一匹,跌至每米四、五,再跌至每斗米二、三錢,可見當時的糧食豐收、物產豐富的局面。

 

Second, the law and order of the society during the Reign of Zhenguan was unbelievably good.   In the 4th year of Zhenguan, there were only 29 death sentences in the whole country.  Although in 632 A.D. there were 290 people sentenced to death, but at the end of the year, Taizong allowed them to go home to take care of their final matters before death and the execution was scheduled in the fall of next year.  This is a Chinese tradition of executing prisoners only in the autumn, a way of ruling a country according to the seasons.  So what happened to the released prisoners with death sentences?  All 290 of them came back in September of next year, not a single one of them escaped.  This is how good and clean the government was in China at that time, with all the officials performing their own duties, the people living happily and prosperously, and the case of injustice rare.  People were without grievance and therefore the law and order of the society well maintained.

其次,貞觀王朝的社會秩序好得令人難以置信,貞觀四年全國判處死刑的囚犯只有二十九個人,到了六百三十二年,死刑犯雖然增至二百九十個人,但是這一年年末,唐太宗准許他們回家辦理後事,第二年秋天再回來就死,古代都是在秋天行刑,這也是順著時節的變化來治理國家。結果怎麼樣?第二年九月的時候,二百九十個囚犯全部回來,沒有一個人逃跑。那時中國的政治清明,官吏各司其職,人民安居樂業,不公平的現象少之又少。國人心中沒有怨氣,所以社會秩序非常地好。

 

Third, the Reign of Zhenguan was the only government in the history of China without corruptions.  This can be said to be the most acclaimed political achievement of Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty.  His paradigm set up the first example for the government officials under his rule to serve the public wholeheartedly and selflessly.  The bureaucrats were responsible, without any abuses of their powers, and the case of corruption and negligence dropped to historically low.  These achievements cannot be separated from his implementation of the concepts from Qunshu Zhiyao, his “lead by example” paradigm, his focus on moral education, and his establishment of a political system that is fair (socially acceptable), rational, and legally feasible to prevent corruption.  At the same time these achievements demonstrated that using the way of the saints and sages to govern a nation is feasible and with fast results.

第三就是貞觀王朝是中國歷史上唯一沒有貪污的王朝,這可能也是唐太宗最值得稱道的政績。在唐太宗統治下的中國,因為皇帝率先垂範,官員一心為公,吏佐各安本分,濫用職權和貪污瀆職的現象降到了歷史上的最低點。這些成就的取得可以說和唐太宗運用《群書治要》的理念,以身作則,重視道德教化,還有制定了一套合情、合理、合法的政治體制來預防貪污腐敗密不可分。同時這些成就的取得也說明能夠運用聖賢之道治國,不僅有效、易從而且快速。

 

In Zhenguan Zhengyao, “Discourse on Politics (Governance of People),” a dialogue on the success and failure of the historical nations’ governance, between Emperor Taizong of Tang and his head librarian Wei Zhen in the 7th year of Zhenguan, was recorded. Taizong commented: “In view of the aftermath created by the recent political tumult, we probably should not immediately educate people to be ethical in order to achieve good governance?”  Wei Zhen replied: “Not so, your majesty, whenever people are suffering in the war zone or in a crisis, they will be worried about death.  Such worry will make them wish for peace(ful times).  Such wish will make them easy to teach and be transformed (into good persons).  Therefore, after a revolution, people are more susceptible to moral education, just like a hungry person can be easily satisfied with food.”

在《貞觀政要.論政體[5]》上就記載,在貞觀七年的時候,唐太宗和秘書監魏徵漫談自古以來治理國家的得失時說,如今大亂之後恐怕不能急於實現大治。魏徵說,並非如此,大凡人在危難困苦的時候就憂懼死亡,憂懼死亡就盼望天下太平,盼望天下太平就容易進行教化。因此大的動亂之後更容易教化,正像飢餓的人對飲食更容易滿足一樣的道理。

 

Taizhong asked: To have good governance, to eradicate (citizens) brutality and wickedness, and to end killings (and capital punishment[A2] ), will require even for the good men (to rule in succession for) a hundred years.  How can we achieve great governance after a great tumult in a short time?  As remarked in the Analects: A country governed by good men can overcome violence and eliminate death sentence after a century.’” Thus, Taizhong believed that to restore peace, even under the governance of a sage, would take a century.  But Wei Zheng replied that this remark applied only to the ordinary ruler but not to a sagacious ruler.  If a sagacious ruler promotes moral education and with concerted efforts from the top to the bottom, transformation of citizens will be achieved as quickly as an echo responding to a sound.  Even without the demand for efficiency, moral education will be implemented effectively.  It should not be difficult to see results within a year and to become a success in three years would be too slow.

太宗說,賢明之人治理好國家尚且需要百年之久,才能消滅殘虐,廢除殺戮。大亂之後要想大治,怎麼可能在短期內做到呢?這個《論語》上也說「善人為邦百年,亦可以勝殘去殺矣」。所以唐太宗認為要恢復太平,即使是賢明的人來治理,也需要上百年的時間。魏徵卻說,這話是對一般人來說的,並不能用在賢明之人的身上。如果是賢明之人來推行教化,上下同心,就會像響之應聲那樣回應迅速。事情不求快,也會很快地推行下去。一年就能夠見成效,看來也並非難事。如果說要三年成功,還該說已經太晚了。

 

Taizong agreed with Wei Zhengs theory.  But other subjects, such as Fon Deyi argued: After the three dynasties of Xia, Shang, and Zhou, people gradually became wicked and treacherous.  Consequently, the subsequent Qin Dynasty ruled the nation with strict laws and severe punishments.   The Han Dynasty, after Qin Dynasty, governed with benevolence and justice but also mixed in laws and punishments.  All the rulers wished to transform people to be ethical but failed. If the rulers could transform them, would they be reluctant to do so?  The nation would be in chaos and tumble down if we listened to Wei Zheng.

太宗認為魏徵說得很有道理,但是封德彝等其他的大臣卻對太宗說,夏商周三代以後,百姓逐漸浮薄奸詐,所以秦朝專用嚴刑峻法來治國,漢朝以仁義雜用刑法治國。都是想教化好百姓,但卻沒有成功,怎麼會是可以教化卻不去做呢?如果相信了魏徵所說的話,恐怕要敗亂國家。

 

Wai Zheng retorted: “During the reign of the five legendary emperors and the three sagacious kings[6], these rulers were able to transform the same people, without replacing them, to be morally responsible (and accomplish good governance).  Thus, one who rules with the way of emperors will be emperors; one who rules with the way of kings will be kings.  The key is whether or not the ruler implemented moral education.  Examining the ancient records, we find that Emperor Huang, the first legendary emperor, had warred against Chi-you, leader of the Juli Tribe, for more than 70 times; the state was in great turmoil, but he was able to make the people live harmonious quickly.  The second legendary emperor Zhang Xu launched war against the Juli Tribe’s revolt and conquered them.  He did not lose his good governance by moral education after the revolt.  The depraved and despotic King Jay of the Xia Dynasty was overthrown by the sagacious King Tong, who founded the Shang Dynasty.  During the reign of King Tong, the state was peaceful (and people were ethical).  Eventually, the Shang Dynasty fell under the rule of the decadent and cruel tyrant King Zho, and the dynasty was overthrown by King Wu, who founded the Zhou Dynasty.  By the time King Wu’s son, King Cheng, ascended the throne, the state was peaceful (and people were ethical).  If people were gradually becoming vicious and treacherous and could never be good and honest again, then they should all be evil spirits today.  How can anyone transform them?  Fon De-yi and the other subjects could not find any counter-argument.  But they were not persuaded by Wei Zheng and do not believe in the feasibility of his governance by moral education theory.

 魏徵聽了之後就說,五帝三王治理國家,他們並沒有把百姓換掉。也就是說百姓還是同樣的百姓,但他們仍能夠把他們教化好,可見施行帝道就成其為帝,施行王道就成其為王。關鍵在於當時的治理者是否施行了教化而已。請看古書上的記載就可以知道,從前黃帝與蚩尤作戰七十多次,已經亂得很厲害,而打勝以後就能很快天下太平。九黎作亂,顓頊出兵征討,平定以後仍不失其為治世。夏桀王昏亂淫虐,商湯把他趕走了,但是在湯的統治之時,就實現了太平。商紂王專幹荒淫無道之事,周武王便起兵討伐,到了武王的兒子周成王在位的時候,也實現了太平。如果說百姓日漸浮薄奸詐,再也不會淳樸,那到現在這百姓都應該變得和鬼魅一樣了,還能實行教化嗎?封德彝等人想不出什麼話來辯駁,但是他們還認為魏徵的話行不通。

 

From this dialogue we can perceive that to govern by moral education and the teachings of the saints and sages not only raise doubts in todays people, but were also questionable in Tang Dynasty (approximately 1300 years ago).  When Taizong of Tang wished to implement the education of the saints and sages, he encountered the opposition from his subjects.  Fortunately, Wei Zheng was an erudite scholar and had a very thorough understanding of historical experiences and lessons.  He could cite myriads of classic scriptures and examples to quiet the arguments of the opposing parties.  Taizong of Tang was indeed a sagacious ruler in a millennium.  A sagacious rulers wisdom lies in his ability to distinguish right from wrong, good from bad, aesthetic from unaesthetic.  Taizong steadfastly and tirelessly implemented moral education.  The outcome of his efforts was that within a short few years, the country recovered from chaos, his kingdom was peaceful and prosperous, and the Turks were defeated and subjugated.

從這裡我們也感受到,用道德教育、聖賢教誨治理國家,不僅僅在當今社會被人懷疑,就是在唐朝的時候,唐太宗想推行聖賢教育的時候,也有臣子來出面反對。幸好這個魏徵博覽群書,對於歷史的經驗教訓了解得非常透徹,所以他能夠引經據典讓這些大臣沒話說。唐太宗他確實是一代明君,明君就明智在這裡,他能夠辨得清是非、善惡、美醜。所以他堅持推行教化,毫不懈怠。結果怎麼樣?幾年之間,天下康復安定,突厥被打敗臣服。

 

Thereafter Taizong told his subjects: In the early years of Zhenguan there were arguments against the governance in the ways of the legendary emperors and sagacious kings, and doubts about the effects of moral education and the teachings of saints and sages.  Only Wei Zhen advised me to implement them.  I listened and within a few years, the central regions (state) achieved peace and the northern boundarys invaders, the Turks, subjugated.  Turks had always been the strongest enemy of ours.  But what happened to them today?  The leader of Turks became my royal guard with his scabbard.  His tribal people wear Chinese robes and hats.  In other words, they are greatly influenced by Chinese culture.  All my accomplishments are attributed to Wei Zheng.  He then looked at Wei Zheng and said: The beauty of Jade, if covered in rocks and without the carvings of skillful craftsman, cannot be revealed and is no different than a piece of rubble.  But if the covered jade encountered the craftsmanship of an artist, it will become a national treasure to be appreciated for generations.  Although I am not of the caliber of an imperial jade for you to carve and polish, but luckily you used benevolence and justice to discipline me and the luminosity of morals to make me shine so that I can have these accomplishments today.  You are indeed an artist of high craftsmanship.

因而太宗對群臣說,貞觀初年人們頗有異議,認為當今並不能搞帝道、王道,不能夠施行道德教育、聖賢教誨,只有魏徵勸我推行,我聽了他的話,不過幾年就達到中原安定,邊遠的外族臣服的結果。突厥從來就是中原的強敵,但如今怎麼樣呢?如今突厥的首領卻佩刀值宿來做禁衛,部落也跟著穿戴中國的衣冠,也就是說這些外族也受到中國文化的影響。我能取得這樣的成就,都是魏徵的功勞。他又回頭對魏徵說,玉雖然有美好的本質,但是如果藏在石頭裡面,沒有好的工匠去雕琢研磨,那就和瓦礫碎石沒有什麼區別,如果遇上好的工匠就可以使它成為流傳萬代的珍寶。我雖然沒有好的本質可供你雕琢研磨,但多虧你用仁義來約束我,用道德來光大我,才使我能有今天的功業。你也確實是一位良工巧匠。

 

From this story we can see that Taizong of Tang is most respectful towards Wei Zheng and treat him as a teacher.  He contributed all his accomplishments during the flourishing Zhenguan Epoch to Wei Zheng and showed true humility in himself.

從這個故事中我們看到唐太宗,他對於魏徵確實非常地恭敬,視他為老師,而且把貞觀盛世成就的取得也都歸功於魏徵,自己還很謙虛。

 

Currently, our venerated Master often gave speeches in UNESCO to promote and explain the contributions of the traditional Chinese culture.  He advocates that good governance can be achieved through the traditional Chinese culture and can bring world peace as well.  But the Ambassadors of UNESCO were doubtful.

現在我們尊敬的師父上人經常在聯合國講中華傳統文化的貢獻,認為用中華傳統文化可以治理好國家,並且帶來世界的和平,但是聯合國的諸位大使對師父上人的話都有所懷疑。

 

In around 2005, the Master conducted an experiment in his hometown, the township of Tongchi, the province of Anhui, in China.  He implemented the teachings of Di Zi Gui (Rules for being a good child and student).   The townspeople were susceptible to such teachings and transformed within three months.  UNESCO gave great attention to this Experiment and the teachers of Di Zi Gui from the Tongchi Experiment were invited to give a report at UNESCO. 

結果在二00五年左右的時候,師父在家鄉安徽省湯池鎮做了一個實驗,結果用《弟子規》不到三個月的時間,就把人心改變了,人民都很受教。這一個實驗也受到了聯合國教科文組織的重視,湯池的老師們也應邀到聯合國去匯報經驗。

 

The successful experience and the model town of harmony told us that People are innately good in the beginning; self-natures are similar but habits separate people afar; if people were not educated to be good, their good nature will mutate; as stated in the opening verses of San Zi Jing (Tri-Word Couplets).[7] Through the education of ethical relationships and moral ways, the society can be restored to peace, order, and harmony in a short time.  This proves that people can be easily taught to be good.  The nexus is the correct methodologies, the sincere attitudes, and the paradigm set by the teachers.

這個小鎮建設和諧示範鎮的成功經驗告訴我們,「人性本善」,就像《三字經》開頭就說「人之初,性本善。性相近,習相遠。苟不教,性乃遷」。通過倫理道德的教育,能夠在短時間恢復和諧安定的局面,這證明了人其實是很好教的,就看我們有沒有去認真教,用什麼去教,教的方法正確與否。

 

To keep the harmony of todays societies and to have good governance of todays countries, we can still borrow from the important historically experiences and lessons.  When Chairman Xi addressed the 18th Session of the Group Study of the Politburo of the CPC Central Committee in October of 2014, he stated: History is the best teacher.  China has developed a unique culture of splendid brilliance in the long progression of history.  It accumulated the rich experiences of good politics, including the successful experiences of social progress in flourishing times, but also the indelible lessons of social disorder in the chaotic downfall of dynasties.  Many affairs that we encounter today can find its shadows in history.  Many historical events can also be mirrors for us to reflect upon today.  China of Today is developed from China of yesterday and the day before.  To have good governance in todays China, we must have a profound understanding of Chinese history and her traditional culture.  We must also recapitulate our exploration of historical ruling principles and their wisdom vigorously. The above paragraph from Chairman Xis speech told us that a synopsis of historical experiences, especially the factors that causer the prosperity of a rising dynasty and the upheaval of a falling dynasty, can still provide precious enlightenment for todays governance of nations. 

歷史的經驗教訓,對於我們今天治理社會、治理國家,仍然具有重要的借鑑意義。正如中國習主席在二0一四年十月,中共中央政治局第十八次集體學習時的講話中所強調的,「歷史是最好的老師,在漫長的歷史進程中,中華民族創造了獨樹一幟的燦爛文化,積累了豐富的治國理政經驗,其中既包括昇平之世社會發展進步的成功經驗,也有衰亂之世社會動盪的深刻教訓。今天遇到的很多事情都可以在歷史上找到影子,歷史上發生過的很多事情也都可以作為今天的鏡鑑。中國的今天是從中國的昨天和前天發展而來的,要治理好今天的中國,需要我們對中國歷史和傳統文化有深入了解,也需要對我國古代治國理政的探索和智慧進行積極總結」。總書記的這一段話就告訴我們,總結歷史經驗,特別是盛世之所以興盛,衰世之所以衰落的原因,對於我們今天治理國家,仍然能夠提供寶貴的啟示。

 

Lets continue, Taizong joined his father’s army at the age of 16, busy and urgently (倥傯kǒng zǒng) conducting military affairs, on war horses (戎馬róng mǎ) fighting under the flag of righteousness to put down revolts and upheavals at various territories for more than a decade.”  “戎馬” (róng mǎ) originally means war horses, here implies military affairs.  “倥傯” (kǒng zǒng) means numerous activities and urgent matters, to describe the myriads of urgent military activities.  After Taizong had been fighting for more than ten years, the nation was settled and unified and Tang Dynasty was established.  “After ascending the throne at the age of 27, he ceased war (偃武 yǎnwǔ) and encouraged culture and education (修文xiūwén).” Taizong became the emperor at the age of 27, which is very young.  He then ”偃武修文(yǎnwǔ xiūwén).  The word “( yǎn) means stop, stop military affairs; “修文(xiūwén) means promoting the education liberal arts, to set up systems of rites, rituals, and etiquettes, to compose transcendental music, and to teach citizens the ways to be a good person, to cultivate the self and to keep family order. If every one focuses on personal cultivation, to pay attention to personal morals and grace, and every family does the same, then societies will naturally be in harmony.  “Especially focus on the way to peaceful and just governance, let citizens rest and support them.”  “Peaceful and just governance” means the ruling principles of nations that bring world peace.  “Just” means justice and equality, how to make the world just and peaceful.

 

我們下面再接著看,「太宗十六歲隨父從軍,起義平定動亂的社會,戎馬倥傯十餘年」。「戎馬」本意是指戰馬,借指軍事。「倥傯」意思是事情紛繁迫促,形容軍務繁忙。太宗打仗打了十幾年,終於平定了天下,建立了唐朝。「二十七歲即帝位後」,他二十七歲就登基做了皇帝,是很年輕的,接著「偃武修文」,「偃」就是止息,停止武事;「修文」,振興文教,制禮作樂,教化百姓懂得做人的道理,懂得修身齊家。如果每一個人都重視修身、重視道德修養,每個家也知道怎麼樣地經營,那麼這個家庭是社會最基本的細胞,每一個家庭都經營好了,社會也自然和諧。「特別留心於治平之道,休生養民」,「治平之道」就是治國平天下的道理,這個「平」就是平等、公平的意思,怎麼樣使天下太平。

 

Here, it mentioned that Taizong had been busy leading military forces to fight wars since a teenage.  As a result, he was apparently lacking in the knowledge of the ways of governance by the saints and sages.  Taizong clearly is aware of this disadvantage. But he is very smart.  For example, in Zhenguan Zhengyao, “Discourse on Politics, 2nd scroll,” recorded a conversation between Taizong and his subject Xiao Yu in the first year of Zhenguan[A3] .  Taizong said: “Your Sovereign loves archery and liked to shoot arrows.  I thought that I was an expert and can distinguish good bows from bad ones.   Recently, I got more than ten good bows and showed them to the court bowyer.  To my surprise, the bowyer told me that these bows are not good bows.  When I asked for the reason, the bowyer told me that the center of the wood is not straight making the wood veins crooked.  The arrows projected from such bows, although strong, would not shoot straight; therefore, these bows were not superior.  From this incident, I had an epiphany.  I conquered the nation with bows and arrows and had used numerous bows.  But I am still wanting in the expertise of recognizing good bows.  If I am still lacking in the recognition of good bows after years of experiences, a priori, my knowledge of the principles of good governance must be even less as I have only ascended the throne for such a short time.  If my understanding of bows can go haywire, then, my control to the nexus of good governance is not worth mentioning.

這裡就講到,因為太宗皇帝很年輕就帶兵打仗,所以對於怎麼樣用聖賢教誨來治理國家,他的積累顯然不夠。太宗自己對此也有自知之明,而且他非常的有悟性。比如說在《貞觀政要.論政體》上就記載,貞觀初年,唐太宗對大臣蕭瑀說,朕從年輕的時候就喜歡張弓射箭,自以為懂得如何識別弓箭的好壞,近來得到了十幾把上好的弓箭,於是就把它們拿給弓箭的師傅看,結果沒想到,這個弓箭師傅卻說,這些弓都不是良弓,都不夠好。我於是詢問其中的原因,弓箭師傅說,木頭的中心不正,就使得木頭的紋理歪斜,這樣的弓雖然強勁有力,但射出去的箭不直,所以不是上好的弓。從這件事中我領悟出很多道理,我是用弓箭平定天下的,這一生中所用過的弓箭已經夠多的了,但是我尚且不懂得識別弓箭的要領。更何況我得到天下的時間還很短,對於治理國家的道理,肯定不比我對弓箭的知識掌握得多。然而我對弓箭的了解尚且有偏失,更何談掌握治理國家的要領呢?

 

Since then, Taizong would regularly receive (have conferences with) top officials, above 5th ranking, stationed in the capital and the primary ministers from his cabinet.  During the meeting, Taizong would grant them the privilege of seating, with two-way communications, and questioned them carefully regarding affairs outside the palace in order to have a comprehensive understanding of the problems and difficulties of the citizens and the successes and failures of policies and education systems.

從此以後,唐太宗定期召見五品以上的京官和中書省的官員。每次召見,太宗都要賜座給他們,並且與他們悉心交談,仔細詢問宮廷外面的事情,以便對老百姓的疾苦和政教的得失有全面而詳細的了解。

 

From these stories, we can discern that Taizong of Tang was eager to learn, modest, and aware of his shortcomings.  He recognized his disadvantage in good governance; therefore, he sought council from experienced subjects in humility and treated them with respect and honor.  To understand one’s shortcomings, this awareness, is very difficult for leaders.

我們從這個故事中可以看到,唐太宗他很好學,他很謙虛,而且有自知之明。知道自己不懂得如何治理國家,於是就虛心地向那些有經驗的大臣們來請教,對這些賢士禮敬有加。這一點作為領導者是很難做到的,有自知之明。

 

In the second year of Zhenguan, Taizong asked one of his famous prime ministers, Wang Gui, what was the reason that caused the emperors, kings, and their subjects in recent history to be mediocre compare to ancient times. Wang Gui replied: Emperors and kings in ancient times aspired and venerated the selfless governance and put the common peoples welfare foremost in their hearts.  The emperors and kings in recent times, in contrary, would harm peoples benefits in order to satisfy their selfish desires.  They no longer recruited the erudite scholars.  During the Han Dynasty the prime ministers were all experts in at least one scripture and there were no unsolvable issues or problems.   If there was a problem they all could cite scriptures and base their decisions thusly.  Hence, citizens were knowledgeable of etiquettes and ethics and the country was peaceful and stable under their governance.  In contrast, rulers of recent times would either venerate military power, despise Confucianism, or use law and punishment to govern their kingdoms.  Since Confucianism was in decline, social norm of honesty and kindness disappeared. Taizong wholeheartedly agreed to his statement.  Since then he would promote officials who were erudite Confucian scholars and capable administrators of good governance.

在貞觀二年的時候,太宗就問黃門侍郎王珪[A4] ,他說近代帝王和大臣治理國家多半不如古代,不知道是什麼原因?王珪怎麼回答呢?王珪說,古代帝王治理國家,大都崇尚清淨無為,以百姓為中心;然而近代的君王,卻以損害百姓的利益來滿足自己的私欲,所任用的大臣也再不是飽學經史的儒雅之士。漢代的宰相,沒有誰不精通一種經書的,朝廷上如果有什麼解決不了的疑難問題,都會引經據典,參照經書來決斷,於是人人懂得禮教,國家太平安定。但是近代卻重視武功,輕視儒術,或是用刑律來治理國家,從而導致儒術受到破壞,古代純樸的民風也就蕩然無存了。太宗聽了之後,深有同感。從此以後,官員中凡是精通儒學,又懂得治國之道的,大都得以提拔並委以重任。

 

We can observe that Taizong is good at listening to advice as well, especially his emphasis in adopting the Confucian concept of ethical relations and moral education to rule the state.  This is a very rare in political leaders.  Because most rulers can easily see the quick results of strict laws and severe punishments and would implement the governance by law.  But Taizong was different; he put emphasis on the establishment of legal systems but also emphasized the Confucian concept of ethical relations and moral education.  This is the root cause that founded the Reign of Zhenguan.

 你看唐太宗他也很善於聽取諫言,特別重視用儒家的倫理道德教育來治理國家。這一點確實很難得, 因為一般的人都會看到嚴刑峻法的迅速有效的效果, 可能也會推行法治。但是太宗卻不是這樣,他在重視制度建設的同時,能夠重視儒家倫理道德的教育,這才是使他建立了貞觀之治的根本原因。

 

Criminal Laws can only punish personal behavior but cannot change the wrongdoer’s mentality.  It is a punishment of passive remedy, a remedial measure to ameliorate the aftermath of criminal conducts and not an active preventive measure to stop crime before its occurrence.  The legal system cannot evoke any shame or remorse in the wrongdoer.  When people do not feel they have done anything wrong or shameful, they would only find ways to escape from punishment; even take pride in their evasions of law as a result of their cunning.   Therefore, while the system of crime and punishment is implemented, the implementation of moral education and ethical relations should be given the same emphasis.  To let people unwilling to do anything wrong from the bottom of their heart, to regard illegal conduct as something deeply shameful, thus building a levee against evil deeds in people’s mind.

因為這個法律它制裁的是一個人的行為,它很難觸及到一個人的內心。而且法律只是在消極結果產生之後,給以事後的補救、懲罰,但是卻難以防患於未然。法律培養不出一個人的羞恥之心。人們只是想方設法地躲避法律的制裁、嚴懲,但是還會以此沾沾自喜,認為是自己聰明智慧的結果,不覺得自己做錯事有什麼可羞恥的。所以在重視法律懲罰的同時,必須重視倫理道德的教育,讓人從心底不願意去做壞事,把做壞事看成是一件非常值得羞恥的事,這才在人們的心靈上築起了一道防止作惡的堤壩。

The reason Taizong gave the royal command to compile Qunshu Zhiyao shortly after he ascended the throne was because that he realized his wanting in the knowledge of the governance to achieve world peace by the saints and sages.  Therefore, he wished not only to seek counsel from his subjects in the expertise of governance, but also to have reference materials at hand to study the teachings and experiences of the governance by the saints and sages.

太宗之所以在登基之後不久就下令編纂《群書治要》,也是因為他知道自己對古聖先賢治國平天下的教誨了解不夠,所以希望不僅僅和這些群臣探討治國經驗,而且也能隨時地翻閱古聖先賢治國的教訓和經驗。

 

Taizong was skilled in military warfare and astute in judgment.”  Taizong was an excellent commander in chief, with sharp intelligence and good judgment.  When he was leading the army and facing the constant permutation of military intelligence, he was adaptable and could make strategic decisions.  It could be said that he was undefeatable and a general of the highest caliber.  “[H]e regretted  joining the army at an early age and did not read much.”   He concentrated his early life in warfare causing his regret at the present for not reading many scriptures and not cognizant of the governance to achieve world peace by the saints and sages.  “In view of the downfall of the former Sui Dynasty, he fully realized that it is not easy to found a dynasty and it is also difficult to make the dynasty last and survive.”  The former dynasty of Sui only lasted for a short history of some 30 years.  The ancients valued historic lessons especially.  History is deemed as a mirror that reflects the past for us to foresee the future so as to avoid the repetition of the same mistakes.  For example, the proverb “the mirror of Yin[8] is not afar,” meaning the downfall and painful lessons of the Yin family’s dynasty, the Shang dynasty before Zhou, is not yet too distant from us, we should take it as a warning and do not make the same mistakes again.

太宗英武善辯」,太宗武功高強,而且思慮也非常的敏銳,很有判斷力,他帶兵打仗,面對千變萬化的軍情,都能夠隨機應變,睿智決策,可以說是百戰百勝,是一個很有作戰能力的將軍。「遺憾早年從軍」,而遺憾的也正是因為早年從軍,一心一意用在行軍打仗之上,所以怎麼樣呢?「讀書不多」,讀的聖賢經典不多,對古聖先賢修齊治平的道理不甚了解。「鑑於前隋滅亡之失,深知創業不易,守成維艱。」唐朝前面的隋朝三十多年就滅亡了,歷史是相當地短暫。古人特別重視歷史,因為歷史就像一面鏡子,可以鑑往知來,讓後人不重蹈覆轍。像周朝前面是殷商,所以有句話說「殷鑑不遠」,意思是說(?)朝的經驗、慘痛的教訓離我們還不遠,我們應該引以為戒,不可再犯同樣的錯誤。

 

After he became the emperor, Taizong was very good at recapitulate history lessons and events as a mirror.  In the 9th year of Zhenguan Taizong had a discussion with his subjects regarding the lessons he learned from the demise of the former Sui Dynasty.   He commented that “when the Sui Dynasty was first established and settled in the capital, every room in the palace was full of beautiful objects d’art and beautiful women.  But Emperor Yang of Sui was still not satisfied.  He taxed people to the bone, endlessly searching for treasures and curios.  In addition, he was on the rampage of war against the neighboring states in the East and West; to indulge in his wars of aggression, he used up all the national resources to raise armies.  Eventually, he made people’s lives unbearable and caused the demise of the Sui Dynasty.  I have seen all these happen personally.  As a result, I worked from morning till night, diligently and tirelessly, with the one wish of governing my empire selflessly so that the world can be without upheavals, corvée can be stopped, farmers can have a cornucopia of crops, and the people can live and work in peace and prosperity.  The governance of a nation is like the planting of trees.  So long as the roots are stable and unshakable, the branches and leaves will flourish.  A ruler who can implement the governance of selflessness, how can the citizens not live and work in peace and prosperity.”  Taizong was indeed good at summarizing the teachings of the downfall of Sui and had a good perception of the difficulties in founding an empire and making it last.

唐太宗他當了皇帝之後,也非常善於借鑑總結歷史經驗教訓。在貞觀九年,他和群臣談到隋朝滅亡的教訓時,這樣說「當年剛剛平定京師」,這是指隋朝,宮中的美女、奇珍玩物,沒有一個宮苑不是滿滿的,可隋煬帝還是不滿足,橫征暴斂,搜求不止。加上東征西討,窮兵黷武,弄得百姓無法忍受,於是導致了隋朝滅亡。這些都是我親眼所見。因此我每天從早到晚,辛勤努力,毫無厭倦,只求清淨無為,使天下不生事端,從而做到徭役停罷,五穀豐收,百姓安居樂業。治國好比種樹,只要樹根穩固不動搖,就能枝繁葉茂。 君主能夠實行清淨無為,百姓怎麼會不安居樂業?太宗他很善於總結隋朝滅亡的教訓,深刻地體會到創業不容易,守成更加艱難。

 

The hardest part about making an empire last is whether the ruler can retain his virtues.  The same applies to a cultivator.  In fact, to cultivate in comfort is more difficult than in tribulations.  Trials and tribulations sometimes can toughen up a person.  They can stimulate and strengthen a persons will and tenacity.  In contrast, favorable conditions can make people effete.  Without a high degree of alertness and self-discipline, it is very difficult not to be ruined by luxury and depravity, rich and fame, power and social status.  Thus, in the Scripture of Filial Piety, it stated: Be apprehensive, be cautious, as if on the brink of a deep abyss, as if walking on thin ice. When facing the lure of luxury and depravity, rich and fame, and all kinds of favorable conditions, raise ones guard and do not be lost in them.

而守成最難的,就是守住自己的德行。對於修行人來說也是如此,其實順境比逆境還難修行。逆境有的時候反而是磨礪人,讓人的志氣增長,所以能夠鍛鍊人的品志,增強人的意志;而順境卻是淘汰人,如果沒有高度的警覺,在財色名利、高名厚利面前很難不墮落。所以《孝經》裡面就提醒,說要「戰戰兢兢,如臨深淵,如履薄冰」[9]。要對這些財色名利,一切順境、善緣提起高度的警覺,不要迷在其中。

 

Lets continue with the Preface. During his reign, he encouraged his subjects to give him admonitions. The greatest characteristic of Taizongs leadership is his ability to encourage his subjects to give him admonitions, he even proactively asked for admonitions.  For example, in the 11th year of Zhenguan, Wei Zheng continuously submitted admonitions in court documents.  Taizong personally answered Wei Zheng in an imperial rescript as follows:  Your Sovereign after reading your, his favorite subjects, court papers was deeply touched. After reading such sincere words expressing your loyalty and righteousness, often makes me forget my fatigue.  If you, my favorite subject, are not familiar with the situation of state, how can you make such appropriate proposals and correct my mistakes timely?  I have heard that after King Wu of Jin vanquished and merged the kingdom of Wu, he indulged himself in luxury and depravation and no longer cared about the governance of his state.  King Wus Grand Tutor and Counselor, Ho Zhen, once told his son, Ho Siu, after returning from court: I am in court daily and never saw the King discussing the strategies and policies of governing the state, but always talking about the trivial matters of daily life in vernacular language.  These acts are far from the way of good governance.  Isnt this like leaving disasters to our descendants!  The state will not be in upheaval in your generation and your life is still safe.  Then he looked at his grandchildren and said in poignancy: But when you grow up, you will definitely encounter mutiny in court and lose your lives. Indeed, as he predicted, one of his grandchildren, Ho Sui, was killed cruelly due to the royal family feud for the fight to the throne.

下面接著講,「在位期間,鼓勵群臣進諫」。唐太宗的一個最大的特點,就是特別善於鼓勵群臣進諫,甚至是主動地去求取諫言。比如說在貞觀十一年的時候,魏徵屢次上書勸諫。唐太宗就親自寫詔書回答魏徵。在詔書裡他這樣說「朕看了愛卿寫的奏書,言語懇切,愛卿的一片忠肝義膽由此可見一斑。批閱你的奏書,常常讓我忘記疲倦,而且你的言詞讓我深受感動。倘使愛卿對國情了解不深,怎麼能夠為我提出如此中肯的建議,而及時糾正我的過失呢?我聽說晉武帝滅掉吳國之後,只顧驕奢淫逸,不再關心國家政治。當時的太傅何曾退朝回家之後,就對他的兒子何邵說,我每天都看見皇上不談論治理國家的雄才大略,而只是說一些日常生活的俚俗之語,這和治理國家的道理相去甚遠!這難道不是將災難留給子孫嗎?國家在你這一代還不至於混亂,因而你的性命暫且可以保全。說完他又指著他的孫子們痛惜的說,可是到了你們長大的時候,必定遇上朝廷變故而性命不保!後來怎麼樣?後來果然如何曾所料,他的孫子何綏果然遇上了晉王室之間為爭奪王位而發生的內部叛亂,結果他在叛亂中為荒淫的酷刑所殺害。

 

Taizong opined: “In the past, historians’ comments about this event is to praise Ho Zheng as someone with great insight.  But I hold a different view.  In my opinion, Ho Zheng can be said as the most disloyal subject and should be held in contempt.  As a court official, he should consider how to critique current events and political situations with loyalty and honest suggestions when in court.  After court appearance, he should think how to amend the mistakes of the king diligently as to forget food and sleep.  Thusly, the king’s virtues can be developed uninterruptedly and mistakes corrected without failure.  This is the way of concerted minds between the ruler and his subjects. However, Ho Zheng, with grand status and great power, should give admonitions with honest words to discuss the way of good governance, to correct and support good policies, instead, he gave his opinions on court order after he returned from court and lacked the courage to admonish the king directly.  Isn’t it ridiculous to praise him as a man of foresight?   Do we need officials who cannot assist and support a nation when she is in danger of demise?  As you suggested in your court papers, which I have read seriously, I will put them on my desk of your words of wisdom, like the mementos of caveat in ancient times.   I believe I will receive benefit in this way day by day and after a few years, our state will flourish with booming economy.  Because of your wise counsel and support, I can rest easy as the fish in water.  Everything will go as I wish and run smoothly.  As I am now humbly replying the court paper you courageous submitted without any subtlety, I will be as humble in listening to your good suggestion in governance in the future.”

唐太宗說,他說以往的史書稱讚這件事,說何曾有先見之明,但是我的看法卻與之不同,我認為何曾可以說,可以稱得上是不忠之臣,他是罪大惡極的。為什麼?做為臣子上朝的時候就應該思考如何指陳時政,盡忠直言;退朝之後應該廢寢忘食彌補皇上的過失,這樣才能使君主的美德不斷得到發揚,錯誤不斷得到糾正,就是常說的君臣同志的道理。但是何曾地位尊貴、權勢顯赫,應當直言進諫,談論治國大道,匡扶時政,然而他在退潮後才說關於朝綱的言論,朝見時在晉武帝面前卻沒有勇敢地直言規勸,說他是明智之人難道不是很荒謬的嗎?如果國家危亡卻不知道輔佐、扶持,哪裡還用得著這樣的官員呢?你所上疏的建議,我已認真地閱讀過了,這些金玉良言應時時放在我的案頭上,就像古代用來警示自己校偏糾過的信物一樣[A5] ,這樣他日必定會有收穫。等到過些年月,國家就會更加繁榮富庶。因為我有你的扶持,所以感到很放心,就像魚有水一樣,一切都得心應手、稱心如意。你敢於直言而無所隱瞞的奏疏我現在才回覆,此後我仍將虛懷若谷、恭敬地聽取你治國方面的好意見。

 

Can we observe the wisdom of a sagacious leader from this event?  Taizong’s wisdom is in that he was not offended or felt lost face when Wei Zheng continuously submitted his admonitions, when Wei Zheng directly pointed out his mistakes.  On the contrary, Taizong praised Wei Zheng and deemed it his best quality as a subject.  Taizong believed that he needed Wei Zheng is like a fish needs water and Wei Zheng can make his governance smoother.  Only when an emperor has such humility to seek admonition can a loyal subject, like Wei Zheng, can give admonitions with honest words and not euphemism.  Taizong proactively sought and encouraged his subjects’ admonitions demonstrated the rare quality of a magnanimous ruler.

所以你看這個明君明在何處?就是魏徵屢次犯言直諫,直接指正他的過失,他不僅沒有生氣,沒有觸怒他的龍顏,反而非常稱讚魏徵這樣的品質。認為有了魏徵,他就像如魚得水一樣,治理國家得心應手。皇帝有這樣虛心求諫的態度,所以才會出現像魏徵這樣忠臣直諫的臣子,忠言直諫。太宗他主動引導並且鼓勵群臣向他進諫,這也體現了一個為君者難得的胸懷。

 

A leader should learn and emulate the paradigm of Taizong.  Whether in a family or in a team, as a leader, s/he should emulate the sage when finding one, encourage admonitions from his subordinates, accept their criticisms regarding the flaws and weaknesses of policies; in other words, to let the subordinates point out all the mistakes and weaknesses.  Why?  It is because a wrong decision can affect the lives of thousands of people.  “Heaven’s Son” represents that compassion and protection of heaven for his children.  How can a ruler make his citizens suffer due to his mistake?  Taizong understood that it is difficult to make an empire last, therefore, he not only wished for his subjects to admonish him, but also wished to learn from the saints and sages, the lesson of historic events to remind him not to make the same mistakes.   This was also his original intention in compiling Qunshu Zhiyao.

做為領導者的也應該學習和效法唐太宗的風範,無論是在家庭還是在團隊當中,身為一個領導者也應該見賢思齊,鼓勵群臣進諫,而且批評其決策過失,就是把他的不妥、錯誤之處都指出來。為什麼?因為一個決策的錯誤影響的百姓何止千千萬萬。天子是代表上天愛護子民,怎麼忍心因為自己的過失而讓百姓受苦呢?所以唐太宗知道守成不易,不只希望群臣給他勸諫,也希望從古聖先賢、從歷史經驗之中得到寶貴的教誨來提醒自己。這也是他編纂《群書治要》的初衷。

 

He commanded Court Admonishers such as Wei Zheng and Yu Shinan to go through the records of the governance of historical emperors and kings, to excerpt the essentials of personal cultivation, clan harmony (family order), governance of the state, and the maintenance of world peace from the Six Scriptures, the Four History Books, and the myriads of philosophers and a hundred schools of thoughts, and to compile them into a compendium.”  From this paragraph we can tell that the contents of Qunshu Zhiyao include six scriptures, which are the Classic of Poetry, Book of Documents[10], Book of Rites, Book of Changes, Book of Music, and Spring and Autumn Annals.  Confucius used the Six Scriptures to teach his students.  Later on the Book of Music was lost and there were only Five Scriptures; therefore, the Han Dynasty set up the Doctorate of Five Scriptures.  Qunshu Zhiyao is comprehensive of the Five Scriptures.  The Four History Books are Shiji (Records by the Grand Historian), the History of Han DynastyHistory of the Latter Han Dynasty, and Records of the Three Kingdoms.  Of course, Qunshu Zhiyao is comprehensive of the Four History Books; additionally, it contains the History of Jin DynastyShiji (Records by the Grand Historian) is a very important history book.  It recorded the long history from the first legendary emperor Huang (2700 B.C.) to Han Dynasty (220 A.D.).  Besides history, there is also the myriad of philosophers and a hundred school of thoughts, which flourished during the periods from Spring and Autumn to the Warring States,  such as Confucianism, Taoism, Mohism, Legalism, School of Agriculture, School of Military, etc.   Any experiences relating to governance in these schools of thoughts were all collected in Qunshu Zhiyao.

下面接著說,「令諫官魏徵及虞世南等,整理歷代帝王治國資政史料,擷取六經、四史、諸子百家中,有關修身、齊家、治國平天下之精要,匯編成書」。這個就告訴我們,《群書治要》的內容包含六經,這個六經就是《詩》 《書》 《禮》 《易》 《樂》 《春秋》,孔老夫子就是以六經教導學生。後來六經中的《樂經》失傳,所以到漢代的時候就是置五經博士。在《群書治要》中這個五經的內容都涵蓋其中。四史,這個四史就是《史記》、《漢書》、《後漢書》、《三國志》。當然《群書治要》中包括了四史,還包括了《晉書》,晉朝的歷史。這個《史記》也是一部重要的史書,記載了從黃帝一直到漢朝這麼長的歷史。除了史書之外還有子書,也就是諸子百家,像在春秋戰國時候百家爭鳴,有儒、墨、道、法、農家、兵家等等,這些言論,關於國家治理的經驗也都蒐集在《群書治要》之中。

 

From the Five Legendary Emperors to the Jin Dynasty, 65 different kinds of books were selected from more than 14,000 collections, over 89,000 scrolls of ancient records, and comprised of more than 500,000 words.”  The time span of the historic books and documents included in  Qunshu Zhiyao is more than 3000 years, from the Five Legendary Emperors (2700 B.C.) to Jin Dynasty (420 A.D.), the Dynasty before Taizong of Tang.  From this paragraph we can discover how meticulous and serious the compilation of Qunshu Zhiyao was.  It was a selection from more than 14,000 collections, over 89,000 scrolls of ancient records, which we cannot even finish reading them in our lifetime, Finally, 65 books were selected and the essence on the teachings and experiences of governance and world peace were distilled from them, and Qunshu Zhiyao was completed.  It is not an exaggeration to call Qunshu Zhiyao the crème de la crème of the excellence of traditional Chinese culture.  Once we learned this compendium, we control the golden key to Si Ku Guan Shu[11]

上始五帝,下迄晉代」,這個歷史是從五帝開始,一直到晉朝,其中幾千年的歷史,「自一萬四千多部[A6] 、八萬九千多卷古籍中,博采典籍六十五種,共五十餘萬言」。從這裡我們看到這個古人編纂《群書治要》的時候非常的認真、非常的恭敬,是從一萬四千多部、八萬九千多卷的古籍中。這麼多的典籍放在我們的面前,我們可能看都看不完,但是還要從中挑取關於治國平天下的經驗教訓,挑取其中的精華。最後挑出了六十五種書,又從這六十五種之中,把那個最精粹的道理擷取出來,摘取出來,最後才成了這本書。所以稱它是中華優秀傳統文化的精華之精華確實不是誇張。所以我們學了《群書治要》這一部書,也就是掌握了開啟《四庫全書》的金鑰匙。 

 

When the compendium was completed, as stated in the preface written by Wei Zheng, it is a compendium that can be used in the present--sufficient as a mirror the reflect the past and a heritage to be handed down to future generations as a canon of good governance.”  Qunshu Zhiyao took five years to complete; in other words, it was complete in the fifth year of Zhenguan.  After its completion, Wei Zheng wrote the preface and praised the compendium’s historic value.  His opinion is that the compendium used at that time could be a mirror to see the past as it reflected the wisdom and experiences of the ancients in managing their lives, especially for political leaders to avoid pitfalls and as paradigms to emulate.  They can grasp the experiences, teachings, methodologies, wisdom, and principles of governance from the time of the five legendary emperors to Jin Dynasty.  As a political canon to be handed down to future generations, it can benefit our descendants to plan their lives well so as to have a blissful life.   Because the rich contents of the compendium included the knowledge of personal cultivation, family order, governance of the country, and the maintenance of world peace, it is a treasure to be handed down from generations to generations.  It can enlighten our descendants to manage their family life properly and to bring welfare to the people if they have the chance to be civil servants.  Thus, Qunshu Zhiyao is indeed a canon of governance that mirrors the past and foretells the future.

下面接著講「書成」,到了貞觀五年,也就是歷經五年時間,這本書才編纂完成。如魏徵於序文中所說,《群書治要》編纂完成之後,魏徵在序文中說了一句話,也就是稱讚《群書治要》的歷史價值,實為一部用之當今,足以鑒覽前古;傳之來葉,可以貽厥孫謀的治世寶典」。魏徵大人就說到,這一部書用在當時的社會,可以鑒覽前古,就是可以以古人的經驗智慧來經營自己的人生,尤其是對於辦政治的領導者而言,他們可以少走很多的彎路,還可以有很多的榜樣來效法,可以掌握到從五帝到晉朝這些治國理政的經驗、教訓、方法和智慧。而且傳之來葉,就是傳到後世去,可以貽厥孫謀。這個「貽」就是遺留的意思,傳下去之後也可以恩澤後世。「孫謀」就是後代子孫能夠更好地謀劃他們的人生,怎麼樣使他們的人生幸福。因為這個書裡邊內容非常的豐富,都是修身、齊家、治國、平天下的學問,對於後世子孫經營家庭,甚至有機會出來做官,為人們謀福祉的,都可以從這裡得到寶貴的啟示,所以《群書治要》確實是一部鑑往知來的治世寶典。

 

Taizong likes the compendium’s comprehensiveness and concise precision.”  After the compendium was completed, Taizong like it very much because the compendium included vast material and the excerpts are precise and concise.  In other words, it is not verbose and every verse is enlightening.  If the compilers did not have a profound understanding of the scriptures, histories, and myriads of schools of thoughts, they could not have such precise selections.  Taizong was “reading it daily and cannot put it down.”  We have to ask why is it that Taizong was studying so hard?   The answer is that his compassion for his people and his aspiration to make the empire stable and peaceful are his momentum.  Not only that, he embraced the world and wishing not only to govern his state well, but also as a paradigm for other countries to follow.

太宗喜其廣博而切要」。這本書編撰完成之後,太宗皇帝非常歡喜,因為這部書它涵蓋的內容很廣博,取材很廣泛,而且挑出來的又是非常精闢的、切要的部分。換句話說,就是沒有廢話,你看一句就有一句的啟示。如果沒有真正讀懂這些經史子的教誨,也很難挑得這麼精準。而太宗皇帝是日日手不釋卷,太宗皇帝這樣不辭辛苦地在學習,什麼原因?就是因為他有一個根本的動力,那就是愛護人民,希望能夠把國家治理安定。不僅如此,他胸懷天下,不僅把自己的國家治理好,還希望給世界的各個國家都做出一個良好的表率。

 

Taizong absorbed the classic wisdom of the ancient sagacious rulers, and also used them in his governance.  He later said: “Making me reading the classics and not disturbed when facing crisis are your, my subjects’, contributions.”  Here, reading the classics implies examinations and contemplations.    Whenever Taizong faced a problem he could used the seasoned wisdom of thousands years of history to make judgments, decisions so that he would not be confused and could handle matter with confidence.  The reason he could face any matter and knew how to manage them was because of his reading of this compendium, which has such effects.  When Taizong made this comment he was full of gratitude, therefore, he contributed his capability to the efforts of his subjects.  So we can see, as the emperor, the Son of Heaven, Taizong still constantly remembered the contributions of his subjects.  To constantly have a sense of gratitude is another rare characteristic of a leader.

太宗皇帝吸取了古聖先王經典的智慧,而且也因時因地地把它運用到治國之中。所以後面說,「曰:使我稽古,臨事不惑者,卿等力也」。太宗說到,讓我能夠每次面對事情,都能以幾千年歷史當中的經驗智慧來判斷、來做決策。這個稽就是考察的意思,使他不迷惑,能夠應對篤定。事情來了,他知道如何去應對,什麼原因?就是因為讀了這部書,有這樣的效果。唐太宗講這句話的時候,也是充滿了感恩的心,他說「卿等力也」,都是因為你們這些大臣所貢獻的力量。你看,唐太宗身為天子皇帝,還能夠時時想著臣子的恩德,這確實非常的不容易,他能夠常常保持這一顆感恩的心。

 

From this, we can conclude that the peaceful and flourishing state of the Reign of Zhenguan can be contributed greatly to this compendium! The reason an empire can reach its prosperity is due to the leadership of its highest ruler, the emperor.  In other words, the ruler has correct thoughts and correct principles of governance.  Taizongs political savvy was inherited from Qunshu Zhiyao.  “This compendium is indeed the must read canon of states men.”  Politicians should all read this precious compendium.

由是而知,貞觀之治的太平盛況,此書貢獻大矣!」能夠成就一個盛世是結果,原因就是最高領導者,也就是天子,他有正確的思想,正確的治國理念。這些政治智慧都是從這一部《群書治要》當中承傳下來的。「誠為從政者必讀之寶典」,實在是從事政治的人必定要讀的一本寶書。

 

We all know that when the Venerable Master met with the former prime minister of Malaysia, Mr. Mahathir, the Master mentioned this compendium and Mr. Mahathir immediately said: “I want to learn also.”  The Elder Mahathir is 87 years old and still eager to learn and wishing to study the political wisdom of China so as to benefit his own country and the world.  This type of learning spirit is worthy of our emulation.

那我們知道,尊敬的師父上人跟馬來西亞前首相馬哈迪先生見面的時候,就講到這套《群書治要》,結果馬哈迪先生立刻就說:「我也要學習」。你看這個長者已經八十七歲了,還是這麼好學,還希望從中國的政治智慧中,學到不僅僅利益他自己的國家,而且能夠利益天下的智慧。這種好學的精神確實值得我們效法。

After Qunshu Zhiyao 360 was completed, a copy was presented to Elder Mahathir.  Upon completion of reading this translation, Elder Mahathir commented that if he were able to read this compendium earlier, he would have made less wrong decisions.  Thus, it can be said that the ruling principles in Qunshu Zhiyao not only applies to ancient China, but also is appropriate for today’s world.  Because of this, our Venerable Master wished to have Qunshu Zhiyao 360 translated into English so that politicians of every nation in the world can explore and penetrate into the political wisdom of China.  Because the traditional Chinese culture does not just belong to the Chinese, it belongs to the world.

《群書治要360》翻譯出來之後,送給馬哈迪長老的時候,他讀完之後就說,如果他能早讀到這一部書,他可以少做很多錯誤的決定。這可以說,《群書治要》所記載的治國理念,不僅僅適用於中國,也適合於其他國家;不僅僅適合於中國古代,也適合於當今的時代。正是因為看到了這一點,所以我們尊敬的師父上人就希望,能夠把《群書治要360》翻譯成英文,提供給各國從政者深入中國的政治智慧。因為中國的傳統文化不僅僅是屬於中國人的,它是屬於世界的。

 

Our ancestors and the saints and sages were all broad-minded.  We should follow their examples and have such magnanimity to launch Qunshu Zhiyao to the world in order to contribute to world peace.   This compendium is not just a must-read for the politicians or leaders.  It should be a must-read for parents, teachers, and entrepreneurs.  The knowledge of cultivation, order, governance, and world peace has a commonality.  The principles of governing a flourishing nation are the same as managing a fortune 500 company, or the upkeep of a harmonious family. 

我們的老祖先和聖賢人,他們的心胸都是非常寬廣。那我們也應該效法古聖先賢的這種心胸,要把《群書治要》推向世界,為世界和平做出貢獻。這部書不僅僅是從政者、領導者必讀之書,應該也是所有為人父母者必讀之書,為人老師者必讀之書,企業家必讀之書。因為裡邊這些修齊治平的學問都是相通的,治理一個國家和治理一個企業、治理一個家庭的道理都是一致的。

 

Let’s continue reading the next paragraph.  “At that time the printing press was not fully developed.  Fortunately, the Japanese monks had a complete hand-written copy of Qunshu Zhiyao, which was in the Japanese literary collection of Jinze during the Kamakura Period.”   During the Tang Dynasty the printing press of wood-cutting method was not fully developed, thus the compendium was not widely circulated and was not given special attention.  But we have to praise great learning spirit of the Japanese because they treasured this compendium and the Japanese monks copied the compendium by hand, brought it back to Japan during the Tang Dynasty, and kept it intact.  We can see from this paragraph that not only the Chinese, but also the Buddhist monks of Japan had a profound understanding of Chinese culture.  We all know that the Japanese students who came to study in China would only bring the best selection of books back to Japan.  Among the voluminous Chinese classics, they would only choose the best to bring back and hand-written copies are deemed as the most valuable.

接著我們再看下一段。當時中國雕版印刷尚未發達,然而因為那個時候印刷術還不是很發達,所以《群書治要》一書也沒有得以廣泛流傳,也沒有受到特別的重視。但是日本人很了不起,他們很珍惜這部寶典,他們把這部書從唐朝帶回到日本,並且把它完整地保留下來。「所幸者,日本金澤文庫藏有鐮倉時代日本僧人手寫《群書治要》的全帙」。日本僧人是用手把《群書治要》抄寫下來的。從這裡我們看到,不僅僅是中國,日本佛門的出家人,對於整個中華文化都是有相當的深入、相當的修養。我們知道,日本留學生來中國留學,帶回去的書可以說是精挑細選,是在眾多的古籍之中選那個最精華的帶回去,後人手抄也是抄他們認為最有價值的。

 

In the 60th year of Emperor Chen-long (1711-1799) of the Chin Dynasty, the Japanese brought this compendium back to China.This means that when Emperor Jiaqing, son of Emperor Chen-long, ascended the throne in 1796, the 60th year of Emperor Chen-long who retired and stepped down from the throne, to celebration the crowning of Emperor Jiaqing, the Japanese brought this compendium back as a tribute to the suzerain nation.  So the compendium was eventually returned to its motherland. The Compilation of Classics in the Four Divisions by the Commercial Press of Shanghai and Taiwan both published and reprinted this compendium using this copy from Japan. This reprinting should have happened about 80 years ago.

並於清乾隆六十年,由日人送回中國本土」。也就是到後來嘉慶登基的時候,日本人進貢,又把這本書送回到中國本土。「上海商務印書館四部叢刊和台灣分別以此版為底本影印出版」。這應該是八十年前的事情。

 

At the yearend of 2010,”  this is talking about the time and the auspicious condition under which the Master received this compendium.  “[R]eading repeatedly, I was full of infinite joy.”  The reason the Master was able to have this compendium is just as the ancient Chinese saying depicted: “A person with good will, the providence will grant.”  It is just because the Master thought constantly about the continuation of Chinese culture, knowing that it not only can bring social harmony, prosperity and peace to the Chinese, but also the grand unity of the world. 

二0一0年歲末」,這個就是師父上人提到這個因緣,二0一0年的歲末,師父幸得此書,「反覆翻閱,歡喜無量」。為什麼師父能得到此書?中國古人說,「人有善願,天必從之」。正是因為老人家念念都想著中華文化的承傳,他知道中華文化不僅僅能夠帶給中國人國泰民安,社會和諧,而且可以帶來世界大同的結果,能夠為和諧世界做出貢獻,所以念念想著怎麼樣把這麼好的文化承傳下來。結果,他就能夠得到這部書,有人就把這部書送到老人家面前。老人家翻閱之後,覺得這是一部可以救民族、救世界的寶典,「深刻體會古聖先賢之文化教育,的能為全世界帶來永恆之安定和平。」

 

The Venerated Master’s viewpoints are exactly the same as the famous British historian, Arnold Toynbee.  Professor Toynbee stated in his book ______ that only the Chinese culture can save the world and will be universally disseminated in the future.

師父上人的觀點和英國著名歷史哲學家湯恩比教授的觀點完全一致。湯恩比教授在《未來屬於中國[A7] [12]這本書中就提出,只有中華文化能夠救世界,未來是中華文化得以普遍宣揚的世界。

 

Why is it that a British would not hold the view that the Western culture can bring world peace but put faith in Chinese culture?  It is because that the crucible of Chinese culture is “benevolence, love, loyalty, and forgiveness.”  “The benevolent loves people.”  The ideogram “( rén), meaning humanity, benevolencecombines the pictographs of ( rén), meaning a person, and , (èr) meaning two.  It implies empathy that when we think of ourselves, we should think of others as well, to stand in other’s shoe, to think from other’s perspective.  Therefore, China will not develop into a strong power of aggression, like the superpowers of the West.  She will wish for the simultaneous development of other nations, to co-exist and flourish co-operatively.  When Mencius stated that “the benevolent ruler has no enemies,” he did not mean that the benevolent ruler has no enemies due to his mighty military power that conquered the world.   Instead, a compassionate person is never against anyone, never with any thoughts of antagonism, therefore, how can s/he oppress or invade other countries?

那為什麼做為一個英國人,沒有說西方的文化可以給世界帶來和平,獨獨把眼光放在了中華文化之上呢?因為我們知道,中華文化它講究的是「仁、愛、忠、恕」。「仁者愛人」,這個仁從人、從二,它想到我們自己就要想到對方,能夠換位思考,將心比心。所以她不會說自己發展了,就像其他的西方列強一樣,去欺負侵略其他的國家,而是希望和其他的國家一起發展,共存共榮。所以古人說「仁者無敵」,這個仁者無敵,不是說仁者打遍天下無敵手,而是說一個有仁愛之心的人,他從心底不和任何人起對立,他連和人家對立的念頭都沒有,怎麼可能去侵犯、去攻打別的國家?

 

The ancients often used “the Benevolence of Oneness” to describe the compassion and humaneness of a benevolent person.  What is the “the Benevolence of Oneness”? it is like our body, when there is an itchiness in the right hand, the left hand will scratch it unconditionally because our body is one unity, without any separateness.  Therefore, the meaning of benevolence in Chinese emphasizes the relationships between people, between people and societies, and between people and nature.  In addition, the relationships between races and countries are all of Oneness.  Only when one understands the myriads of relationships in Oneness, can we accomplish the love of the benevolent; “don’t do to others as you would not wish done to yourself.”  It is this kind of education of benevolence and compassion that can bring world peace and not world annihilation. 

所以古人經常用「一體之仁」來形容一個人的仁愛之心。什麼是一體之仁?就像一個身體一樣,像我們的右手有點癢,左手去幫它一下,那是不講條件的,為什麼?因為它們都是一個身體,密不可分。所以中國人講求這個仁,就是告訴我們人和人之間、人和社會之間、人和自然之間,還有族群和族群之間、國家和國家之間都是一體的關係。只有體會到這一體的關係,你才能夠做到「仁者愛人」 「己所不欲,勿施於人」。正是因為有這種仁愛的教育,所以它能夠為世界帶來和平,而不是帶來戰亂。

 

The Chinese culture also appreciates the art of harmony in diversity.  What does it mean?  It is like a splendid garden with a sea of flowers in various species and a profusion of colors that displays the most beautiful scenery, which the eyes cant glean all at once.  If a garden has only one kind of flower, in one color, it will be too monotone and boring.  Hence, the Chinese stress the harmony in diversity and respect and appreciate the differences in different ethnical groups and religions.  Under such mandate there can be mutual respect and mutual learning to reconcile the conflicts created by different cultures.  Professor Toynbee, recognizing this, was of the opinion that only Confucianism and Mahayana Buddhism can resolve the social problems in the 21st century.  His opinion is 100% correct.

中國的文化還講「和而不同」,什麼叫和而不同?就像我們看一個大花園,有五顏六色、五彩繽紛的花,這所有的花配合在一起,讓人覺得美不勝收。但是如果這個花園只有一種花,清一色,一個顏色的一個品種,那就會讓人感覺到單調無比。所以中國人講和而不同,就是尊重認可各個不同民族、不同宗教、不同文化的差別,求同存異。這樣的話才能夠互相尊重、互相學習,而不致於產生文明的衝突。所以湯恩比先生他認識到這一點,所以他認為能夠真正解決二十一世紀社會問題的,只有中國的孔孟儒學和大乘佛法。這個是完全正確的。

 

Let’s continue.  “The most important key is that we Chinese must truly understand our traditional culture without doubt and full of confidence.”  Here talked about the key to world peace through traditional Chinese culture is that we as Chinese must renew our understanding of traditional culture, re-established our self-confidence in our race, our culture, and eradicate our doubts about the effectiveness of the teachings of the saints and sages.  The reason we need confidence in our traditional culture is that universal law is forever true and never changeable, as the saying “Heaven never changes, Tao never changes either[A8] .”  The contents in scriptures are infallible truth or the Tao.  Tao is the never changing rule, like the sun rises in the East and sets in the West in the present as well as in the past.  More importantly, the temperament of the ancients was more serene than today’s people.  The minds of today’s people are agitated and cannot be still, therefore, their cognition is not as aware as the ancients.  The advancement in technology and the development in our times do not mean that we are smarter than the ancient.  This truism comes from a profound understanding of the traditional Chinese culture that eradicates doubts and invokes confidence.

下面我們接著看,「最極關鍵者,即國人本身,必須真正認識傳統文化,斷疑啟信」。這裡講到了關鍵處,也就是中國人自身必須能夠重新認識傳統文化,樹立起高度的民族自信心、文化自信心,對古聖先賢的教誨不要心存懷疑,要對它有信心。為什麼對它有信心?因為古人所說的道理都是恆常不變的規律,所謂「天不變,道亦不變」。聖賢經典所記載的都是道,這個道就是恆常不變的規律,就像太陽從東方升起,西方落下一樣,在古代如此,在今天依然如此。而且最重要的,就是古人的心地它比現代人清淨,現在人這個心很亂,沉淀不下來,所以他所體悟的就沒有古人深刻。所以不要認為科技發展了,時代進步了,現代人就比古人就更聰明。這個自信心來自於對中華傳統文化的深刻理解,所以才能夠斷疑啟信。

 

 “The traditional culture of the saints and sages is truly the manifestation of the Self-Nature of all sentient beings, which is eternal and self-generating, transcending time and space.”  Here, the Master pointed out the key factor as to why the civilization of the saints and sage is never outdated as it is the manifestation of our Self-Nature.    The Self-Nature of the ancients is the same as ours today.  It is never outdated.   The classics and scriptures passed down by the saints or sages were not created by them either. They were not the authors but the narrators.  “It is a transmission, not a creation,” as Confucius said, meaning his literary work was a legacy inherited from the saints and the sagacious kings.  These saints and sagacious kings were not ordinary people either.  The reason they were called saints and sages was because they edified their Self-Nature, unveiled their illuminating virtues, and ruled the state according to their innate virtues.   Therefore, how can the traditional culture be an anachronism?  As long as we genuinely follow these teachings, we can and will also merge into the luminosity of our innate virtues.  When we reach that state we will truly understand how to interact with people and handle things according to our innate virtues.  Qunshu Zhiyao can also guide us to merge into the luminosity of our innate virtues and to return to our True-Nature.  This compendium can enlighten us and open the door to our original innate goodness and illuminating virtues.  Thus, the “manifestation of our self-nature” means that these scriptures are from our true nature, which is eternal and unchangeable, transcending time and space.

聖賢傳統文化實為一切眾生自性流露,超越時空,亙古彌新」。這裡邊也說出了關鍵,為什麼聖賢文化到今天還不過時?因為它是一切眾生自性的流露。這個自性,古人的性和今天人的性是一個性,所以它不會過時。聖賢所傳下來的這些文化經典也不是他們的發明創造,就像孔老夫子所講的「述而不作」,他也是承傳古聖先王的,而且古聖先王不是一般人,之所以被稱為聖,就是因為他們都契入了心性,開啟了明德,他們都是依循性德來處事待人接物治理國家,所以怎麼可能過時?只要我們老老實實地去依教奉行,我們自己也可以契入明德,到了那個時候我們才了解到,我們是隨順自己的性德在處事待人接物[A9] 。這個《群書治要》,它也可以引導我們契入性德,回歸本性,它開啟的是我們每個人本有的本善和明德。所以這些性德的流露,也就是說,這些經典是超越時空的真理,亙古不變。

 

The next paragraph discusses how to study this compendium and what kind of attitude we should have when learning this.

下面一段就講到我們應該怎麼樣學習,用什麼樣的心態來學習。

The linchpin to learning can be said in two words:  sincerity and respectfulness. When we accept the teachings of the saints and sages, we must be most sincere and respectful in our attitudes.  The 13th Patriarch of the Pure Land School of Buddhism, Venerable Master Yin Guon (18611940), advised us that studying with one part of sincerity and respectfulness will result in one part of benefits; two parts of sincerity and respectfulness will result in two parts of benefits; and one-hundred percent of sincerity and respectfulness will result in one-hundred percent of benefits.  Without respect, one cannot benefit from one’s study.  Traditional culture is the edifying of the mind, therefore, only genuine mind can ingress.  Without respeyct, one cannot even touch the surface.  In the Buddhist history of China, there was a story about Venerable Master Len-chi (15231615), the 8th Patriarch of the Pure Land School.  When he was first initiated into Buddhism, he heard about the famous Zen Master Ben-rong as being very wise.  So he traveled to his monastery and wished to learn from him.  It was a long journey and Venerable Master Len-chi would genuflect after every three steps he walked.   When he finally reached the Zen Master Ben-rong, he respectfully asked how can he penetrate into the vast knowledge of Buddhism?  Zen Master Ben-rong replied: Young novice, dont be lured by fame and offerings.  You must let go of them. The other visitors who witnessed this meeting laughed at this banal advice.  Especially in view of the fact that Venerable Master Len-chi would genuflect after every three steps he walked to show his respect and the Zen Master Ben-rongs advice was such a cliché.  However, to Venerable Master Len-chi, dont be lured by fame and offerings was like hitting the nail on the head, a caveat that benefited him all his life.  When he became famous and abundant offerings, this caveat made him alert and was not led astray.  As we can see, when a teacher gives the same instruction to students, due to the variance in the acceptance level of the students, the degree of their understanding and the speed of their progress will be different.  What causes this?  Since the teachers instructions are no different; thus, the difference lies in the degree of respectfulness in the students.

學習關鍵,端在誠敬二字」,要用真誠恭敬心來學習,來領受聖賢教誨。所以印光大師說一分誠敬得一分利益,二分誠敬得二分利益,十分誠敬得十分利益。那我們如果沒有恭敬心,就不得利益。因為傳統文化是心法,必須用真心才能契入。如果沒有恭敬心,那是皮毛都學不到,那我們知道在佛教的歷史上有一個淨土宗的大師,叫蓮池大師,他在年輕的時候學佛聽說遍融禪師很有智慧[13],於是他就三步一叩頭走了很遠的路來拜見遍融禪師,結果見到了遍融禪師之後,向他請教怎麼樣學佛才能契入,結果這個遍融禪師就說了一句很普通的話,他說年輕人千萬不要被名聞利養所迷惑,一定要把名聞利養放下。這一句話聽起來平淡無奇,旁邊的人也都覺得挺可笑的。你看蓮池大師這樣的誠心,三步一叩首的來拜見遍融禪師,結果遍融禪師就輕描淡寫的給了他一句話,不要被名聞利養所迷惑。但是因為蓮池大師,他的心地真誠恭敬,這一句話就像當頭棒喝一樣讓他終身受益,所以他以後的成就也就得益於這一句話。每每遇到名聞利養現前的時候他都能夠提起警覺,想到遍融禪師的提醒,所以他沒有迷在名聞利養之中。所以你看同樣是一位老師講課,但是學生的接受程度不同,契入程度不一樣。而且進步快速也不一樣,什麼原因?不是老師講的有區別,而是學生的恭敬心有區別。

 

Next, The Summary of the Rules of Propriety says: Always and in everything let there be reverence[14].”  At any time, at any place, one should always maintain such respectful attitude.  In the Doctrine of the Mean, it also stated: “Tao is the proper course for everything that may not left even for a moment.  If it can be separated from, then it is not Tao.”.   In other words, when the sincere and respectful attitude disappears, the cultivating mind disappears simultaneously, and the mind is in afflicted thoughts and is on the path of depravity.   Thus, we should be respectful at all times and at all places.  The philosophy of the saints and sages advocates reverence and preserves sincerity.  The degree of the preservation (perseverance) of reverence and sincerity is in direct correlation with the assimilation of knowledge.  This is the correct cultivation.

下面說,「《曲禮》曰:毋不敬」。毋就是沒有,沒有什麼時候能不保持這種恭敬的態度,也就是說時時刻刻,無時無刻都要保持恭敬的態度,《中庸》上也講:「道也者,不可須臾離也,可離非道也。」也就是說,一旦誠敬心不見,當下就不在修道的狀態了。就是隨順習氣,就跑到邪道上去了。所以人無時無刻要保持恭敬,聖賢的學問就是在主敬存誠,誠敬的程度愈能保持,就提升得愈快,而且這也是真正的修養。

 

How and where can we elevate our mentality of sincerity and reverence?   We should actualize them in the details of daily life.  For example, when we read the classics of the saints and sages, we should treat the books and open them with reverence as if we are in front of the saints and sages.  When we listen to the lectures of the classics, our mind should be tranquil, sincere and respectful, and don’t let the mind wonder off.  At work, most of us are just punching the clock; often perform our task carelessly, without respect and sincerity.  Our work attitude is just to get the job done and the mind is not on the proper course, but on the path of arrogance and affliction.  This way we cannot elevate ourselves.  If we scrutinize Di Zi Gui carefully, we will find that the whole book is teaching respect, starting with the respect of our parents and siblings to the respect of people, things, and objects.  Therefore, to implement the teachings of Di Zi Gui is actually to constantly maintain our reverent attitude.

那我們現在在什麼地方可以不斷地提升自己的真誠恭敬心?都要落實到生活的每一個細節,譬如說我們讀聖賢書的時候,展開聖賢經卷就如對聖賢人,非常的恭敬。我們聽經聞法的時候,也要把心沉靜下來,把自己的誠敬心提起來,不能胡思亂想。不然我們的心很粗,大部分的時候都是應付了事。你看這個事情沒有真誠恭敬地去做,為的是完成任務而已,這個心就不在道上了,就是傲慢煩惱當道,就很難提升。所以《弟子規》整篇其實就講了一個「敬」字,告訴我們從敬父母、敬兄弟、敬人到敬事敬物。所以落實《弟子規》也就是在時時提起自己的恭敬心。

 

The Emperor Kangxi of the Chin Dynasty said:” Emperor Kangxi (1654-1722) of the last dynasty (1644-1912) have my full admiration.   He was of the Manchu race, originally called the Jurchens, from the Aisin Gioro clan.  But once the House of Aisin Giorro ruled China, their respect and penetrative study of the traditional culture surpassed the Han people.  Especially Kangxi’s grandmother, the dowager empress Xiaozhuang Wen, recognized the value of the culture of the Han Chinese.  She was very careful in his education and appointed the Grand Preceptor to teach him.  This tradition was maintained by the Manchu rulers in the education of the princes.  Hence the accomplishments of the earlier rulers of the Chin dynasty, such as the compilations of the Siku Quanshu, the Essentials of Siku Quanshu, Emperor Chen-long’s library of Tripitaka,  was not an coincidence.  All these treasure trove of books were compiled and edited during their reign, which contributed greatly to the preservation of traditional Chinese culture.  The most admirable quality of Kangxi is the example he set by himself.  He was eager to learn, listened attentively to instructions, and implemented them without any discount.  He led his military and nonmilitary subjects to study the classics and Buddhist canons, with him sitting in the front.  Thus, from the top to the bottom, the whole royal court learned together and all come erudite scholars.  It is no accident that the Chin Dynasty could flourish for more than a century.  In summary, it is the rulers’ respect for scriptures and the implementation of the scriptures’ instructions that consequently invoked their respect for the people under their rule, their aspiration for them to live and work in peace and prosperity, and thus made their accomplishments possible.

前清康熙曰」,康熙皇帝說到,康熙皇帝確實讓我們非常的佩服,你看他們本來是女真人,是滿族人,但是入主中國之後,對傳統文化的重視學習和深入遠遠超過漢人。特別是康熙的祖母孝莊皇太后,她教育康熙的時候就非常的認真,而且對漢族的文化也非常的認同。這樣的話才非常的重視國師,重視對皇子的培養,所以他們能夠有這樣的成就也不是偶然的。像在清朝的時候,《四庫全書》 《四庫薈要》 《乾隆大藏經》等等,都是在那個時候編撰出來,對中華傳統文化的保存也做出了重要的貢獻。最令人佩服的就是康熙皇帝他以身作則,自己好學、真學、真幹,帶動文武百官都深入經藏,自己坐在前面聽講,結果怎麼樣呢?上行而下效。所以清朝能夠出現一百多年的盛世,也絕非偶然,正是他們對經典有恭敬心,能夠依教奉行,對百姓有誠敬心,希望百姓安居樂業,所以才取得了這樣的成就。

 

Let’s see what Emperor Kangxi said?  “Interactions with the citizenry should be based on respect.”  Always treat citizenry with a mentality of respect and to protect them.  Actually, these were the instructions of Confucius.  In the Analects, Ji Kang[15] asked Confucius how to make the people revere their ruler and be loyal to him?  Confucius answered, "Let him preside over them with solemnity; then they will revere him."  In other words, if the ruler respects the people, likewise, the people will respect the ruler.  As said by Mencius:  “Those who respect others will always be respected by others.”  Examining the history of the three dynasties of Xia, Shang, and Chou, Dayu was the saint who founded the Xia Dynaty; but he was very frugal and lived a simple life.  However, when he appeared in court, he would dress in elaborate clothing with great decorum to show his respect for his military and non-military subjects and his people.  King Yu had done so, Confucius had taught so, and when such attitude was passed down to Kangxi of Chin Dynasty, he also accepted the instruction of the saints and sages.  Hence, to cultivate his sincerity, he always maintained the attitude of reverence no matter the status of the people he was in contact with.

康熙皇帝說什麼呢?「臨民以主敬為本」,時時要對老百姓有恭敬心、愛護之心。這其實都是領受了孔老夫子的教誨。在《論語》裡面就記載季康子向孔老夫子請教,怎麼樣能夠做到讓老百姓恭敬他、對他忠誠?換句話說,當領導的人都希望受人尊敬、一呼百應,那怎麼樣能夠做到這一點呢,而且老百姓之間也都能夠相互勸勉為善?孔老夫子就回答說:「臨之以莊則敬」,也就是說你要對老百姓尊重,你尊重老百姓,老百姓也會尊重你。這就是《孟子》上所說的「敬人者人恆敬之」。那我們看歷史,在夏商周的時候,大禹是聖人,他平時在家的時候穿著非常的簡樸、非常的節儉。但是上朝的朝服卻非常的隆重,穿的衣服非常的謹慎,非常的慎重,那是因為他有對文武百官的恭敬,面對人民也是這種恭敬的態度。禹王這麼做,孔子這麼教誨,傳到清朝康熙皇帝的時候,他也是能夠領受聖賢人的教誨,對人恭敬也是在保護自己的恭敬心。

 

The Chinese philosophy that has been transmitted for thousands of years cannot surpass sincerity and reverence.”  Emperor Kangxi fully realized this cultivation of the mind that has been propagated for thousands of years, which cannot go beyond these two words—sincerity and reverence.

誠與敬,千古相傳之學,不越乎此。」康熙皇帝就領會到,千古相傳的心法就是在這兩個字,那就是「誠」與「敬」,不會再超出這兩個字之外。

 

Chengzi (10331107), the erudite Confucian scholar of the Song Dynasty, had said: “Reverence overcomes one hundred evils.”   ‘Evil’ here means afflictions or wicked thoughts.  ‘One hundred’ is not the countable number but an adjective to describe many, meaning that a sincere heart can prevail over all kinds of devious thoughts.  “explains

程子曰:「敬勝百邪」。宋朝的大儒程子說道,恭敬勝過眾多的邪思邪念。這個「百」不是一個實數,是一個形容,就是眾多的意思。一個恭敬心就能夠震懾住所有的邪念。

 

It illustrates that with only these two words—sincerity and reverence—all can be accomplished perfectly; from self-cultivation that elevates our morals to benefitting the world that augments the welfare of the people. With the nexus of sincerity and reverence, we can cultivate and make our conducts virtuous; educate the people to live happily; and rule the nation with good governance.  In other words, we can perfectly accomplish the career of benefiting the people and the world through our perfect knowledge.

說明修身進德,就是說修養德行,以至於利世濟民、治國為政,然後教化百姓,「唯誠敬二字」,重點都在「誠敬」這兩個字上。有了這顆誠敬心,方能圓成,才能夠把學問和利世濟民的事業都做得圓滿。

 

Without sincerity and reverence of the teachings of the saints and sages, even if one read all the books in the world, one cannot truly benefit from them. Here, the Master cautioned us that if we are disrespectful and insincere with respect to the teachings of the saints and sages, even if one read all the classics, one cannot obtain true benefits.  Why is this?  It is because the teachings of the saints and sages are from their True-Nature, which will only respond to True-Nature.  If we are disrespectful and insincere, we cannot perceive their intentions, or enter into their state of mind.  Therefore, the traditional culture is the cultivation of the mind, not the accumulation of secular knowledge.  Once it unveils a persons filial piety and compassion, one can then enter into the mentality of the saints and sages and be edified.

若對古聖先王之教誨毫無誠敬,縱遍覽群籍,亦難獲實益。」這裡師父上人就講到,假如對古聖先王的這些教誨提不起誠敬之心,縱然遍覽所有的古籍,也很難獲得真實的利益。為什麼?因為古聖先賢的教誨,都是從他們的真心流露出來的。真心必須要有真心才能夠相應,如果自己的心不恭敬、不真誠,也很難體會到古聖先賢的存心,能夠契入他們的境界。所以傳統文化是心法,它不是知識的累積。它確實要開啟一個人的孝敬心、還有仁慈心,才能夠契入,才能夠領會。

 

This is what Confucius meant when he said: “I am a transmitter and not a creator; I love and have faith in the ancients.”  We must learn from this attitude of Confucius’.  “[A] transmitter and not a creator” means that Confucius revered the teachings of the saints and sages of the past and did not mix in any of his own viewpoints.  This is the learning attitude that is without pride but with modesty.  “Humble people are always willing to learn from other’s strength and follow their examples.  Thus, the kind deeds of  the humble are boundless[16].”  Today’s people lack the virtue of humility and aspire to be creative and innovative.  Nonetheless, if we learn the classics and understand history, we will find that the so-called innovations have already been mentioned in history.  Often, such innovations are proven to be wrong by history but, because of our lack of knowledge of historical lessons, we treat them as truism and follow them.  This is truly regrettable.

 

孔子曰:「述而不作,信而好古」是也。孔老夫子這個求學的態度值得我們學習。「述而不作」就是對古聖先賢的教誨非常的尊崇,而不夾雜自己的意思在其中,這是不傲慢,這是學謙卑。「謙則受教有地而取善無窮」,我們現在人就缺少這種謙敬之心,做什麼都希望有發明創造,有創新點。實際上我們所說的創新,如果我們學古書懂歷史的話,就發現這些所謂的創新,在歷史上已經被人提到過了,而且甚至是已經被歷史驗證是錯誤的東西了,但是我們現在人沒有學習,還拿著它當真理來奉行。這個確實是非常遺憾的事。

 

“Love and have faith in the ancients” means that Confucius do not doubt the teachings of the saints and sages.  Why?  As we mentioned before, the teachings of the saints and sages are the outflow from our true-nature.  If we can enter this state, unveil our innate illuminating virtues, we will definitely understand their mentalities.  But since we are not at their level, what we see from our angle will raise our doubts of what they see.  It is like what we see on the second floor will be different from what others see on the tenth floor.  Our doubts and judgments will only harm ourselves but not the ancients.   If we have such bad habits of avarice, anger, ignorance, arrogance, and doubt, we are not in accord with sincerity and reverence.  This is why people of today have difficulty in learning.  This difficulty arises from our disbelief in the teachers, in the past saints and sages.  As a result, we cannot receive any benefits.

「信而好古」就是不懷疑聖賢人的教誨,為什麼不懷疑?前面我們講了,因為古聖先賢的教誨是從真心流露出來的,如果我們也契入這個境界,開啟了自性的明德,我們定然能夠體會到和他同樣的境界。那我們還沒有達到那個境界,就像聖賢人站在二十層,我們站在兩層樓,我們就說,你所看到的就是我所看到的境界,這個就會對古人產生懷疑甚至妄自批判。這樣做的結果,受害的不是古人,而是我們現代人。我們現在如果有貪瞋癡慢疑這些習氣,那就和誠敬心不相應,誠敬心就不見了。所以現在人求學為什麼困難?困難就是對古聖先賢、對自己的師長懷疑,這就很難受益。

 

In his speech on the Three Principles of the People, Dr. Sun Yat-Sen (1866-1925) said: “The European advancements in science and the material civilization happened mostly in the last 200 years. When it comes to the essence of political philosophy, Europeans still need to look to China for answers. You all know that the best scholars come from Germany. But today, German scholars are studying Chinese philosophies as well as Buddhism from India to correct the bias in their scientific studies.”  This speech was recorded in the 4th lecture of the Principles of Nationalism.   -As we can see, Dr. Sun Yet-Sen was a man of foresight.  He had studied in Europe and had a deep understanding of Chinese and Western political ideologies.  He is of the opinion that the Europeans are only more advanced than the Chinese in the area of technology and machineries.  But when it comes to political ideologies, the Europeans still need to learn from the Chinese.  Dr. Sun Yet-Sen had this foresight about a hundred years ago.  He had seen the deviations in Western ideologies, which need to be corrected through Chinese philosophies and Indian Buddhism. 

過去孫中山先生於三民主義講演中,孫中山先生在《民族主義》第四講中曾經說到:「歐洲的科學發達、物質文明的進步,不過是近二百多年的事。講到政治哲學的真諦,歐洲人還要求之於中國」。我們看到孫中山先生他很有先見之明,他也曾經留學歐洲,對中外的政治思想都有很深的了解,他的體悟很深刻,認為歐洲比中國先進的地方只有它的科技、它的機器。要說到政治哲學的真諦,歐洲人還要向中國人來學習。「諸君都知道世界上學問最好的是德國,但現在德國研究學問的人,還要研究中國的哲學,甚至於研究印度的佛理,去補救他們科學之偏。」你看,在一百多年之前,孫中山先生就已經有這樣的見地,就已經看到西方的這些思惟的偏頗,認為必須要靠中國的哲學和印度的佛理來調整它的偏失。

 

“Professor Arnold Toynbee, a British historian, asserted that in order to resolve the social problems of the twenty-first century, we must rely on the teachings of Confucius and Mencius, and on Mahayana Buddhism[A10] .”  Toynbee was more definite than Dr. Sun.  His affirmation is that we can only rely on the philosophies of Confucius and Mencius and Mahayana Buddhism.  All of them are persevered in China.  Thus, we can conclude that whether the excellent traditional Chinese culture can be propagated will influence global peace and the future of the world.

英人湯恩比博士更云」,湯恩比博士也說,「欲解決二十一世紀的社會問題,唯有孔孟學說與大乘佛法」。湯恩比先生說得很肯定,唯有就是唯一能夠依靠,依靠什麼?依靠孔孟儒學與大乘佛法。而孔孟儒學和大乘佛法都在中國,所以中國優秀傳統文化能否弘揚關係到整個世界的和平、整個世界的未來。

 

In contemplation of the chaotic situations in the world today, only the education of traditional culture can save China and the world.”  From this sentence, we can feel the compassion that motivates the Master.  The only thing on his mind is the people in the world and how to benefit his country and his race, which is in sharp contrast to ours.  Our first thought is always about how we can get benefits, how this thing will bring me fame or riches.  But the Master is totally different.  All his thoughts are about how to benefit the country, the people, and deliver all sentient beings from suffereings.

靜觀今日世界亂象紛呈,欲救世界、救中國,唯有中國傳統文化教育能辦到。」那我們看到師父上人寫的這個序文,就能夠體會到師父的存心、師父的悲心。他的心念念都是蒼生,怎麼樣有利於自己的國家和民族,這和我們自己就形成鮮明的對比。現在人起心動念第一個念頭就是這件事對我有什麼好處,是能夠給我名還是能夠給我利。但是師父上人卻完全不同,每起心動念都是想到利益國家民族,拯濟蒼生。

 

The wisdom, ideologies, methodologies, experiences, and effects of governance transmitted to us today from our patriarchs are the crystalline of precious experiences that have passed the test of the time in the millenniums.”  We Chinese have five thousand years of wisdom, five thousand years of methodologies, five thousand years of experiences, and five thousand years of administrative effects.  If we wish to learn the management style of an enterprise, would we choose one that has a couple centuries’ experiences or one with five- thousand years of experiences?  The answer definitely will be to learn from the company that has lasted for five-thousand years.  There were four ancient civilizations in the world and three of them had disappeared.  Only the Chinese civilization has lasted for five-thousand years and still exists today and let China stands in the East without decline.  The reason it can last relied on the transmission of the traditional culture for five-thousand years.  When the transmission comes to our generation, we can not shirk our duty and let the transmission of this splendid civilization end in our hands.  Thus, we must aspire to “continue the transmission of knowledge of the ancient saints; to establish world peace for thousands of generations to come.”  We must transmit the ideology and methodology of good governance of the ancient saints and sages.

老祖宗留傳至今的治國智慧、理念、方法、經驗與成效,均是歷經千萬年考驗所累積的寶藏結晶。」我們中國有五千年的智慧、五千年的方法、五千年的效果、五千年的經驗,就像我們一個企業要去學企業管理,在一個有兩百年歷史的企業,還有一個有五千年歷史的企業之間,請問我們應該選擇向誰去學管理呢?我們肯定是選擇去向一個五千年的老字號去學管理。在世界的歷史上,四大文明古國,其他三個文明都衰亡了,唯有中華文明承傳至今,綿延了五千年而不衰,至今讓中華民族仍然屹立在世界的東方。這靠的是什麼?靠的就是五千年的文化傳承,所以我們這一代不能夠沒有責任心,不能夠讓這麼燦爛輝煌的文化在我們這一代斷掉。所以我們應該確實樹立起「為往聖繼絕學,為萬世開太平」的志向,把古聖先賢的良好的治國理念、方法承傳下去。

 

If the Chinese civilization is a name brand, then the oldest name brand that lasted for five thousand years in the world belongs to the Chinese race, no other branches.  We as Chinese must promote such wondrous wisdom and let it shine all over the world.  We should not blindly venerate Western technology and worship foreign philosophies, believing the Moon in the West is brighter than in China.  For example, many people would fly to America or Japan to learn business management.  Some businesspeople flew over thousands of miles to America to learn the management style of General Motors.  People from General Motors very humbly said that they copied the management style of Toyota and suggested that they should fly to Japan to learn directly.  These businesspeople then flew from America, over thousands of miles, to Japan.    When they arrived at the front of door of Toyota, before they entered, they saw some large Chinese words prominently posted in the front door.  They recognized those words.  Those words are “don’t do to others as you would not wish done to yourself,”  the teaching of Confucius in the Analects.

在世界上,能夠承傳五千年的老字號也只有中華民族了,別無分號。所以我們更應該把這樣好的智慧發揚光大,不能夠盲目地崇洋媚外,認為西方的月亮比中國圓。像我們現在學到企業管理,很多人都會到美國、日本去學管理,結果有一批企業家坐了飛機萬里迢迢地飛到了美國,要向通用公司學管理。結果美國通用公司的人很謙虛,他說:「我們這一套管理都是從日本豐田公司那裡學來的,你們不如直接到日本去學,學得更加徹底」。結果這群企業家就坐了飛機萬里迢迢又從美國飛到了日本。但是他們下了飛機,來到了豐田公司的大門口,還沒有入門,就看到在門口赫然寫著幾個大字,他們還都認得,寫的是什麼?寫的是「己所不欲,勿施於人」,寫的是孔老夫子的教誨。

 

After the World War, any successful businessperson in Japan is familiar with the Analects.  For example, the widely known “father of Japanese capitalism,” “King of financing institutions,” and the leading figure in the development of Japan’s modern economy, Shibusawa Eiichi (1840-1931) was the innovator of the Confucian style of  business management, “harmonizing morality and the economy,”[17] and holding the Analects in one hand and the abacus in the other”.   The “god of management,” Konosuke Matsuchita, applying the concept of “benevolent rulers invoke the loyalty of their subjects,” innovated the “paternal management” tradition[18] in Japan, and thus earned his accolade.  Why can Kazuo Inamori, the saint of management, was able to turnaround the bankrupting Japan Airline in a short time, a little more than 70 days, and make it the most profitable in all the Japanese airlines after one year?  When the reporter from CCTV interviewed him as to the cause of his miracle, he answered:  “I just applied the moral education I learned form Chinese classics when I was a child to business management.”  He reiterated: “it is simply because my reading of the classics of the saints and sages, such as Confucius and Mencius, when I was a child, that made me who I am today.”

所以在日本戰後,凡是稍有成就的企業家,可以說無不是熟讀《論語》。譬如說被譽為日本近代經濟的最高指導者、日本的企業之父、日本的金融之王的澀澤榮一,他就是一手執《論語》,一手執算盤,開創了日本儒家式的企業經營之風。被譽為日本的經營之神的松下幸之助,也是把君仁臣忠的理念運用到管理之中,所以被譽為經營之神。被譽為經營之聖的稻盛和夫,之所以在短短的七十多天拯救了瀕臨破產的日航,並且在一年之後就使日本航空公司成為所有航空公司中效益最好的一個,什麼原因?當中央電視台的記者去採訪他的時候,他說:「我不過是把中國傳統倫理道德教育的理念運用到管理之中而已」。他說:「正是因為我小的時候讀了孔子、孟子這些聖賢人的著作,所以才成就了今天的我」。

 

All these cases told us a truth that is we do not need to study abroad. The best management philosophies are in China.  The western style of management is just what Confucius said:  Rule people with laws, seek social order with sentences, people will evade punishment and have no shame.    When we set up numerous rules and regulations to guide people and when they violated them, we sentence them with punishments; as a result, people will be fearful of punishment and refrain from doing wrong, but they do have a sense of shame.  Furthermore, after they have committed crimes, they will do everything to escape from punishment and be proud of their cunning when they evaded punishment.  At most, their criminal mentality would be that they lack the ability or the courage to commit a wrong against others.  The philosophy of ancient Chinese saints and sages is to harmonize propriety with law so the people do not have the heart to commit a wrong against another.  This is what Confucius meant when he said guide people with virtue, seek order with propriety, people will be disciplined and have a sense of shame. We should educate people with ethics, led them by rules of propriety and righteousness, thus people will have a sense of shame and will not be willing to do evil.  Moreover, people will want to take refuge under the leadership of such rulers.

這些案例都告訴我們,實際上我們不必到別的國家去學習,最高明的管理在中國。西方人他們的管理方式,就是孔老夫子所說的「道之以政,齊之以刑,民免而無恥」。我們設置了各種各樣的政令條款,用這個來引導人們,他觸犯了這個政令條款,就給他以刑罰的處罰,結果怎麼樣?結果人民因為懼怕處罰免於去做壞事,但是他沒有羞恥心,甚至他做了壞事之後想方設法地逃避懲罰,還以此沾沾自喜,認為這是自己聰明的結果。他達到的充其量是不敢欺、不能欺的境界。而中國古聖先賢禮法合治,他達到的是不忍欺的境界。那就是孔老夫子所說的「道之以德,齊之以禮,有恥且格」。我們用道德來教育人們,用禮義來引導人們,人們有了羞恥心,從心底不願意去做壞事,而且還有人心的歸附,他心甘情願地接受你的領導。

 

We have seen many people criticize the traditional Chinese culture due to their lack of understanding.  Their criticisms are superficial.  For example, many commented that the Chinese lack human rights.  Indeed, when we open the five-thousand years of Chinese history, we rarely find the concept of human rights.  Why is it that the Chinese ancestors never proposed the concept of human rights?  Is it because we were less progressed than Westerners?  Just the opposite, it is because we have more advanced ideas that guaranteed the rights of the citizenry, therefore, there is no need for the people to use human rights as a bargaining tool to negotiate with rulers.  We can use the example of Konosuke Matsuchita to perceive how the ancients govern the state as Matsuchita’s management style is the Confucian style of management, the philosophy of “benevolent rulers invoke the loyalty of their subjects.”

所以我們看到很多人批評中國傳統文化,是因為他沒有深入了解傳統文化,都是從表面上進行批判。譬如很多人說中國人不講人權,確實,打開中國的歷史幾千年,我們很少看到人權的觀念。那為什麼中國人沒有提出人權的這個概念?是我們比西方人落後嗎?其實恰恰相反,是因為我們有更先進的東西,已經把人民的權利充分地加以保證,讓人們根本就不需要提出人權這個概念,拿著人權來和領導者討價還價。那我們可以從松下幸之助的這個例子,感受一下古人是怎麼樣治國的,因為他學的是儒家式的管理,是君仁臣忠的管理。

 

One of the Matsuchita’s factory managers did not come to work and the factory caught fire and caused great loss to the company.  Most owners would be angry and immediately punish the manager for his irresponsibility.  But Matsuchita was very calm and wanted to know the reason why the factory manager did not show up for work.  After investigation, he found that the factory manager was a son of filial piety.  His mother was seriously ill and was in the hospital.  Unfortunately, the factory caught fire during his stay in the hospital to take care of his mother.  

松下幸之助有一位廠長沒有來上班,結果恰恰在這個時候企業著火了,燒了大片的廠房,給企業造成了嚴重的損失。這件事發生之後,一般人可能會火冒三丈,馬上就去追究責任,去想方設法地懲罰他。但是松下幸之助很冷靜,他馬上去調查原因,這個人為什麼沒來上班?結果他一調查才發現,這個廠長他的母親得了重病住進了醫院,他是一個孝子,於是他就去照顧自己的母親,沒有來上班。誰知道恰恰不巧,在這個時候企業著火了,燒了大片的廠房。

 

After knowing this, Matsuchita immediately bought presents and personally went to the hospital to visit the manager’s mother and comforted him saying:  “Your mother is gravely ill and is already in the hospital.  I did not know this fact because of my remiss.  So, I am also responsible for the loss due to the factory’s fire.  You do not need to worry about anything, just take good care of your mother.  We will talk about things after your mother is out of the hospital.”

知道這個原因之後,松下幸之助是怎麼做的?他馬上就去買了禮物,然後親自帶著這個禮物來到了醫院,探望廠長的母親,並且安慰他說:「你的母親已經得了重病,而且都已經住進了醫院,但是這一件事我卻沒有關心到,那麼這件事我也有責任。你現在就全心全力的把你的母親照顧好,這件事你不必擔心,等你母親出院之後再說」。

 

After his mother recovered, the factory manager went back to work.  Matsuchita did not demote or punish him, as would be done in today’s businesses.  He just transferred him to another post and still trust him with important jobs.  Matsuchita understood that the factory manager was a responsible, loyal, and dedicated worker.  His one mishap in not showing at work was because of his mother’s acute illness.  How could he not show gratitude to his mother who gave him life and nurtured him.  Therefore, when his mother is seriously ill, how could he not visit her and take care of her.  His mishap was not intentionally, therefore, Matsuchita just transferred him and still trust him.

結果他的母親康復出院了,這個廠長又回到了企業,松下幸之助是怎麼處理的?他並沒有像我們現在一般所說的要依法懲辦、從嚴治企,他只是給他調離了一個工作,仍然是委以重任,為什麼?因為他知道這個廠長平時都是認真負責、竭忠盡智,這一次沒有來上班是有不得已的苦衷,不是故意為之,還是因為對他恩德最重的母親得了重病,那他去探望母親、照顧母親是理所應當的事,所以怎麼樣?他給他調離了一個工作,但是仍然委以重任。

Dear friends, takes reverse our thinking and imagine ourselves as this factory manager.  When our company leader treats us with a caring heart and with understanding and trust, how should we repay his trust?  I believe that any normal person will dedicate wholeheartedly to accomplish any job given to us, to let him rest easy, and do not abuse his trust.  This is called the benevolent rulers invoke the loyalty of their subjects.

諸位朋友,我們換位思考一下,假設我是這一位廠長,我們的領導者以這樣一個關愛的心、寬恕的心、信任的心來對待我們,我應該以什麼樣的態度來回饋領導的信任呢?我想任何一個正常的人,都會竭盡全力地完成領導交給自己的工作,讓領導放心,不要辜負了領導的信任,這就叫「君仁臣忠」。

 

Where did Matsuchita learn this?  Obviously, he learned from Confucian scholars.  Mencius said: “when the rulers regard their subjects as their hands and feet, the subjects will regard the ruler as their heart and belly.”  When the leaders treat their subordinates as their siblings and care for them as their own hands and feet, the subordinates will reciprocate and treat the leader as their heart and belly.  In contrast, when “the rulers regard the subjects as their riding horses and hunting dogs, the subjects will regard the ruler as common people (or just an acquaintance).”  When the leader treats his or her subordinates as cows and horses, this is a scenario like most of today’s employers.   They are like slave drivers and order their employees about as cows and horses, as paid coolies.  As a result, employee will disregard them after work and treat them as strangers.  When employees see them in the supermarket, they will pretend as not seeing them and walk away.  The worst case is when “the rulers regard subjects as dirt or weeds, the subjects will regard them as robbers or enemies.”  When the leaders treat employees as worthless dirt or lowly weeds to the point of disregarding the safety of their lives, employees will think of them as leeches or worse than that, as hated enemies.

松下幸之助從哪裡學來的?顯然是從儒家學來的。《孟子》上說:「君之視臣如手足,則臣視君如腹心」。說領導者把被領導者當成是手足一樣加以關愛,那你就發現,被領導者會加倍地回饋,把領導者視為自己的心腹一樣更加關愛。相反,「君之視臣如犬馬,則臣視君如國人」。領導者把被領導者當牛做馬的來使喚,就像現在很多老闆,認為我已經出錢僱用你來了,你給我出力就好了,把他當牛做馬的呼來喚去,結果怎麼樣?下了班之後,在超市裡遇見了員工,員工都是一低頭裝沒看見就過去了,沒有太多的親密,就像看到了一般的國人、一般的陌生人一樣。更有甚者,「君之視臣如土芥,則臣視君如寇仇」。這個領導者把被領導者視為是泥土和小草那樣的低賤不值錢,甚至對他的生命都可以隨意的踐踏,那麼這個被領導者說起領導的時候都是這樣的,說我們那個領導者簡直就是個吸血鬼,甚至連吸血鬼都不如,說起來像仇敵一樣加以痛恨。

 

As we can see, Matsuchita had learned the essence of the Confucian style of management and as a result, he can be the benevolent ruler who invoked the loyalty of his subjects.  He was kind and caring toward his employees and an effective leader, teacher, and paternal ruler.  His employees paid him back with total dedication and loyalty.  From this we can discern that the traditional Chinese way of governance is indeed better than the West.  It can reach the effect whereas people dare not and cannot do evil, but also find it intolerable to do evil.

所以你看,松下幸之助他學到了儒家管理的精髓,所以他能做到君仁臣忠。他對下屬仁慈關愛,起到了君親師的作用,下屬回饋他也是竭忠盡智。所以我們從這裡就感受到了中國傳統的治國理念,它確實是高出西方一籌。它不僅僅達到不敢欺、不能欺,它還要達到不忍欺。

 

One of Confucius’ students, Zigen (521 B.C.-445 B.C.), was the mayor of Sanfu  and administered it well after a while.  Wu Machi, his fellow student, another student of Confucius, wishing to know how truly well Sanfu was under the governance of Zigen, went to Sanfu at night.  He saw a person fishing at night.  But strangely, after the fisherman caught the fish, he would look at them and put them back into the river. After seeing this for a while, Wu Machi asked the fisherman why he would put the fish back into the river after catching them.  The fisherman told Wu Machi:  “Our mayor told us not to catch baby fish.  The fish I just caught are still growing baby fish, so I put them back into the river.” The Chinese had the concept of sustainable environmentalism since ancient times.  Fishermen were not allowed to catch fish that had not grown to a certain length to preserve the biosphere.   Upon hearing this, Wu Machi was awed and reported back to Confucius: “Zigen’s administration of Sanfu has reached the effect whereas fisherman will do as he said without any supervision, as if the strict law and severe punishment is right next to the fisherman.  I don’t know how can he reach such effect?”  Confucius told him:  “Zigen had once said that a person who is always sincere and respectful in the interaction of the people and things around him, the influence of this attitude will have far-distance repercussions.  I think he applied this philosophy into his administration.”

像孔老夫子弟子子賤去治理單父,過了一段時間,單父被治理得很好。他的同學巫馬期也是孔老夫子的另一個弟子,他就想知道子賤治理單父到底有多好,於是他就趁著夜色來到了單父。結果看到一個人在夜色下捕魚,但奇怪的是,這個人捕上了很多魚,看了一看又把牠放回到河裡去了。巫馬期看了之後就走上前去問,他說:我看您捕魚,但是為什麼捕上了一些魚又把牠給放回到河裡了?這個人怎麼回答的?他說:「我們的長官子賤告訴我們,不要去捕殺那些還在生長中的小魚」。你看中國自古以來就有生態保護的觀念,那個魚沒有長到一定的尺寸都不允許捕,這是可持續發展。「而我剛才所捕到的,恰恰是那些還在生長中的小魚,所以我又把牠給放回到河裡了」。巫馬期一聽非常的感嘆,回來就向孔老夫子稟告,說:「子賤治理單父,能夠做到即使是沒有人監管,在夜色下捕魚,也像嚴刑峻法就在身邊一樣,不知道他是怎麼樣達到這個效果的?」孔老夫子說:「子賤曾經說過,『一個人對身邊的人和事有至誠恭敬的心,這個影響自然就會波及到遠方』。我想他是把這種觀念運用到管理之中了。」

 

Zigen had reached the state of “can’t bear to cheat” because he loved his people as his children and people’s sufferings are his sufferings.  The citizenry could feel his good intentions; therefore, his mandates will be voluntarily adhered to by them.  Employees would find it unbearable to cheat their supervisors and this is the Chinese style of management.  Consequently, the Chinese will not talk about human rights because it was not necessary when humans have already been protected very well.

所以子賤他達到了「不忍欺」的境界,因為他愛民如子、視民如傷,把仁愛忠恕的理念運用到管理之中,老百姓能感受到他的存心,他所發出的每一個政令,百姓都願意去配合。所以怎麼樣?所以老百姓不忍心欺騙他們的長官,這就是中國式的管理。所以中國人不講人權,不是說他沒有保護到人權,而是因為他沒有必要講人權,人權已經被保護得很好了。

 

In other words, so long as we apply the wisdom of the traditional ruling principles to personal cultivation, family order, national governance, and the maintenance of world peace, we will reap a harvest--the harvest of having saints and sages generation after generation, of having prosperity epoch after epoch.  The key is whether we know how to use them.

這個就是告訴我們,只要我們把傳統的治國智慧運用到修身齊家治國平天下中去,就會取得豐碩的結果,它的結果就是代代出聖賢,時時有盛世,關鍵就在於我們是否去應用了。

 

If we wish to let today’s people have confidence in traditional culture, the most important thing is to begin with ourselves.  For example, if we can manage our family well, make our businesses prosper, and eventually govern our country well, then countries from all over the world will be willing to learn and copy us.  The ancient Chinese rulers could achieve such glory, such as Taizong of Tang was given the accolade and honorary title of the “Great Khan under Heaven,” thousands of countries during that period were under the suzerainty of Tang Dynasty.  It was recorded that at that time,  foreign ambassadors wishing to speak with of Taizong have to go through nine different kinds of translations.   This type of phenomena was due to the good governance of the state.  With a flourishing country and her citizens live and work in peace and prosperity, other countries will come to visit, to study, and to emulate.

我們今天要想讓世人對傳統文化生起信心,最重要的是什麼?最重要的是我們從自己做起。譬如說我們自己的家庭經營得很好、我們的企業經營得很好,最終我們能夠把自己的國家治理得很好,那就會讓其他的國家都願意來學習和效仿。中國古人之所以能夠取得那樣的成就,像唐太宗治理的時候被稱為「天可汗」,萬國來朝。有的時候外國的使者想和唐太宗對上話,都要經過九重翻譯,就是說要經過九個人的翻譯,他才能夠和唐太宗對上話。這種盛世的局面都是因為我們自己把自己的國家治理得很好,人們安居樂業、國泰民安,所以才吸引外國人來學習、來效仿。

 

Qunshu Zhiyao is most sacred and precious!  If one have a profound understanding and actualize its principles, personal happiness and world peace can be achieved naturally.”  Here, the Master is very definite in his praise because Qunshu Zhiyao is delineating the proper Way,  or the universal law.  Since it is the Way, it was proper in the past and will be proper as of today.  In addition, China has implemented its principles through the contiguous dynasties and families for thousands of years and documented its successful experiences.  Especially, after Qunshu Zhiyao was transported to Japan, it has contributed to the prosperity of Japanese society.

後面講到,「《群書治要》至珍至貴!果能深解落實,天下太平,個人幸福,自然可得」。這裡邊師父講得很肯定。因為《群書治要》講的是道,既然是道,在古代適用,在今天也依然適用。而且中國幾千年來的很多朝代和家庭都已經驗證了,這些道理普遍適用,特別是《群書治要》傳到日本之後,還為日本的盛世做出了貢獻。

 

To act in contradiction to the principles in the book will invoke disasters for oneself.”  This is the same as the Chinese proverb that “those who obey the mandate of heaven will prosper; those who defy it will parish.”  Mencius also said:: “He who finds the Way will be assisted by many; he who loses the Way has few to aid him.”  A person losing the proper course will do evil deeds and it would be hard not to invoke ruinations.  The Master “deeply understood the reappearance of Qunshu Zhiyao has its sacred mission.”  This sacred book can reappear in today’s world can be attributed to the power of the virtues and merits of our ancestors.  We as their descendants certainly must study it seriously in order to elevate our society to the level of harmony, stability, and peace; to move the social norms in the direction of ethical conducts; thus, the general pubic can renew their confidence in the teachings of the saints and sages. 

背道而行者,則不免自招災殃」。「順天者昌、逆天者亡」,這個天就是天道;「得道者多助、失道者寡助」,失道就造孽,那就很難不感召災禍來了。師父「深知今日《群書治要》之重現,實有其神聖使命」。這部寶典能夠重現世間也是祖宗的威德,當然我們後代子孫也要進一步地認真學習,然後能夠把社會帶上安定和諧的局面,帶動社會良好的風氣,才能夠讓人們對古聖先賢的教誨重新生起信心。

 

“Rulers wishing to transform people and social norms must begin with education.”  To transform social norms and change social customs must go through education.  The reason ethical social norms can be established is in that the ancient rulers knew the importance of “establishing states and governing the people, the first priority is to educate the people.”  Here, “educate” is to educate by self-example, prevailing over the education by words.  According to the explanation in Shuo Wen Jie Zi (the Analytical Dictionary and Etymology of Chinese Ideograms), the word “educate” means the action of the upper, and the emulation of the lower. To educate means to teach ourselves first, to correct our deeds, then we can teach others.  The leader do and the subordinates follow.  Thus, we must study the teachings in Qunshu Zhiyao first, actualized them in our family and group and be a good leader.

君子如欲化民成俗,其必由學乎」,移風易俗必須通過教學。社會良好的風氣之所以能夠產生,最重要的是「建國君民,教學為先」。而這個「教」是身教勝於言教。《說文解字》上解釋這個「教」,是「上所施,下所效也」。所以教首先是教自己,正己化人,上行而下效。所以我們自己要帶頭學習並且落實在家庭和團隊之中,用《群書治要》把自己的家庭和團隊都帶好。

 

With great anticipation, I asked the World Book Co., Ltd., to reprint 10,000 sets of this book.  I plan to present them to China, Taiwan, and countries all over the world so that all political parties, leaders at various positions can study together in order to accomplish the goal of harmonious societies and the governance of comity in the world in the foreseeable future.”  This paragraph expressed our venerated Master’s wish that all the nations, political parties, and leaders at all levels can build up a consensus after studying Qunshu Zhiyao so that the state of social harmony and the governance of the great comity can be achieved.  This is the contribution of the Master’s efforts in the dedication of world peace and national prosperity (so that people can live and work in peace).

後邊寫到「歡喜委託世界書局重新影印出版一萬套,擬贈兩岸三地暨世界各國、各黨、各級領導共同學習,則和諧社會、大同之治的世界指日可待。」這一段就是師父上人希望各國、各黨、各級領導人共同學習《群書治要》,建立共識,這樣就可以達到和諧社會、大同之治的局面,所以師父也是盡己所能為國家民族、為世界來奉獻、來盡力。

 

Happily, the reprinting of Qunshu Zhiyao is almost done, the kind publisher, Ms. Yen, asked me to write the preface.   I would like to use this opportunity to express my praise and rejoice in the merits of her deeds.”  The Master asked the World Book Co., Ltd., to print and publish Qunshu Zhiyao.  Seeing that the owner/publisher, Ms. Chu Yen, has done a fantastic job in the typesetting and printing of the book, the Master rejoices in her merits and gave her compliments.  Our learning of the Preface ends here.  In the next lecture, we will begin with the study of the contents in the first volume of Qunshu Zhiyao 360.  We will end today’s lesson here.  I welcome everyone’s corrections, critiques, and supplements to my insufficiencies.  Thank you all.

欣見《群書治要》重新出版在即,閻初仁者囑余為序,謹以此數語,表隨喜讚歎之意。」 這個是師長委託世界書局來影印出版《群書治要》,而看到世界書局的負責人閻初女士,非常認真地排版印刷這一套書,也是表示隨喜讚歎。這一篇序文我們就學習到這裡。從下一次課開始,我們正式進入經文的學習,我們開始學習《群書治要360》第一冊[A11] 。我們今天的課就先講到這裡,不足之處歡迎大家批評指正,謝謝大家。

 



[1] Historically, Taizong is the second most prestigious title accorded to an emperor, after his death, to honor his great contributions to the dynasty.

[2] Zhen Guan is the epoch name chosen by Taizong when he ascended the throne.  Traditionally, the Chinese count years by using a historical calendar beginning with the reign of a new ruler and ending with his death.

Taizong of Tang ascended the throne in 626 A.D., thus this year is counted as the first year of
Zhenguan.  

 

[3] Gaozu  usually is the prestigious title given to the founding emperor of a dynasty.

[4]行旅自京師至於嶺表,自山東[28]至於滄海[29],皆不齎糧,取給於路。入山東村落,行客經過者,必厚加供待,或發時有贈遺。此皆古昔未有也。28] 山東:古地名。唐代以前,通稱華山以東為山東。 [29] 滄海:文中指東海。 See, http://big5.zhengjian.org貞觀政要・論政體第二

[5]貞觀七年,太宗與秘書監[1]魏徵從容論自古理政得失,因曰:「當今大亂之後,造次[2]不可致化。」 徵曰:「不然,凡人在危困,則憂死亡;憂死亡,則思化;思化,則易教。然則亂后易教,猶飢人易食也。」See, http://big5.zhengjian.org [1] 秘書監:官名。掌管國家經籍圖書的官[2] 造次:倉促、緊迫、短時間。出自《論語・里仁》:「君子無終食之間違仁,造次必於是,顛沛必於是。」 

 

[6] 五帝、三王:黃帝、顓頊、嚳(音酷)、堯、舜為五帝;禹、湯、文王為三王。 

The five legendary emperors were Emperor Huang (and his sons or grandsons), Zhang Xu, Ku, Yao, Shun.  Their rule was called the Epoch of Great Comity.  The three sagacious kings were King Yu of the Xia Dynasty, King Tang of the Shang Dynasty, and King Wen of the Zhou Dynasty; their reign was called the Epoch of Small Prosperity.  The period from the five emperors to the three dynasties of Xia, Shang, Zhou, can be the equivalent of the Golden Age of China.  See http://big5.zhengjian.org

[7] San Zi Jing is like a nursery rhyme and a traditional childrens textbook written in the Southern Song Dynasty, the dynasty after Tang.  The book title,San Zi meaning three words and Jing meaning scripture, expresses that this classic is completely formed in triple-word couplets.

See,  http://sanzijing-eng.blogspot.com/2009/03/blog-post.html

 

[8] Yin Dynasty is officially called Shang Dynasty, as one of the Three Dynasties of the Golden Age of China, Xia, Shang, Zhou.  The founding father’s family name is Yin, therefore, it is also known as Yin Shang. 

[9] See, http://ctext.org/xiao-jing

[10] The Book of Documents or Classic of History, also known as the Shangshu, recorded the discourses between the rulers and his subjects during the Golden Age of China. 

See, zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/尚书_()

[11] Si Ku Guan Shu is the complete library of books comprising the four divisions of traditional Chinese study: scriptures, histories, philosophies, and collections of poetry and literature, which was compiled under the royal command of Emperor Chen-long of Chin Dynasty in 1773.  See, zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/四庫全書

[12] In the article titled “The Rise of China as a Global Power” by Rosita Dellios, The Culture Mandala, Volume 6 No 2, 2004-2005, she cited Toynbee’s marvel at China's record as a force for stability and that it brought to its world 'long-lasting unity and peace',  Change and Habit: The Challenge of Our Time, Oxford University Press, London, 1966, p. 158.  See, http://www.international-relations.com/CM6-2WB/GlobalChinaWB.htm

 

[13] 我出家後,到處參訪,時遍融師門庭大振,予至京師叩之。膝行再請,師曰:你可守本分,不要去貪名逐利,不要去攀緣,只要因果分明,一心念佛。予受教出,同行者大笑,以為這幾句話哪個說不出。千里遠來,只道有甚高妙處,原來不值半文。予曰:這個正見他好處我們渴仰企慕遠來到此,他卻不說玄說妙凌駕我們,只老老實實把自家體認過切近精實的工夫叮嚀開示,故此是他好處。我至今着實遵守,不曾放失。蓮池大師警眾八條

See, http://www.zhibeifw.com/big5/fjgc/ptsx_list.php?id=12346

[14] Translation by James Legge.  See, http://ctext.org/liji/qu-li-i

 

[15] Ji Kang was the major domo of the grand duke of Lu.  The state of Lu  was also  the home land of Confucius.

[16] See, Liaofan’s Four Lessons, pp, 163-64, http://www.buddhanet.net/pdf_file/liaofan.pdf

[17] See, Sagers, John, “Shibusawa Eiichi and the Merger of Confucianism and Capitalism in Modern Japan,” Asia: Biographies and Personal Stories, Part I, Education about Asia, Volume 19, No. 3,  Winter 2014, p. 35,  https://www.asian-studies.org/EAA/EAA-Archives/19/3/1323.pdf

 

[18] See, Fortune, March 31, 1997, Matsushita Leadership, http://www.amazon.com, Encyclopedia of World Biography. Copyright 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. all rights reserved.

http://biography.yourdictionary.com/konosuke-matsushita

 


 [A1]May need a footnote to add the exchange rate to today’s currency.

 [A2]善人為邦百年,亦可以勝殘去殺矣。誠哉是言也

The Master said, "'If good men were to govern a country in succession for a hundred years, they would be able to transform the violently bad, and dispense with capital punishments.' True indeed is this saying!" http://ctext.org/analects/zi-lu

1.德治并不排除法治。 
    
子路篇:子曰:善人为邦百年,亦可以媵残去杀矣。诚哉是言也。意思是贤人相继治理国事,也要到百年之后,才能感化残暴之人,达到废除刑罚的境界。换句话说,那百年之内当然还是须要刑罚的。 http://www.guoxue.com/gxrm/gxrm%20kzzdzsx.htm

 [A3]貞觀初,太宗謂蕭瑀曰:朕少好弓矢,自謂能盡其妙。近得良弓十數,以示弓工。乃曰:皆非良材也。朕問其故,工曰:木心不正,則脈理皆邪,弓雖剛勁而遣箭不直,非良弓也。朕始悟焉。朕以弧矢定四方,用弓多矣,而猶不得其理。況朕有天下之日淺,得為理之意,固未及於弓,弓猶失之,而況於理乎?自是詔京官五品以上,更宿中書內省,每召見,皆賜坐與語,詢訪外事,務知百姓利害、政教得失焉。http://ourartnet.com/Sikuquanshu/Shiku/Bieshizashi/002/002.asp

 [A4]唐初四大名相http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E7%8E%8B%E7%8F%AA_(%E5%94%90%E6%9C%9D)

貞觀二年,太宗問黃門侍郎王珪曰:近代君臣治國,多劣于前古,何也?對曰:古之帝王為政,皆志尚清靜,以百姓之心為心。近代則唯損百姓以適其欲,所任用大臣,複非經術之士。漢家宰相,無不精通一經,朝廷若有疑事,皆引經決定,由是人識禮教,治致太平。近代重武輕儒,或參以法律,儒行既虧,淳風大壞。太宗深然其言。自此百官中有學業優長,兼識政體者,多進其階品,累加遷擢焉。http://ourartnet.com/Sikuquanshu/Shiku/Bieshizashi/002/002.asp

 

( 不分類不分類 )
回應 推薦文章 列印 加入我的文摘
上一篇 回創作列表 下一篇

引用
引用網址:http://classic-blog.udn.com/article/trackback.jsp?uid=charlie999&aid=21705966