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美國聖經博物館摘除偽造的死海古卷
2020/03/24 13:08:10瀏覽126|回應0|推薦0
美國聖經博物館摘除偽造的死海古卷碎片
今日宗教博客
(RNS)- 聖經博物館自一年前隆重開幕以來,展出了來自傳說中的死海古卷的五張碎片,這是70年前在沙漠洞穴中發現的古老羊皮紙碎片。
星期一(10月22日),博物館承認陳列的五個碎片是偽造的。幾週前將它們取下,並用其他三個沒有異樣的碎片代替。
長期以來,博物館一直懷疑這些碎片可能是偽造的,伴隨展覽的標語上說,學者們對該碎片的真實性提出了疑問。但上周博物館通過墨水,沉積層和化學成分的數據和X射線測試獲得了科學驗證,終於證明了碎片是偽造的。
首席策展人傑夫·克洛哈(Jeff Kloha)說:“這是我們一貫承諾的一部分,以確保我們遵守所有法律和博物館標準,為確保我們的顯示準確,有信息時我們就提供。” “如果對文檔有不確定性,我們會將其放在博物館網站上,並在展覽上更新標籤。”
這不是博物館第一次面對一些古物的起源問題。華盛頓特區博物館的許多物品都是從2009年開始由總部位於俄克拉荷馬州億萬富翁的格林家族購買的,而格林家族是Hobby Lobby工藝品連鎖店的所有者。
該博物館得益於綠色政黨的購買狂潮。這個家庭積聚了大約40,000件物品,其中一些被捐贈給了博物館,包括據稱的死海古卷碎片。
但是去年,霍比·霍爾比(Hobby Lobby)同意將從伊拉克奪來的近4,000件考古文物歸還伊拉克。作為與司法部達成和解的一部分,該公司還必須向美國政府支付300萬美元。
死海古卷被認為是20世紀最偉大的考古發現之一。貝多因牧羊人於1947年在死海附近的洞穴中發現了它們,它們比希伯來語聖經的任何其他現有文獻都古老大約1100年。片段中有《十誡》和《創世記》的各個部分。
對於任何認真的收藏家,尤其是福音派格林家族來說,它們都是一件珍貴的物品。但是,以色列古物局擁有其中的大多數,並將其展示在耶路撒冷的聖書社內。現在也可以在線查看許多內容。
耶魯大學希伯來聖經教授喬爾·巴登(Joel Baden)表示:“對於綠党和福音派社區的許多收藏家來說,文本的真實性,在於可以觸及早於耶穌的聖經的一部分。”神學院。““最古老的”有一些深深的吸引力,而這些絕對是我們擁有的最古老的文本。”
克洛哈說,格林家族在2009年至2014年期間購買了16幅捲軸碎片。16件中有12件是在2009年和2010年購買的。他沒有說說Hobby Lobby為這些物品支付了多少錢,然後才將它們捐贈給博物館。
聖經博物館的顧問勞倫斯·希夫曼(Lawrence Schiffman)反對一種普遍的說法,即綠黨錯誤地購買了太多文物,而沒有得到專業人員的指導,而專家可以適當地審查其出處和真實性。
他指出,自2002年以來,由於死海古卷碎片而進入市場的近70種物品似乎令人懷疑。一些碎片賣給了得克薩斯州沃思堡的西南浸信會神學院,其他的則賣給了加利福尼亞阿祖薩的阿祖薩太平洋大學。
紐約大學希伯來語和猶太研究教授席夫曼說:“這不是唯一一個有2002年後殘篇的機構。” “它們是由很多人購買的,並且它們的血統非常好。這些買主全都被老練的人迷住了。”
克洛哈說,這些捲軸碎片經過了三輪調查,以驗證其出處,手寫風格以及羊皮紙和墨水之間的化學關係。第三輪的結果被認為是真實性的最佳決定因素,於上周公布。
在RELIGIONNEWS.COM上閱讀此故事
 
Kayla Koslosky ChristianHeadlines.com Editor | Monday, March 16, 2020
Kayla Koslosky | ChristianHeadlines.com Editor | Monday, March 16, 2020
All 16 Dead Sea Scroll Fragments at Museum of the Bible Are Forgeries, Investigation Finds

ALL 16 DEAD SEA SCROLL FRAGMENTS AT MUSEUM OF THE BIBLE ARE FORGERIES, INVESTIGATION FINDS

 

The Museum of the Bible announced Friday that an extensive independent investigation into the 16 fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls housed in the Washington, D.C.-based museum concluded that the fragments, believed by experts and museum leadership to be authentic, were in fact, forgeries.

According to National Geographic, the modern forgeries initially duped outside collectors, leading biblical scholars and the museum’s CEO, Harry Hargrave. 

After five of the museum’s fragments were found to be forgeries in 2018, however, museum leadership decided to enlist the help of art fraud investigator Colette Loll and her company, Art Fraud Insights. 

Loll assembled a team of five experts in February 2019, and with complete autonomy, they conducted thorough physical and chemical investigations on all 16 fragments. 

Loll told Nat Geo that she insisted on independence during the investigation and the museum was more than willing to oblige. 

“Honestly, I’ve never worked with a museum that was so up-front,” Loll shared.

The museum’s willingness and eagerness to find the truth led to several key discoveries that debunked the fragments authenticity.

According to Nat Geo, the first red flag was raised, when on further inspection, it was found that 15 of the MOTB fragments were made of leather instead of tanned or lightly tanned parchment like the authentic fragments are.

Whoever faked the fragments went as far as to use ancient leather believed to have been recovered from the Judean desert or elsewhere for the forgeries. The team postulates that the fragments could have come from ancient roman shoes, as several of the pieces are adorned with small holes that appear man-made. The team also found that the fabric was coated in an amber-colored mixture likely in an effort to both smooth and stabilize the leather and to mimic the presence of a glue-like substance that formed as the parchment of the legitimate fragments began to break down.Additionally, ink patterns showed that the scripture was written on already ancient material.

Pools of ink in cracks and “waterfalls off of torn edges that wouldn’t have been present when the leather was new” were a dead giveaway.This, team member Abigail Quandt, the head of book and paper conservation at Baltimore’s Walters Art Museum, said, is likely why many scholars initially thought these fragments were written by untrained scribes.

She said, “The material is degraded, it’s so brittle, so inflexible. It’s no wonder that the scholars were thinking these were untrained scribes, because they were really struggling to form these characters and keep their pens under control.”

Additionally, it appears the forger dusted the fragments with clay minerals consistent with sediments from Qumran, the region where the authentic Dead Sea Scrolls were found.

A chemical analysis on the fragments also revealed that calcium had soaked deeply into the leather material suggesting that it had been treated with lime to remove hair. This process is believed to have been used on at least a few of the original Dead Seas Scrolls, but many scholars believe that this process only became popular after the scrolls were made.

The investigative team was able to debunk the fragments’ authenticity, casting a shadow of doubt on all “post-2002” Dead Sea Scroll fragments. The pieces’ origins, however, remain unknown.In an interview with Nat Geo, the Museum of the Bible shared that it would be reevaluating the provenance of all pieces in its collection. As it did in 2018 when the museum discovered that one of its manuscripts was stolen from the University of Athens in 1991, the museum is prepared to return any and all stolen artifacts.

Additionally, the MOTB is considering changing the Dead Sea Scrolls exhibit to show how researchers uncovered the forgeries.Photo courtesy: ©Getty Images/ByczeStudio, this is a stock image.Kayla Koslosky has been the Editor of ChristianHeadlines.com since 2018. She has B.A. degrees in English and History and previously wrote for and was the managing editor of the Yellow Jacket newspaper. She has written on her blog since 2012 and has also contributed to IBelieve.com and Crosswalk.com.

Arou


 
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