網路城邦
上一篇 回創作列表 下一篇   字體:
Excerpt:《詩學箋註——姚一葦譯註》
2022/05/21 07:00:05瀏覽257|回應0|推薦10
Excerpt:《詩學箋註——姚一葦譯註》

亞氏為藝術肯定論的第一個建立者,一反乃師柏拉圖的觀點。蓋自柏拉圖看來:藝術為對於物質世界之物象的不完全的模擬;而物質世界又係對組成此一終極之眞實的定律、形式與「觀念」之不完全之模擬,故藝術為不完全又不完全之模擬,從而對藝術加以否定。亞氏從這一藝術的否定論中走出,建造了他自身的美學體系。這一獨立的美學體系予後世極大的影響。……
——
姚一葦,〈關於亞里士多德及其詩學〉

今年四月在二手書店入手了這本相當經典的譯作,後來又再從圖書館繼續借閱劉效鵬以及陳中梅兩位學者翻譯的其他譯本。

雖然,我對於「詩抄」相當有興趣,曾經在3年多的日子完成1000篇的「深夜詩抄」;對於「詩學」也是讀過幾本,像是:巴舍拉 (Gaston Bachelard) 的《空間詩學》、翁文嫻的《間距詩學》、奚密的《芳香詩學》、羅青的《錄影詩學》、李瑞騰的截句詩學......

然而,究竟有多少詩句我真的理解其詩意?真的了解其脈絡?真的能夠發現其中隱含、延伸的想法?更遑論博大精深的「詩學」了。

正是從未知走向可知,亞里士多德的《詩學》就再次成為自己一次知識學習的試煉吧!


https://zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E8%AF%97%E5%AD%A6
《詩學》(拉丁語:De Poetica; c. 335 BCE),又譯《論詩》,古希臘哲學家亞里斯多德的著作。《詩學》是西方文明第一部系統的美學和藝術理論作品,為西方文論奠定了基礎。
「詩」的英文字是"poetry",是來自古希臘文的"ποιέω" (poiéō),意思是「創造、製作」;所以《詩學》說的「詩」是所有古希臘人的文字藝術。《詩學》主要談及悲劇、喜劇、和史詩。現在衹有第一卷(討論悲劇和史詩)流傳下來;討論喜劇的第二卷不幸地失傳。學者認爲 Tractatus coislinianus是詩學第二卷的概要。 現存的第一卷有26章,主要考究悲劇和史詩, 有六分說、五分說、三分說3個分法。
亞里斯多德考究藝術後,對藝術作出以下的 "基本原則"
藝術的本質是模仿,即反映現實。
藝術的類型決定現實是如何在詩中反映。
《詩學》有很久的時間失傳;在中世紀和文藝復興時代,學者衹有一從伊本·魯世德的阿拉伯本翻譯的拉丁本。雖然亞里斯多德的「詩學」在西方文學研究的重要性是舉世公認的,每一個細節都引起了不同學者的意見。


書名:詩學箋註
作者:亞里士多德
譯者:姚一葦
出版社:中華書局
出版日期:1966年;19938月十版
語言:繁體中文

Excerpt
第四章


大體言之,詩的産生基於兩個因素,每一因素皆出於人之天性。模擬自孩提時代即為人之天性;人之優於動物,即因人為世界上最善模擬之生物;人類的最初之知識即自模擬中得來。再者,自模擬中獲得快感亦屬人之天性。此點可自經驗中得到證明:有些東西看起來是使人苦痛的,然而通過藝術十分寫實地表現出來,我們卻樂於去看,像最低等的動物或死屍的形狀之屬即係如此。個中道理需要進一步的說明:求知會産生最大快感,不僅對哲學家是如此,即使是一般人,不問他的才能如何渺小,亦是如此。吾人看繪畫之能引起快感,由於同時是在求知,即推求事物之意義。譬如找出所畫之人為某某之類;如所畫之事物為未曾見過者,則快感便不是因其為模擬某種事物而來,而是來自技巧、色彩或其他類似原因。模擬為吾人之一種本能,其次之本能為諧音與韻律 (音步meter顯然為韻律之一種)。人們通過他們天賦之資產,經過一連串的改良——其中大部份為逐漸的,他們由最初的即興而創造了詩。
由於詩人本身性格的差別,不久詩分為兩大類型。比較起來,嚴肅的一類表現為高貴的動作與高貴的人物;而瑣屑的一類表現卑賤的人的行為。後者最先產生了諷刺詩,正如前者之産生讚歌與頌詞。關於諷刺詩,在荷馬之前可能有很多這一類的詩人,但我們已無從知悉;我們只可自荷馬以後的作品中找到,諸如荷馬的「馬爾吉特斯」以及其他人的類似之作。在這一類諷刺詩中,自然而適當的帶來一種抑揚格的韻律,故我們今日使用之 iambic (抑揚格) 這一名詞,便是來自那些互相 iambs (諷刺) 的詩的韻律。從而古詩人有的寫作英雄詩,有的寫作諷刺詩。而荷馬的地位是特殊的:他在嚴肅的文體中,他是詩人中之詩人,其特出處不僅來自文學之卓越,而且來自其模擬中的戲劇的特質;同時他第一個為我們畫出喜劇的大體輪廊,不是因他帶來戲劇之諷刺,而是提供戲劇的滑稽畫面。他的「馬爾吉特斯」之與人喜劇之關係正與「伊利亞得」和「奥德賽」之與悲劇相同。一經悲劇與喜劇出現,使寫諷刺詩者變成寫喜劇;同時使寫叙事詩者變成寫悲劇。由於這兩種新形式之藝術較叙事詩與諷刺詩更偉大與更有價值。
……

IV
Poetry in general seems to have sprung from two causes, each of them lying deep in our nature. First, the instinct of imitation is implanted in man from childhood, one difference between him and other animals being that he is the most imitative of living creatures, and through imitation learns his earliest lessons; and no less universal is the pleasure felt in things imitated. We have evidence of this in the facts of experience. Objects which in themselves we view with pain, we delight to contemplate when reproduced with minute fidelity: such as the forms of the most ignoble animals and of dead bodies. The cause of this again is, that to learn gives the liveliest pleasure, not only to philosophers but to men in general; whose capacity, however, of learning is more limited. Thus the reason why men enjoy seeing a likeness is, that in contemplating it they find themselves learning or inferring, and saying perhaps, Ah, that is he. For if you happen not to have seen the original, the pleasure will be due not to the imitation as such, but to the execution, the colouring, or some such other cause.
Imitation, then, is one instinct of our nature. Next, there is the instinct for harmony and rhythm, metres being manifestly sections of rhythm. Persons, therefore, starting with this natural gift developed by degrees their special aptitudes, till their rude improvisations gave birth to Poetry.
Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of famous men. A poem of the satirical kind cannot indeed be put down to any author earlier than Homer; though many such writers probably there were. But from Homer onward, instances can be cited,—his own Margites, for example, and other similar compositions. The appropriate metre was also here introduced; hence the measure is still called the iambic or lampooning measure, being that in which people lampooned one another. Thus the older poets were distinguished as writers of heroic or of lampooning verse.
As, in the serious style, Homer is pre-eminent among poets, for he alone combined dramatic form with excellence of imitation, so he too first laid down the main lines of Comedy, by dramatising the ludicrous instead of writing personal satire. His Margites bears the same relation to Comedy that the Iliad and Odyssey do to Tragedy. But when Tragedy and Comedy came to light, the two classes of poets still followed their natural bent: the lampooners became writers of Comedy, and the Epic poets were succeeded by Tragedians, since the drama was a larger and higher form of art.



【英文參考資料】
https://www.gutenberg.org/files/1974/1974-h/1974-h.htm#link2H_4_0006
THE POETICS OF ARISTOTLE
By Aristotle
A Translation By S. H. Butcher


( 知識學習隨堂筆記 )
回應 推薦文章 列印 加入我的文摘
上一篇 回創作列表 下一篇

引用
引用網址:https://classic-blog.udn.com/article/trackback.jsp?uid=le14nov&aid=174287750