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Pardon 歷史上的特赦及絕食~~知識學習
2014/12/06 01:14:17瀏覽793|回應5|推薦24

絕食:

短時間(數天)絕食會出現的生理症狀 ● 虛弱 ● 精神混亂 ● 慢性腹瀉 ● 易怒 ● 做出錯誤決策 ● 性慾下降 ● 免疫力缺陷

長時間絕食(1周以上)會出現的生理症狀 ● 幻覺 ● 抽搐 ● 肌肉痙孿 ● 心跳不規則

 

特赦: 

尼克森水門案

福特總統的歷史定位:

他特赦尼克森的理由是

 

……

a man who has already paid the unprecedented penalty of relinquishing the highest elective office ……

 

Text Of President Ford’s Pardon

 Proclamation


 

This is the full text of President Gerald R. Ford’s Proclamation 4311, Granting a Pardon to Richard Nixon.

Note: The proclamation granted Nixon a pardon for all offenses from January 20, 1969, the day he was first inaugurated as president. In reading the proclamation on national television, Ford inadvertently said ‘July 20′. The text of the proclamation takes precedence.

By the President of the United States of America a Proclamation

Richard Nixon became the thirty-seventh President of the United States on January 20, 1969 and was reelected in 1972 for a second term by the electors of forty-nine of the fifty states. His term in office continued until his resignation on August 9, 1974.

Pursuant to resolutions of the House of Representatives, its Committee on the Judiciary conducted an inquiry and investigation on the impeachment of the President extending over more than eight months. The hearings of the Committee and its deliberations, which received wide national publicity over television, radio, and in printed media, resulted in votes adverse to Richard Nixon on recommended Articles of Impeachment.

As a result of certain acts or omissions occurring before his resignation from the Office of President, Richard Nixon has become liable to possible indictment and trial for offenses against the United States. Whether or not he shall be so prosecuted depends on findings of the appropriate grand jury and on the discretion of the authorized prosecutor. Should an indictment ensue, the accused shall then be entitled to a fair trial by an impartial jury, as guaranteed to every individual by the Constitution.

It is believed that a trial of Richard Nixon, if it became necessary, could not fairly begin until a year or more has elapsed. In the meantime, the tranquility to which this nation has been restored by the events of recent weeks could be irreparably lost by the prospects of bringing to trial a former President of the United States. The prospects of such trial will cause prolonged and divisive debate over the propriety of exposing to further punishment and degradation a man who has already paid the unprecedented penalty of relinquishing the highest elective office of the United States.

Now, THEREFORE, I, GERALD R. FORD, President of the United States, pursuant to the pardon power conferred upon me by Article II, Section 2, of the Constitution, have granted and by these presents do grant a full, free, and absolute pardon unto Richard Nixon for all offenses against the United States which he, Richard Nixon, has committed or may have committed or taken part in during the period from January 20, 1969 through August 9, 1974.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this eighth day of September, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and seventy-four, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and ninety-ninth.

GERALD R. FORD

Citation: Presidential Proclamation 4311 of September 8, 1974, by President Gerald R. Ford granting a pardon to Richard M. Nixon, 09/08/1974, Record Group 11: General Records of the United States Government, 1778 – 1992; NARA, Washington, DC. (ARC #194597)

 

人可以絕食多久?最長記錄116天

【華人健康網 2014年4月23日】前民進黨主席林義雄於4月22日起展開無限期禁食抗爭,呼籲政府停建核四,引起政界波瀾與民間反核團體的聲援。而綜觀國內外歷史事件中,以絕食當作和平抗爭手段的例子不在少數,第一個進行絕食抗爭的人為印度聖雄甘地(Gandhi)。不少人也會好奇到底絕食幾天是極限?身體狀況與所處環境、個人意志力,其實都是影響時間長短的關鍵,目前紀錄以印度的巴格特辛格(Bhagat Singh)的116天僅喝水的絕食抗爭為最高記錄。

首創絕食運動之父:印度聖雄甘地

在國際定義上,絕食被認為是一種非暴力抗爭的方式(non-violent resistance),通常會由政治犯或是宗教領導者進行,一般認定第一位利用絕食來進行抗爭的代表人物就是印度聖雄甘地。甘地曾在西元1922、1930、1933與1942年時入獄,甘地在獄裡進行絕食抗爭來抗議英國對印度的殖民統治,最後一次是在印度獨立前夕,印度教徒與伊斯蘭教徒自相殘殺,為了呼籲人民團結,他在70歲的高齡下進行絕食21天,撼動人民。

另一個著名的集體絕食事件為1981年的「愛爾蘭絕食抗爭」。1980年,愛爾蘭共和軍( Irish Republican Army )成員被捕入獄,其中7名囚犯發起絕食示威;到1981年發起第二波絕食示威,期間一名參與絕食的囚犯博比桑茲 (Bobby Sands)在絕食運動期間當選為下院議員,因此引起媒體高度關注,不過由於當時英國柴契爾夫人拒絕與他們談判妥協,博比桑茲於第66天死亡,其後陸續有9名絕食者死亡,歷史記錄為97天的絕食運動。

鐵娘子絕食長達12年,遭強灌流質食物

而根據印度當地新聞網站《The Better India》報導,目前所知進行絕食抗爭最久的人為印度民權運動家莎米拉(Irom Chanu Sharmila)已絕食逾12年,被稱為「曼尼坡鐵娘子」(Iron Lady of Manipur)的她,2000年目睹印度武裝部隊在曼尼坡省槍殺10名平民,從當年11月2日開始絕食,訴求政府廢除「武裝部隊特別權力法」(Armed Forces Special Powers Act)。截至目前,她已絕食逾12年,獲「舉世絕食抗爭最久」稱號。她仍遭司法羈押,當局透過鼻胃管對她強制灌食流質食物。

印度巴特格辛格絕食116天,創最久紀錄

若是以完全未碰食物的角度而言,歷史上以巴格特辛格(Bhagat Singh)的116天為最長記錄,他是印度公認於印度獨立運動時最有影響力的革命者之一,由於在一次被捕入獄時目睹了歐洲囚犯與印度囚犯之間的不平等待遇,他帶領其他囚犯進行絕食抗議,英國政府甚至曾試圖利用餵食管強迫餵食,但遭到絕食者強烈反抗。最後在1929年10月5日結束絕食活動,長達116天。

醫師:人體可長達8周不進食只喝水

從醫學角度來討論,人體可以在有水份補給的情況下,長達8周不用進食,不過,也有不少超過8周未進食仍然存活的案例,與個人意志力、決心,還有身體健康程度都有關。體脂肪是其中一個因素,人的能量來自於脂肪、碳水化合物和蛋白質,當身體不再攝取食物時,碳水化合物會最先被消耗,再來是脂肪,最後才是蛋白質,但當到了消耗蛋白質的時刻,身體就已進入生命危險邊緣。

此外,身體的新陳代謝高低與環境氣候也是影響絕食天數的變因。如果本身新陳代謝較緩慢,身體消耗能量的速率也會比較緩慢,如果在長時間未進食的狀態下,身體也會自行調整新陳代謝的效率來維持生命,而過熱或過冷的環境,更不用說,對於絕食者絕對是惡劣的存活條件,攝氏37度、華氏98.6度是身體在絕食狀態下能存活最久的溫度。

短時間(數天)絕食會出現的生理症狀 ● 虛弱 ● 精神混亂 ● 慢性腹瀉 ● 易怒 ● 做出錯誤決策 ● 性慾下降 ● 免疫力缺陷

長時間絕食(1周以上)會出現的生理症狀 ● 幻覺 ● 抽搐 ● 肌肉痙孿 ● 心跳不規則 

 

 

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引用網址:https://classic-blog.udn.com/article/trackback.jsp?uid=intheseattlerain&aid=19503623

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medov醫生(我愛中華民國
等級:8
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有本事就絕食1年看看
2014/12/07 18:21

勝選後卻意欲將手伸入司法,已經要求釋放"貪汙犯阿扁",喔原來囚犯也有政黨輪替!?這是何種是非公義?不放人就絕食,有本事就絕食1年看看。作秀搶鏡頭過頭了!

民進黨九合一未勝前,呂不是要求從新清查兩顆子彈事件?她認為子彈是針對她而打的! 

真是位置還沒坐穩,就花樣百出 

ellen chou 雨僧 惜夏(intheseattlerain) 於 2014-12-08 00:44 回覆:

所以新聞記者及評論者不可隨風起舞。

下筆前必須審慎思辨。


pearlz (民進黨抹黑霸凌WHO )
等級:8
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尼克松的下台
2014/12/06 09:19

是有條件的。

為了請尼克松自動下台,副總統福特同意將會給予特赦。

福特繼任總統,特赦尼克松後,自己的聲望下跌。


ellen chou 雨僧 惜夏(intheseattlerain) 於 2014-12-06 12:50 回覆:
是,很明顯,福特沒有尼克森厲害。

pearlz (民進黨抹黑霸凌WHO )
等級:8
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To understand the relation between two first
2014/12/06 09:09

Despite being treated as a lightweight by Nixon's staff, Ford came to the President's aid in the fall of 1973 after Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned. Nixon, who was under increasing pressure due to the Watergate scandal, surprised many by nominating Ford for the vice presidency. This was not out of any belief that Ford would play a role in policymaking that was compatible to Nixon's goals; rather, Nixon chose Ford because Congress would easily confirm him. Indeed, undertaking for the first time its confirmation role under the 25th Amendment, Congress did mount an exhaustive investigation of Ford but eventually gave the nomination its overwhelming approval. Ford took the vice presidential oath of office on December 6, 1973.

Ford traveled extensively as vice president, defending Nixon at every stop. The revelations surrounding Watergate, however, only grew more damning. During the summer of 1974, it became clear that President Nixon had grossly abused the power of his office by directing a cover-up of crimes committed by his subordinates. Nixon resigned as President on August 8, and Ford took the oath of office the next day, becoming the thirty-eighth President of the United States.


ellen chou 雨僧 惜夏(intheseattlerain) 於 2014-12-06 12:48 回覆:

二人之間的長期關係,有很多報導與評論,

謝謝回應。


也薇
等級:6
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2014/12/06 08:27
Nixon能算梟雄嗎?
ellen chou 雨僧 惜夏(intheseattlerain) 於 2014-12-06 12:28 回覆:

他的政治生命很長,想權力不擇手段,終至灰頭土臉。

福特是同黨的參議員議長,因為副總統安格紐犯案去職而補正,(未經大選)。

尼克森惹官司的長期法律過程中也傳出身體健康有問題。

所以福特用「矜憐」而非以「法律」為出發點頒布特赦。


ellen chou 雨僧 惜夏
等級:8
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2014/12/06 01:49

綠營威脅不足懼,

紅衫軍的聲音呢?


ellen chou 雨僧 惜夏(intheseattlerain) 於 2014-12-06 03:46 回覆:

另外一樁特赦:

電影楊乃武與小白菜,

慈禧太后在小白菜的手心裡寫了一個「赦」。