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WW2歐洲戰場第一場戰鬥 - Westerplatte
2009/09/05 17:24:19瀏覽2537|回應1|推薦11

好久沒翻譯軍事文章,趁此來練習練習一下好了。

The Battle of Westerplatte was the very first battles of the Invasion of Poland and World War II in Europe.

「威斯特普拉特戰役」可以說是二戰中歐洲非洲戰區戰役中的第一場戰鬥,也因此揭開了入侵波蘭的序曲。

During the first week of September 1939, a completely surrounded Military Transit Depot (Wojskowy Skład Transportowy, WST) on the peninsulaof Westerplatte, manned by only 182 soldiers, held alone for seven days in the face of an overwhelming German force of more than 3,000 soldiers attacking from land, sea and air, and inflicted heavy losses on the attackers. The heroic defense of Westerplatte served as an inspiration for the country while successful German advances continued elsewhere in Poland; it also helped the later similarily besieged larger garrison of Hel Peninsula to hold until the first week of October.

[概要]在開戰後的第一個星期中,這個處在於被完全包圍住的威斯特普拉特半島上的軍事轉運站僅僅由波軍182人防守著,卻英勇的抵擋住超過三千德軍來自陸海空的猛烈攻擊超過七天,並且造成敵軍巨大的損失。如此的英雄事蹟鼓舞了在德軍進攻下的波蘭軍民士氣,甚至還幫助了另一個同樣被圍攻的賀爾半島要塞堅守超過一個月以上。

In 1925 the Council of the League of Nations allowed Poland to keep 88 soldiers on Westerplatte. The small Polish garrison of the WST was separated from Free City of Danzig (Gdańsk) city by the harbour channel, with only a small pier connecting them to the mainland. The Polish-held part of the Westerplatte was separated from the territory of Danzig by a brick wall. There were no underground fortifications built on Westerplatte, but there were five small concrete posts (guardhouses) hidden in the peninsula's forest and a large barracks building prepared for defense; these were supported by a network of trenches and barricades. In case of war, the defenders were supposed to withstand a sustained attack for 12 hours (during this time, the aid from the Polish main forces was supposed to reach them).

[背景]在1925年國際聯盟會議中波蘭被允許派駐88名士官兵於威斯特普拉特半島,這個小小的要塞與但澤自由市(今天的格但斯克)被港口水道給隔開,只靠著一條突出的堤防與陸地連結,而且威斯特普拉特的波蘭部分與但澤自由市之間僅有一道磚牆。整個要塞中並沒有地下化防禦工事,只有五個水泥警衛據點隱藏在樹林中,另還有個預備作為防守用的大型兵營,彼此之間則有壕溝與障礙物。如果遇到戰事,防守者應該要撐住至少十二小時的攻擊並等待來自波蘭本土的增援。

At the end of August 1939, the German pre-dreadnought battleship Schleswig-Holstein came to Danzig (Gdańsk) under the pretext of a "courtesyvisit" and anchored in the channel near Westerplatte. Onboard was the Hennigsen assault company with orders to launch an attack against the Westerplatte on the morning of August 26. However, shortly before disembarkation, the order to attack was rescinded. Having heard of Britain and Poland having concluded a treaty of assistance and also having heard that Italian dictator Benito Mussolini refused to join the war, German dictatorAdolf Hitler postponed the opening of hostilities.

[前奏]1939年八月底,德國海軍舊式戰艦什列斯威-霍爾斯坦號,藉由「禮貌性訪問」的名義造訪但澤,並來到靠近威斯特普拉特的水道下錨,在艦上有個「賀尼森突擊連」預定在8/26清晨攻擊威斯特普拉特要塞。然而希特勒在聽到英國與波蘭簽訂了援助協議並聽到墨索里尼並不願意參戰,此一攻擊行動就暫時順延。

On September 1, 1939, at 0445 local time, as Germany began its invasion of Poland, the Schleswig-Holsteinsuddenly opened broadside salvo fire on the Polish garrison, unleashing a massive barrage of 280 mm and 170 mm shells. This sneak attack was followed by the advance by German forces (Lt. Willhem Henningsen’s storm unit from the Schleswig-Holstein' and the Wehrmacht's Pioneer force) hoping for an easy victory. However, soon after crossing the artillery-breached brick wall, the attackers came into a Polish ambush and were caught them in small arms, mortar and machine gun crossfire from concealed and well-positioned firing points. Another two assaults that day were repelled as well, with the Germans suffering unexpectedly high losses. The first day of battle ended with Polish success. The only Polish field gun was put out of action after firing 28 shells at German positions across the channel (silencing several firing positions and hitting a command post). A group of the defenders also counter-attacked and destroyed a German police guard post using hand grenades but two Poles were mortally wounded in this action.

[戰役經過]1939年9月1日波蘭當地時間清晨0445,德軍的入侵是由什列斯威-霍爾斯坦號對著波蘭據點砲擊開始,隨之而來的是28公分和17公分口徑砲彈的傾洩而下。接著則是由來自戰艦上的賀尼森中尉率領的海軍步兵突擊連與陸軍戰鬥工兵單位所組成的偷襲,並希望獲得個輕鬆的勝利。但等到德軍通過被砲火擊破的磚牆後,瞬間遭受到波蘭有組織的埋伏反擊,從擁有良好射界和密閉的據點中德軍受到了各種小火器、迫砲和機槍的交互射擊。當天的另兩波突擊同樣在遭受到未預期的高損失之後,進攻慘遭失敗而宣告著波蘭防衛者的勝利。不過波蘭唯一擁有的76口徑野戰砲在發射28枚砲彈攻擊對岸德軍據點(擊破幾個據點和一個指揮站)之後被摧毀,而另有一群防守者也大膽的發動反攻並以手榴彈摧毀一個德國警察崗哨,但有兩名波軍重傷。

"The tactics of outpost commanders, who lured the Germans into a fire trap, letting them advance into the line of fire, contributed to these heavy losses. The Polish mortar fire, guided precisely by observers from protruding positions, added to the destruction. The system of barriers secretly prepared by the WST soldiers in the spring and summer of 1939 made it difficult for the Germans to move around the park that was Westerplatte (once a popular spa)."

"各據點指揮官的戰術就是引誘德軍踏進陷阱並讓他們走入火線中而有大量的損失,波軍迫砲藉由良好的觀測指引而增加了攻擊效果。整個防禦體系在據點官兵於1939年春夏兩季的秘密準備下,讓德軍沒法輕鬆的走進入這威斯特普拉特公園(這曾是著名SPA)。"

Wire trippers and barbed wire entanglements effectively blocked quick movements around its grounds. Guardhouse no. 2 also successfully took part in the exchange of fire. Even though the Poles retreated from the Wał and Prom outposts (and for a time also from Fort), tightening the ring of defence around the New Barracks in the centre of the Peninsula. On the first day of combat, the Polish side lost one man killed and seven wounded (three died later, including two captured who died in a German hospital), while the German naval infantry company lost 17 men killed and 54 seriously wounded out of 225 deployed (or third of the company, including its mortally wounded commander). In all, 40-50 German troops were reported killed on this day according the German sources. The German losses would have been even greater if not for the order by the Polish commander, Major Henryk Sucharski, for the mortars to cease fire in order to conserve ammunition after just a few salvos (because of this order only 104 out of 860 grenades were fired when the mortars were destroyed the next day).

交錯的絆索和帶刺鐵絲網有效的遲滯地面上的快速推進,甚至是在波軍從外圍據點撤退至半島中央的新兵營以縮小防衛圈時,第二號衛哨也成功的持續與敵軍交火。在第一天戰鬥中,波軍一人陣亡和七人受傷(當中三人稍候不治,包括兩人被俘並死於德軍醫院),而德軍海軍步兵225人當中有17人陣亡和54人重傷(或者說該突擊連的三分之一,包含指揮官),甚至有德國報導說是第一天應當有四五十名德軍陣亡。要不是波軍指揮官-蘇恰斯基少校下令只發射了幾發的迫砲停火以便節約彈藥去應付之後的硬仗,不然德軍損失會更大。(不過在第二天迫砲被摧毀前,庫存的860枚榴彈卻僅發射104枚)

Over the following days, the Germans bombarded the peninsul with naval and heavy field artillery, including 210 mm howitzers. A devastating dive-bombing raid by Junkers Ju 87 Stuka bombers on September 2 (26.5 tons of bombs in two waves) destroyed the Polish mortars, directly hit one guardhouse with a 500 kg bomb (destroying it completely) and killed at least eight soldiers. Major Sucharski became shell-shocked and Captain Captain Franciszek Dąbrowski briefly took over command of Westerplatte. After the Stuka raids, which covered the whole area of Westerplatte in enormous clouds of smoke, the Germans believed that no one could possibly have survived the bombing; however, it later turned out the relatively few Polish soldiers were eliminated and the defence was not broken. Several cautious probing attacks by the German naval infantry, Danzig SS and police and Wehrmacht were again repulsed by the Poles. During one of the attacks, a German armoured draisine was hit and destroyed by a Polish AT gun. As Polskie Radio broadcasted every day, "Westerplatte still fought on".

接下來幾天德軍持續從海上和空中轟炸這半島,包括210口徑重榴彈砲。9月2日德軍派出JU-87斯圖卡俯衝轟炸機分成兩波共乘載26.5噸炸彈進行令人震撼的轟炸,此一攻擊摧毀了波軍迫砲並且完全夷平了一個波軍崗哨還帶走了至少八條波軍人命。指揮官蘇恰斯基少校也被轟炸震撼而暫時無法遂行指揮,改由副指揮官達布羅斯基上尉接手指揮。在空襲之後整個半島都籠罩在煙霧之中,讓德軍以為應該沒人能夠存活,實際上卻僅有數名波軍陣亡而防禦陣線未曾崩潰。之後幾次的德軍刺探攻擊乃是由海軍步兵、但澤SS民兵部隊、警察保安部隊和陸軍等所執行,但都被波軍給阻擋住,甚至有輛裝甲列車被波軍反戰車砲給擊毀。如同波蘭廣播每天所說的「威斯特普拉特仍在奮戰中!」

In all, approximately 3,400 Germans (including support troops) were tied-up by being engaged in the week-long action against the 182-strong Polish garrison. On September 7, Major Sucharski decided to leave what he decided was the hopeless fight. Capt. Mieczysław Słaby, the WST doctor, was unable to maintain basic care of wounded soldiers. The garrison lacked sufficient water and medicine. In reality, Polish fortifications of the Westerplatte were neither impressive, nor very numerous. Even though many of his officers and soldiers were against the idea, hesurrendered the Military Transit Depot on the same day. The Polish defence impressed the German commanders so much that the German commander, General Friedrich Eberhardt (who later became the military governor of Kiev during the Soviet-German War), allowed Sucharski to retain his ceremonial szabla (Polish sabre) in captivity. At the same time Polish wireless operator Kazimierz Rasiński was murdered by Germans after the capitulation; after brutal interrogation, he refused to hand over radio codes and was shot.

整個來說,包含支援部隊在內的三千四百名德軍將近一星期被綁在這行動中,僅只為了去攻擊這182名波軍。到了9月7日,波軍指揮官蘇恰斯基少校決定要結束這無望的戰鬥,而要塞醫官麥欣斯賴上尉也無法繼續給傷兵實行基本治療照護,且該要塞缺乏足夠的飲水和醫藥。實際上威斯特普拉特的防禦工事並非出色也非非常眾多,在不顧不少官兵反對下,指揮官還是投降了。波軍的堅強抵抗讓德軍非常訝異而允許波軍指揮官投降時可留下軍刀,但此同時波軍通信兵在被俘後因為不肯交出通信電碼而被酷刑虐待,甚至之後被謀殺。

German(德軍參戰單位)

Kriegsmarine 海軍
  • Battleship Schleswig-Holstein 舊式戰艦 什列斯威-霍爾斯坦
  • 3. Marine-Stostrupp-Kompanie (naval infantry company, later Marine-Artillerie-Abteilung 531) 第三海軍突擊連(海軍步兵連,後改編為531海軍泡兵營)
  • Two torpedo boats: T-192 Von der Groeben and T-963 魚雷艇T-192與T963
Eberhardt group 地面作戰群(指揮官-艾伯哈特少將)
Luftwaffe 空軍
  • II & III Gruppe StG 2 Immelmann 第2俯衝轟炸聯隊 二大隊與三大隊
  • 4.(St)/TrGr 186 186訓練大隊第四中隊

In all, some 40-60 Junkers Ju 87 Stuka bombers and seven other aircraft (Heinkel He 51 and Junkers Ju 52) were involved in the siege of Westerplatte.

整個來說,空軍約有四十到六十架的JU-87斯圖卡俯衝轟炸機和七架其他軍機(HE-51和JU-52)參與圍攻。

German land forces, including the naval infantry company, were armed with several ADGZ heavy armoured cars, about 65 artillery pieces (2 cm FlaK 30 anti-aircraft guns, 3.7 cm PaK 36 anti-tank guns, 10.5 cm leFH 18 light howitzers and 21 cm Morser 18 heavy howitzers), over 150 machine guns, and an unknown number of light and medium mortars and flamethrowers(Flammenwerfer 35).

所有德軍地面部隊包括海軍步兵,配備有數輛重裝甲車和65門火砲(有20口徑FLAK30高射砲、37口徑PAK36反戰車砲、105口徑leFH18輕榴彈砲、210口徑重榴彈砲)以及超過150挺機槍,還有數量不明的迫砲和火焰發射器。

Polish(波蘭防守)

By August 1939, the garrison of Westerplatte had increased to 182 soldiers (there were also 27 civilian workers).

1939年八月,該要塞增援至182名波軍官兵,且另有27名平民工人。

The WST was armed with one 75 mm 75 mm wz. 02/26 field gun, two Bofors 37 mm wz. 36 anti-tank guns, and four Stokes 81 mm wz. 31 medium mortars. The strong side of the garrison was a disproportionately large number of machine guns at their disposal (41 machine guns, including 16 heavy machine guns).

整個要塞裝備有一門75口徑野戰砲,兩門37口徑反戰車砲和四門81口徑迫砲。另外要塞也配有16門重機槍和25門輕機槍。

[傷亡與戰後狀況]

The exact figures of German losses remains unknown, but are often estimated to be in range of 200-400 killed and wounded or sometimes more (People's Republic of Poland-era authorities claimed the Germans suffered 300 killed and 700 wounded, but this claim is rather dubious). Some of them might be hit by friendly fire, in particular from the battleship which was initially anchored to close to its target.

整個德軍損失無法確知,但是估計約有兩百至四百名德軍傷亡(共黨波蘭時期有作家宣稱應有三百人陣亡和七百人受傷,但此指證仍受質疑),當中部分有可能被友軍砲火擊中,尤其是戰艦是停泊的如此接近目標。

Polish casualties were much lower - 15-20 killed (there's a controversy regarding the graves of five unidentified Polish soldiers discovered 1939-1940, possibly executed for attempted desertion) and some 53 wounded in action. Eight of the prisoners of war were also said to not have survived German captivity.

波軍損失就少的多了,15到20名陣亡(事後發現當地有五個無法確認身份的波軍士兵墳墓,有可能是因為陣前逃亡而被處決)另有53名受傷,其他被俘官兵中有八名戰俘後來沒活著出來。

In the years after war, several dozen schools and several ships in Poland were also named after the "Heroes of Westerplatte" or "Defenders of Westerplatte". The ruins of the peninsula's barracks and guardhouses still survive. After the war one of the guardhouses was converted into a museum; two shells from the Schleswig-Holstein's 280 mm guns prop up its entrance.

戰後眾多波蘭學校和船隻被命名為「威斯特普拉特的英雄」或「威斯特普拉特的防衛者」,半島上的兵營和據點廢墟都仍存在,甚至當中一個還改成紀念館而兩枚來自什列斯威-霍爾斯特戰艦的280口徑砲彈則放立在入口。


以上內容轉譯自:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Westerplatte

 

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2009/09/09 18:37
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