網路城邦
上一篇 回創作列表 下一篇  字體:
Excerpt:《萬事問培根:你的人生煩惱,塵世哲學家有解方》
2021/10/01 05:22:21瀏覽308|回應0|推薦7
Excerpt:《萬事問培根:你的人生煩惱,塵世哲學家有解方》

先來複習一則取材於培根姓名的冷笑話:
網路上曾經流傳著這麼一句:「知識就是力量,法國就是培根」(Knowledge is Power, France is Bacon),法國培根 (FranceBacon) 也就是法蘭西斯.培根 (Francis Bacon),這名字確實好記!

事實上,我在更早之前已經讀過其他譯本,這次應該算是重新複習。培根的這本《隨筆集》於1597年初版時只有10篇文章,1612年增加至38篇,直到1625年則增加到58篇,另有1篇未完成稿〈論謠言〉,本書也特別收錄了。

驀然想起自己在尚未讀完「世界三大隨筆」時的疑問:蒙田 (Michel de Montaigne)、愛默生 (Ralph Waldo Emerson) 及培根,是否能一較高下呢?

現在的我其實已經有了一個粗淺的答案,不管從思想層面或是文學價值,培根應該是敬陪末座了。
但倘若我們想要解惑的是現實世界的處世哲學,就如同本書的書名「萬事問培根」,或許我們就該捨棄蒙田和愛默生……,因為培根才是真正的食物啊!



https://www.books.com.tw/products/0010893723
萬事問培根:你的人生煩惱,塵世哲學家有解方
Essays of Francis Bacon
作者:法蘭西斯.培根
原文作者:Francis Bacon
譯者:談瀛洲
出版社:時報出版 
出版日期:2021/06/15
語言:繁體中文

本書共五十九篇,涵蓋的範圍從人生議題、個性品德到生活觀察都有,有些雖然是培根的官場生涯心得,但應用在職場上卻十分貼切。正如他的科學成就一樣,其人生智慧也閃爍著永恆的光芒。培根所生活的年代,英國面臨宗教分裂的危機、歐洲也陷入三十年戰爭,他所得到的洞見,對於不安焦慮的現代人來說,想必具有安慰和啟發的效果。

作者簡介
法蘭西斯.培根(Francis Bacon1561-1626

英國哲學家暨科學家,他自詡為「科學界的哥倫布」,要做知識的開拓者。在他之前,科學家只重視推論與概念,但他認為歸納、觀察與實驗才是建立知識的方法。此外,還要破除偏見、權威與文化所造成的障礙。這些劃時代的理論,啟發了哲學上的經驗主義,也奠定了今日科學的基本精神與架構。
培根從小生長於書香世家,於劍橋三一學院畢業後,官途順遂,一路當到英國的大法官,但因為接受贈禮被政敵攻擊,於是終身不得擔任公職。此後他閉門著書,本本都是影響後世的經典名著,包括《學術的進展》、《新工具論》、《論人生的知識》等。


Excerpt
論厄運:為什麼逆境更能展現人的美德?

塞內加有一句名言,完全展現了斯多葛學派的風格:「在好運中發生好事,是值得期待的,但在厄運中發生好事,就令人羨慕不已。」若人在厄運中還能夠發揮意志力控制自己的本性,那就真的可說是奇蹟。他還有一句話比剛才那句還要高明,沒想到這是出於異教徒之口:「既有人類脆弱的那一面,也有上帝安然自得的精神,這才是真正的偉人。」
這意思用詩歌來表達會更好,這樣我們才能用天馬行空的詞語來形容。畢竟,詩人的專長就是運用華麗的詞藻。透過玄妙的神話,古代詩人描述那種境界。雖然不乏神祕的情節,但很接近基督徒的狀態:「海克力斯幫普羅米修斯(他象徵著人性)鬆綁後,乘著一隻陶罐,渡過了大海。」這個場景生動地描繪了基督徒般的決心,他們乘著肉體的脆弱小船,駛過人世間的驚濤駭浪。
接下來還是用平實的語言來談吧。
從道德上講,在厄運中展現英勇的一面,更是一種美德。在《舊約》中,幸運是神的賜福。在《新約》中,苦難反而是神的賜福,它將帶來更大的福祉,更清晰地展現出神的恩典。在《舊約》中,你細聽大衛歡樂的豎琴聲,也傳達出同樣的悲傷。比起所羅門的幸運,聖靈花了更多力氣描述約伯的苦痛。
人在走運時,不免有恐懼和煩惱,但厄運中,卻能得到安慰和希望。在底色暗冷的紡織品上,若有明亮的圖案,就會更加賞心悅目;但是在暖底色的紡織品上,有黑暗、憂傷的圖案,反而覺得刺眼。從藝術品的角度,就可以得知人心的變化。
美德就像是珍貴的香料,在焚燒或碾碎後才會散發出香氣。在幸運中最能看出人的缺點,在厄運中則最能發現人的美德。因此,人在走運的時候,美德表現在自我克制上;遭逢逆境的時候,堅毅是最重要的美德。

V.—OF ADVERSITY.

It
 was a high speech of Seneca (after the manner of the Stoics), that “the good things which belong to prosperity are to be wished, but the good things that belong to adversity are to be admired.” (“Bona rerum secundarum optabilia, adversarum mirabilia.”) Certainly, if miracles be the command over nature, they appear most in adversity. It is yet a higher speech of his than the other (much too high for a heathen), “It is true greatness to have in one the frailty of a man, and the security of a God.” (“Vere magnum habere fragilitatem hominis securitatem Dei.”) This would have done better in poesy, where transcendencies are more allowed, and the poets, indeed, have been busy with it; for it is, in effect, the thing which is figured in that strange fiction of the ancient poets, which seemeth not to be without mystery; nay, and to have some approach to the state of a Christian, “that Hercules, when he went to unbind Prometheus (by whom human nature is represented), sailed the length of the great ocean in an earthen pot or pitcher,” lively describing Christian resolution, that saileth in the frail bark of the flesh through the waves of the world. But to speak in a mean, the virtue of prosperity is temperance, the virtue of adversity is fortitude, which in morals is the more heroical virtue. Prosperity is the blessing of the Old Testament, adversity is the blessing of the New, which carrieth the greater benediction, and the clearer revelation of God’s favor. Yet even in the Old Testament, if you listen to David’s harp, you shall hear as many hearse-like airs as carols; and the pencil of the Holy Ghost hath labored more in describing the afflictions of Job than the felicities of Solomon. Prosperity is not without many fears and distastes; and adversity is not without comforts and hopes. We see, in needleworks and embroideries, it is more pleasing to have a lively work upon a sad and solemn ground, than to have a dark and melancholy work upon a lightsome ground: judge, therefore, of the pleasure of the heart by the pleasure of the eye. Certainly, virtue is like precious odors, most fragrant when they are incensed, or crushed; for prosperity doth best discover vice, but adversity doth best discover virtue.


〈論猜疑:如何堅定信念?〉

猜疑就像蝙蝠,總是在黃昏時出現。人們應該壓下自己的疑心,好好控制它,不讓它蒙蔽心智。否則疑心一起,很容易失去朋友,工作陷入混亂,嚴重影響生活的穩定。猜疑心一起,國王會變暴君、丈夫變得愛嫉妒,還會使智者猶豫不決、憂傷抑鬱。
猜疑不是心臟的問題,而是大腦的缺陷,最英勇的人也會受到影響,如英王亨利七世。當時沒有比他更英勇、疑心更重的人了。這種性格組合,不會嚴重影響他的生活。遇到可疑的事。他不會懷疑到底,而會加以審視,看看是否有可能為真。
膽怯的人內心一起疑,就會馬上接受新的想法。孤陋寡聞,會令人變得多疑。所以,與其悶在心裡煩惱,不如努力開拓見聞,以解開疑惑。他們的想法太天真了,以為他們雇用、交往的都是聖人嗎?這些人就沒有自己的目標嗎?難道我們不該先關注自己的需求,再考慮他人嗎?
因此,要減輕猜疑,別無良方,在心裡當作它可能發生,但又要自我克制、不要輕取妄動,事情發生再說。起疑是為了預先做好安排,萬一是真的,也能減輕受到的傷害。
心中不斷累積的猜疑,就像是蚊蠅的嗡嗡聲。流言蜚語卻是毒藥,會惡意助長虛假有害的訊息。要在這片疑惑的森林中清出一條道路,最好方法就是向被中傷的當事人求證。這樣一來才能了解更多真相。同時。對方也會更謹言慎行,以免引起進一步的誤解。
但是,這方法不能用在卑鄙小人身上。他們一旦發現自己被懷疑,就再也不會說真話。義大利人說:「猜疑消滅了忠誠。」一旦被懷疑,就可以名正言順地作亂。其實他們更應展現忠誠的態度,以洗清自己的嫌疑。

XXXI.—OF SUSPICION.

Suspicions
 amongst thoughts are like bats amongst birds, they ever fly by twilight. Certainly they are to be repressed, or at the least well guarded; for they cloud the mind, they lose friends, and they 198check with business, whereby business cannot go on currently and constantly. They dispose kings to tyranny, husbands to jealousy, wise men to irresolution and melancholy. They are defects, not in the heart but in the brain; for they take place in the stoutest natures, as in the example of Henry the Seventh of England. There was not a more suspicious man, nor a more stout, and in such a composition they do small hurt; for commonly they are not admitted, but with examination, whether they be likely or no; but in fearful natures they gain ground too fast. There is nothing makes a man suspect much, more than to know little; and, therefore, men should remedy suspicion by procuring to know more, and not to keep their suspicions in smother. What would men have? Do they think those they employ and deal with are saints? Do they not think they will have their own ends, and be truer to themselves than to them? Therefore, there is no better way to moderate suspicions, than to account upon such suspicions as true, and yet to bridle them as false: for so far a man ought to make use of suspicions as to provide, as if that should be true that he suspects, yet it may do him no hurt. Suspicions that the mind of itself gathers are but buzzes; but suspicions that are artificially nourished, and put into men’s heads by the tales and whisperings of others, have stings. Certainly, the best mean, to clear the way in this same wood of suspicions, is frankly to communicate 199them with the party that he suspects: for thereby he shall be sure to know more of the truth of them than he did before; and, withal, shall make that party more circumspect, not to give further cause of suspicion. But this would not be done to men of base natures; for they, if they find themselves once suspected, will never be true. The Italian says, “Sospetto licentia fede;” as if suspicion did give a passport to faith; but it ought rather to kindle it to discharge itself.

https://www.gutenberg.org/files/56463/56463-h/56463-h.htm
The Project Gutenberg EBook of Bacon's Essays and Wisdom of the Ancients, by Francis Bacon

( 知識學習隨堂筆記 )
回應 推薦文章 列印 加入我的文摘
上一篇 回創作列表 下一篇

引用
引用網址:http://classic-blog.udn.com/article/trackback.jsp?uid=le14nov&aid=168752113