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老人言-12 (中翻英)
2013/04/23 00:22:24瀏覽237|回應0|推薦3

選自《大戴禮記保傅第四十八》

Excerpted from The Book of Rites Compiled by Dai Sr., Ch. 48, “Protection and Education.”

 

【譯文】殷朝的商湯為天子,傳三十一代,享國六百二十九年而亡,然後由周承受天運。周朝的周武王為天子,傳三十七代,享國八百六十七年而終,由秦人承受天運。秦始皇為天子,至秦二世而亡,總共只有十五年。人民的性情不會相差太遠,為什麼夏商周三代的君主以德治世維持了長期的統治,而秦王朝的君主殘暴無道以致突然滅亡呢?這個原因是可以知道的。

[Explanation]  The Dynasty of Shang (also called Yin), established by King Tong, lasted for 629 years with 31 kings.  It was followed by the Dynasty of Zhou, established by King Wu, which lasted for 867 years with 37 kings.  Thereafter, the Dynasty of Chin was established by the First Emperor Chin, which lasted only 15 years and was quickly overthrown after his son became the emperor.  The human temperaments are not widely different, but why is it the dynasties of Shang and Zhou, governed by virtues, can last for such a long time, and the tyranny of Chin was short?  The causes of their differences are discernable.

 

 

 周武王崩,成王十歲,召公為太保,周公為太傅,太公為太師。保,保其身體;傅,傅其德義;師,導之教訓。此三公之職也。於是為置三少,皆上大夫也,曰少保、少傅、少師,是與太子宴者也。

When King Wu of Zhou Dynasty died, his son, King Chen, was ten years old, the Duke of Zhao was the Grand Protector, the Duke of Zhou was the Grand Teacher, and the Duke of Tai was the Grand Marshal.  The Grand Protector was to teach the king to protect his person.  The Grand Teacher was to teach him the virtue of righteousness; the Grand Marshall was to guide the king with disciplines.  These were the duties of the three dukes.  They were assisted by three deputies, who were ministers of the government, called deputy grand protector, deputy grand teacher, and deputy grand marshal, assigned to live with the crown prince.

故孩提三公、三少,固明孝、仁、 禮、義,以導習之也。逐去邪人不使見惡行,於是選天下端士,孝悌閑博,有道術者以輔翼之,使之與太子居處出入。故太子乃見正事、聞正言、行正道,左視右視 前後皆正人。夫習與正人居,不能不正也。孔子曰:「少成若天性,習貫之為常。」此殷周之所以長有道也。

Since childhood, the three Dukes and the three Deputies, explained and affirmed the virtues of filial piety, benevolence, rituals, and righteousness, to the crown prince; in order to guide and shape his behaviors.  They would exile the devious people to prevent the crown prince from seeing evil deeds.  They would select people, from the world, who had the correct qualities of piety, brotherhood, tranquility, and erudite knowledge; as well as people who knew the way and strategies (of governance) to assist him.  They would have these people live with crown prince and to accompany him everywhere.  Thus, the crown prince will only see correct behaviors, hear correct words, and practice the correct way; be surrounded from left, right, front, and back with correct people.  To conclude, to live with and learn the habits of correct people, how could he not be correct?  Confucius said: “to form good habits at a young age as if his nature, to continue such habits as if his personality (constant characters).”  This is how and why the dynasties of Shang and Zhou can nurture kings who practice the Way (to govern correctly).  

選自《大戴禮記保傅第_

Excerpted from The Book of Rites Compiled by Dai Sr., Ch. 50, “Protection and Education.”

 

【譯文】周武王去世的時候,周成王才十歲,召公任太保,周公任太傅,太公任太師。「保」是保養成王的身體,「傅」是用道德仁義教育他,「師」是教訓引導他。這是三公的職位。後來又為成王設置了三少,任職的都是上大夫,叫做少保、少傅、少師。這是和太子朝夕相處、陪伴太子學習生活的人。

[Explanation]  When King Wu of Zhou Dynasty died, his son, King Chen, was ten years old; the Duke of Zhao was his Grand Protector, the Duke of Zhou was his Grand Teacher, and the Duke of Tai was his Grand Marshal.  The Grand Protector was to teach the king to protect his person.  The Grand Teacher was to teach him the virtue of benevolence and righteousness; and the Grand Marshall was to guide the king with disciplines.  These were the duties of the three dukes.  They were assisted by three deputies, who were ministers of the government, called deputy grand protector, deputy grand teacher, and deputy grand marshal.  They were assigned to live with the crown prince daily, to help him learn, and accompany him everywhere.

所以,幼年時候教導他的三公、以及陪伴他的三少,原本就懂得孝、仁、禮、義,他們以此來引導和教習太子,驅逐屏棄奸邪的人,不讓太子看見惡行,挑選天下言行端正者,知孝悌、有學識者,以及有治國才能者來輔佐太子,讓這些人和太子同居處、共出入。因此太子就能看到正確的事情,聽到正直的言辭,實行正確的治國之道,環顧四周都是正直的人。太子習慣了和正直之人學習、生活,所以他不可能不端正。孔子有言,幼年的時候若養成了天性,就會習以為常。這就是殷朝和周朝能夠治國有道、國祚綿長的原因啊。

Since childhood, the three dukes and the three deputies, explained and affirmed the teachings of filial piety, benevolence, rituals, and righteousness, to guide the crown prince and to shape his behaviors.  They would exile the devious people to prevent the crown prince from seeing evil deeds.  They would select people, from the world, who had the correct qualities of piety, brotherhood, tranquility, and erudite knowledge; as well as people who were capable in governmental affairs to assist the crown prince; to have these people live with him and to accompany him everywhere.  As a result, the crown prince will only see correct behaviors, hear correct words, and practice the correct way of governance; surrounded from left, right, front, and back, with correct people.  To conclude, to live with and learn the habits of correct people, how could he not be correct?  Confucius said: “To form good habits at a young age as if his nature, to continue such habits as if his personality (constant characters).”  These are the reasons why the dynasties of Shang and Zhou had good administrations and lasted for a long time.  

 

 

太任孕文王,目不視惡色、耳不聽淫聲、口不出惡言,故君子謂太任為能胎教也。古者婦人孕子之禮,必慎所感;感於善則善,感於惡則惡,不可不慎也。

While Tai Ren was pregnant with King Wen (of Zhou Dynasty), her eyes would not see evil things, her ears would not hear evil sounds, her mouth would never utter any bad words, thus gentlemen deemed Tai Ren as knowing how to educate children at the embryonic stage.  In ancient times, pregnant women were ritualistic about having a baby and would be careful with their sensations.  Emotive responses to goodness will nurture a good child; emotive responses to evil will have a bad influence on the baby.  One cannot be careless of this matter.

選自《列女傳周室三母》。

Excerpted from Biographies of Great Ladies (Traditions of Exemplary Ladies), “Three Mothers of the Zhou Dynasty.”

 

【譯文】太任懷孕文王的時候,不看邪惡的事物,不聽淫邪的樂聲,不說惡毒的言語。因此君子稱太任能夠做好胎教。古代的婦人懷孕之後,必須對自己所感知接觸的事物小心謹慎,和善的事物相感應、接觸,對胎兒的性情就有善的影響;和惡的事物相感應、相接觸,對胎兒的性情就有惡的影響。所以母親懷孕的時候,保持良好的性情是非常重要的,不可不謹慎啊!

[Explanation]  While Tai Ren was pregnant with King Wen, her eyes would not see any evil things, her ears would not hear any boisterous music or carnal sounds, and her mouth would never utter any bad words.  Henceforth, gentlemen regarded Tai Ren as the one who knew how to educate children at the embryonic stage.  In ancient times, pregnant women would be ritualistic about their sensations.  They would be careful with their six senses of touch, hearing, etc.  If the pregnant woman is emotively responsive to goodness, she will nurture a child of good nature; if she is emotively responsive to evil, there will be bad influences on the child’s nature.  Therefore, to be temperate during pregnancy is very important.  One cannot be careless about this matter!

 

 

 

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