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老人言-10 (中翻英)
2013/04/23 00:09:44瀏覽290|回應0|推薦2

涅槃云:定(不分別)多慧(分別)少,不離無明;定少慧多,增長邪見。

The Sutra of Mahayana Mahaparinirvana stated: “more Samadhi (no differentiation) and less wisdom (differentiation) will not make one detach from ignorance; less Samadhi and more wisdom will increase one’s deviant views.”

選自《頓悟入道要門論》。

Excerpted from Treatise on the Essential Gateway to the Sudden Awakening of the Way.

 

【譯文】《涅槃經》中說:若定多於慧,則無法脫離無明。若定少於慧,則必定會增長邪見。

[Explanation]  The Sutra of Mahayana Mahaparinirvana stated that if there is more Samadhi and less wisdom, the practitioner cannot detach from ignorance; if there is less Samadhi and more wisdom, his deviant views will increase.

 

忍辱第一道,先須除人我,事來無所受(不執著也),即是真菩提。

The number one rule for the cultivation of tolerating humiliation is to get rid of the self-other duality first, without acceptance of the sensations caused by events (no attachments) is true Bodhi.

選自《頓悟入道要門論》。

Excerpted from Treatise on the Essential Gateway to the Sudden Awakening of the Way.

 

【譯文】忍辱是修行(修行忍辱)的第一個方法,首先必須排除是非人我的分別,遇到事不執著,沒有成見,處世待人接物,一切隨緣,這是真正的智慧覺悟。

[Explanation]  The number one rule for the cultivation of “tolerating humiliation” is to get rid of the self-other, right/wrong duality first; without attachment to people, things, or events, without bias; and to flow with the causes and conditions in the treatment of human relationships and matters; this is true wisdom, awakening, and enlightenment.

(Tolerating Humiliation is one of the six paramitas for the cultivation of bodhisattvas.)

 

大珠和尚云:「我今意況大好,他人罵時無惱,無言不說是非,涅槃生死同道,識達自家本宗,猶來無有青草。一切妄想分別,將知世人不了。寄言凡夫末代,除卻心中藁草。」

The Venerable Master Da Zhu said: “My mental state is now in a great condition: without resentment when others reprimand me; silent and do not speak of rights or wrongs; nirvana and life/death are from the same origin; awakened to my original home and ancestors (traditions of the school of my practice? self-nature?).  There has never been any green grass.  All are delusions and differentiations, which will not be understood by the ordinary people.  My parting words to sentient beings in the Dharma-Ending Era are ‘eradicate the weeds (withered straws) in your mind’.”

選自《頓悟入道要門論》。

Excerpted from Treatise on the Essential Gateway to the Sudden Awakening of the Way.

 

【譯文】大珠和尚說,現在我的心意境界很好,對於別人的謾罵不會生煩惱。「靜坐思己過,無言不論人非。」只為證得生死不二的涅槃境界,洞達自己的本性,正本清源,返璞歸真,顯現圓滿的佛性。

[Explanation]  The Venerable Master Da Zhu said: “My mental state is now in a great condition.  I do not have the affliction of resentment when people reprimand me.  ‘Silently meditate and contemplate only my errors; do not speak of the rights and wrongs of others.’  All for the realization of the state of non-duality that nirvana is the same as life and death.  I am fully awakened to my original-nature; corrected from the base and purified from the fountainhead. I have returned to simplicity and restored to the noumenon; and the manifest of the supreme and perfect Buddha-nature.

一切妄想和分別執著這些雜念,世人不能了斷,帶來無盡的煩惱,奉勸末法時代的凡夫俗子,要斷除私心雜念穢根蕪草,從而淨化自己的身心。

All the delusional thoughts, differentiations, and attachments are like weeds, which ordinary people cannot uproot.  My parting words to all sentient beings in the Dharma-Ending Era are to eradicate selfish, impure, and wandering thoughts, which are like weeds, withered straws, and decayed roots; henceforth purify your body and mind.”

 

孔子曰:「道者所以明德也,德者所以尊道也。是故非德不尊,非道不明。雖有國焉,不教不服。是故昔者明主,內修七教,外行三至。七教修焉,可以守;三至行焉,可以征。七教不修,雖守不固;三至不行,雖征不服。」

Confucius said: “The Way is to illuminate the virtue; the virtue is to venerate the Way.  Therefore, without virtue the Way cannot be venerated, without the Way virtue cannot be illuminated.  A ruler may succeed to the throne, but without the teachings of the virtues of the Way, people will not be submissive (or accept him as their sovereign).  Thus, a sagacious ruler in the old days would implement the education of seven virtues internally (as home affairs) and the policy of the Three Extremes externally (as foreign affairs).  After the education of seven virtues is cultivated, the country can be defended; after the foreign policy of the Three Extremes is executed, the country can conquer the world.  Without the education of the seven virtues, the country’s defense cannot be fortified; without the policy of the Three Extremes, the country’s dominance will not be successful (not make people submissive).

選自《大禮記主言》

Excerpted from The Book of Rites Compiled by Dai Sr., “King’s Speech.”

 

【譯文】孔子說:所謂道,是用來彰顯德行的。德是用來尊崇道義的。所以沒有德行,道義不能被尊崇;沒有道義,德行也無法發揚光大

[Explanation]  Confucius said that the so-called Way is used to illuminate and manifest virtue; virtue is used to venerate and to conform to the Way.  Therefore, without virtue the Way cannot be venerated, without the Way virtue cannot be illuminated and developed.

即使取得了國家政權的君主,不實行道德教化人民,人民也不會服從。所以,古代賢明的君主,以身作則,踐行敬老、友悌、樂施、親賢、好德、惡貪、堅強果敢(果断),對外用最高明的至仁、至知、至和來治理國民。

A ruler may have the sovereignty of a country, but if he does not govern with virtue in order to educate and transform his countrymen, they will not be submissive (or accept him as their sovereign).  Thus, a sagacious ruler in the ancient times would lead by example and practice seven virtues: respect the old, befriend the siblings, enjoy charity, acquaint the sages, venerate the virtuous, abhor the greedy, and be persistent and courageous (decisive).  With respect to foreign affairs, he would implement the policy of the Three Extremes--extreme benevolence (reverence of the saints and sages in the world), extreme knowledge (of the virtuous and capable and reward them with the country’s riches), and extreme harmony.  This was how a sagacious ruler would govern his country and people. 

「七教」修養好了,就可以守國家。推行「三至」,國家開明的政治就可以傳播遠方。如果不修養「七教」,雖然護衛國家卻不牢固。如果不施行「三至」,出兵討伐敵人也難以獲得民心的支持。

After the education of seven virtues is cultivated, the country can be defended; after the policy of three extremes is executed, the reputation of the country’s excellent administration will spread wide and far.  Without the education of the seven virtues, the country’s defenses cannot be fortified; without the policy of the Three Extremes, the country’s dominance will not be accepted by the conquered.

 

孔子曰:「上敬老則下益孝,上順齒則下益悌,上樂施則下益諒,上親賢則下擇友,上好德則下不隱,上惡貪則下恥爭,上強果則下廉恥。民皆有別,則貞、則正,亦不勞矣。此謂七教。七教,治民之本也,教成是正矣。」

Confucius said: “If the upper class venerate the old, the lower class will be more pious; if the upper class are submissive towards the elderly siblings and follow the succession of ranks according to age, the lower class will be more respectful of their elder siblings; if the upper class enjoy their charitable work, the lower class will be more tolerant and forgiving; if the upper class befriend the sages, the lower class will be more selective in their friends; if the upper class venerate the virtuous, the lower class will not become hermits (or conceal their talents); if the upper class abhor greed, the lower class will be ashamed to compete and argue;  and if the upper are persistent and decisive, the lower class will know shame and cannot be bribed.  If all the people know their individual duties and proper roles, they will be correct and firm; thus, the ruler can govern by laissez-faire.  This is the so-called education of seven virtues.  The education of seven virtues is the basics of the governance of the people, once completed, all will be correct.”

選自《大戴禮記主言第三十九》。

Excerpted from The Book of Rites Compiled by Dai Sr., “King’s Speech, 39.”

 

【譯文】孔子說:在上位的人尊敬老者,在下位的人就會更加懂得孝敬。在上位的人恭順長者,在下位的人就會更加懂得順從長上。在上位的人樂於布施,在下位的人就會更加懂得寬恕和誠信。在上位的人親近有賢德的人,在下位的人就會更加懂得如何選擇朋友。

[Explanation]  Confucius said that If the upper class venerate the old, the lower class will be more pious; if the upper class are submissive of their elder siblings and follow the succession of ranks according to age, the lower class will be more respectful and submissive towards their older siblings; if the upper class enjoy their charitable work, the lower class will be more tolerant, forgiving, and honest; if the upper class befriend the sage and the virtuous, the lower class will be more knowledgeable of their selection of friends.

(andi’s note:  Westerners would not understand the difference between these two comparisons.  In Confucianism and western tradition, the succession to the throne or the becoming the head of a family clan is determined by the order of the age of children born by the wife, not the concubines.  Usually, the first born gets the throne, or the ranks of nobility, and the majority of family fortunes.  Only when the crown prince is really horrible, the subjects will argue to select the virtuous and capable.  So I think Confucius here is subtly referring to his preference of the succession by the order of age, 恭順長者 is the means to make the succession by age more acceptable.  The emphasis is on the order between the elder and the younger.  I think it may be clearer to the Westerners to add “follow the succession of ranks according to age” so they understand the reason and the benefits of such behavior.)

在上位的人愛好德行,在下位的人就不會隱匿賢者,敢於諫言。在上位的厭惡貪婪,在下位的人就會以貪爭為恥。在上位的人堅強果敢,在下位的人就會有廉潔知恥。人們都能各守本分、各盡職責,就能堅定有節操,中正不偏斜,在上位的治理起來,就不必費盡氣力。這就是「七教」。七教,是治理人民的根本,教化已成,人民就走入正道了

If the upper class venerate the virtuous, the lower class will be bold in giving counsel, not become hermits (or hide their sagaciousness), or hide the sages.  If the upper class abhors greed, the lower class will be ashamed to be greedy and competitive.  If the upper class is persistent and decisive, the lower class will know shame and not take bribery.  If the people can adhere to their proper positions and are responsible of their individual duties, they will have integrity and be correct and firm, without bias.  Thus, the ruler can govern without any efforts.  This is the so-called education of seven virtues.  The education of seven virtues is the basics of the governance of people; once successful, people will be on the correct way.

 

上者,民之表也。表正,則何物不正?是故君先立於仁,則大夫忠,而士信、民敦、工璞、商慤(quèquèquè音確)、女孝、婦聽。七教之志也。

The ruler is a role model for the people.  If the paradigm is correct, how can anything not be correct?  If the king is established in benevolence first, then his ministers will be loyal, his subjects trustworthy, his people simple and kind, the craftsmen pragmatic, the merchants honest, the children pious, and the wife submissive.  This is the aspiration of the education of seven virtues.

選自《大戴禮記主言第三十九》。

Excerpted from The Book of Rites Compiled by Dai Sr., “King’s Speech, 39.”

 

【譯文】在上位的人,是人民的榜樣。榜樣端正了,還會有什麼人事是不端正的呢?因此,君王先做出仁德的表率,那麼大夫就會忠誠,讀書人就會誠信,人民就會厚道,工匠就會淳樸,商人就能誠實謹慎,女子(未婚者)能孝順父母,婦人(已婚)能順從公婆和夫君。這就是七教所要達到的目標。

[Explanation]  The ruler is the role model for the people.  If the paradigm is correct, how can anything not be correct?  If the king is established in benevolence first, then his ministers will be loyal, his subjects trustworthy, his people simple and kind, the craftsman pragmatic, the merchants honest, the children pious, and the wife submissive (towards her parents-in-law and her husband).  This is the goal that should be achieved by the education of seven virtues.

(all children regardless of sex or marital status should be pious. I think, in choosing the word is to use the lowest to include the higher.  If a girl needs to be pious, how could a boy not be pious? So I think the explanation should just use children, not “unmarried daughter should be pious,” which will raise many questions.)

 

上之親下也如腹心,則下之親上也如保子之見慈母也。上下相親如此,然後令則從、施則行。

If a ruler treats his subjects the way he takes care of his heart and organs, then, his subjects will treat the king as if a cherished child seeing his loving mother.  If the upper and the lower have such an affinity, the king’s mandates will be followed and his policies implemented.

《大戴禮記主言第三十九》。

Excerpted from The Book of Rites Compiled by Dai Sr., “King’s Speech, No. 39.”

 

【譯文】如果在上位的人關懷下屬就如同愛護自己的腹心一般,那麼下屬對於上級的親愛之情,就會像襁褓中的嬰兒見到慈母那樣真誠地依順。上級與下屬之間能這樣相互親愛,那麼上級的命令就會得到遵從,政務就能得到實行。

[Explanation]  If a ruler cares about his subordinates the way he takes care of his heart and organs, then, his subordinates will treat him as if a cherished child taking refuge in his loving mother.  If the upper and the lower have such an affinity, the ruler’s orders will be followed and his policies implemented.

 

 

明主因天下之爵,以尊天下之士,此之謂至禮不讓而天下治。因天下之祿,以富天下之士,此之謂至賞不費而天下之士說,則天下之明譽興,此之謂至樂無聲而天下之民和。

A sagacious ruler will venerate the virtuous people of the world with ranks of nobility; this is called the extreme of propriety without modesty (from the virtuous in their acceptance of the ranks), thus the world is well governed.  To enrich the virtuous people of the world with the country’s resources, this is called the extreme rewards without wasting, thus making the virtuous happy.  As a result, the standards of honors are clear and widely promoted; this is called the extreme of music without sound, thus making the people harmonious.

選自《大戴禮記主言第三十九》。《孔子家語王言解第三》。

Excerpted from The Book of Rites Compiled by Dai Sr., “King’s Speech, No. 39,” “Family Discourse of Confucius, Explanation of the King’s Speech, Ch. 3.”

 

【譯文】賢明的君主憑藉著天下的爵位,使天下的賢能之人得到尊敬,這就是最高明的禮,不需謙讓就能使天下得到治理。依照天下的祿位,讓天下的賢能之人得到富足,這就是最高明的賞賜,不需耗費財物就能使天下的賢能之人得到喜悅。於是天下賢士的美好名聲就會得到盛行,這就是最高明的音樂,縱然沒有聲音,而天下百姓都能夠和睦安樂。

[Explanation]  A sagacious ruler will venerate the virtuous people of the world with ranks of nobility; this is called the extreme of propriety, without the yielding of the ranks from the virtuous, the world is thus well governed.  To enrich the virtuous people of the world with the country’s resources, this is called the extreme rewards without wasting, thus making the virtuous happy.  As a result, the standards of honors are clear and widely spread; this is called the extreme of music without sound, thus making the people harmonious, happy, and secure.

 

所謂天下之至仁者,能合天下之至親;所謂天下之至知者,能用天下之至和者也;所謂天下之至明者,能選天下之良者也。此謂三至。

The so-called utmost benevolent person of the world can make all the people in the world to treat each other as family (to make people of the closest relationship homogeneous); the so-called utmost knowledgeable person of the world can have the most harmonious persons for his use (employ talents to make the world harmonious); the so-called utmost wise person of the world can select the most capable persons of the world.  This is called the “Three Utmosts.”

選自《大戴禮記主言第三十九》。

Excerpted from The Book of Rites Compiled by Dai Sr., “King’s Speech, No. 39.

  【譯文】所謂天下最仁愛的人,是能聚合天下成為親密如一家人者。天下最有智慧的人,是能夠使天下成為最和睦、和諧者。。天下最聖明的人,是能推舉任用天下善良的賢才者。這就是三「最」。

[Explanation]  The so-called utmost benevolent person of the world can make all the people in the world to treat each other as close family members; the so-called utmost knowledgeable person of the world can employ the most harmonious persons of the world to make the world harmonious and peaceful; the so-called utmost wise person of the world can select the most capable and virtuous persons of the world (to make the people of the world live in prosperity and social order).  This is called the “Three Utmosts.”

 

 

 仁者,莫大于愛人;知者,莫大於知賢;政者,莫大於官賢。中庸曰:為政在人也。

There is nothing more than loving his people for the benevolent; nothing more than knowing the sages for the knowledgeable; nothing more than selecting the sagacious officials for the ruler.  The Doctrine of Moderation (the Book of the Middle Way) stated: “Govern by the (right) people.”
選自《大戴禮記主言第三十九》。

Excerpted from The Book of Rites Compiled by Dai Sr., “King’s Speech, No. 39.

 

  【譯文】所謂仁德,莫過於愛人。所謂智慧,莫過於能夠發現賢能之士。所謂政事,莫過於選拔任用賢良之才。中庸上說:為政的關鍵在於選賢任能。

[Explanation]  There is nothing more than loving his people for the benevolent; nothing more than knowing the sages for the knowledgeable; and nothing more than selecting the sagacious officials for the ruler.  The Doctrine of Moderation (the Book of the Middle Way) stated:  “Govern by the right people.”

 

孔子曰:「古之為政,愛人為大,所以治。愛人,禮為大,所以治。禮,敬為大,敬之至也,是故君子興敬為親,舍敬是遺親也;弗愛不親,弗敬不正。愛與敬,其政之本與!」

Confucius said: “Rulers in ancient times would greatly stress the importance of the love for his people in their governance, thus they had good administrations.  Propriety is the greatest manifestation of the love for people; the result is good governance.  Reverence is the greatest manifestation of Propriety, the utmost of respect.  Therefore, a gentleman (ruler) elevates respect to show kinship (affinity to his people); abandon respect is like neglecting one’s parents.  Without love, families will not be close; without respect, there will be misconducts.  Love and respect are the basics of governance.”

 

 

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