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老人言-9 (中翻英)
2013/04/22 23:59:47瀏覽380|回應0|推薦2

治國(共和):法,國之本也;人(聖賢君子),法之根源也。

To govern a country (the republic):  the law is the foundation of a country; people (such as saints, sages, and gentlemen) are the origin, source of the law.

平天下(大和):國、政、族、教,平等對待,和睦相處。湯以七十里王天下,文王以百里王天下。

World peace (great comity):  to treat/respect all countries, governments, races, and religions equally and in harmonious relations.  King Tong ruled an area of 70 Li but had sovereignty over the whole continent; likewise, King Wen, with an area of 100 Li, reigned over the whole continent.

 

【譯文】《大學》講的明明德,就是講明瞭宇宙萬事萬物的本體,以佛法言,就是證入真實之際、真如之性。

[Explanation]  “To illuminate the clarity of virtues,” according to the Confucian classic of Da Xia (The Great Learning), is explaining the essence of the myriads of things in the universe.  In the Buddhist terminology, it is the realization of the realm of absolute reality, the true and sameness of Self-Nature.

 

親民就是德的表現,以佛法言就是以 大悲大慈,幫助眾生得到真實的利益。

“Affinity to the people” is the manifest of ethics.  According to Buddha-Dharma, it means to help all sentient beings to receive real benefits, with the greatest compassion and loving-kindness.

 

止於至善就是「明明德與親民」的作用,用真實的智慧,善巧方便,達到清淨平等覺這個目標。具體落實在八目:

第一、格物,就是格除物欲,格除物欲即是放下,放下自私自利、放下名聞利養、放下五欲六塵、放下貪瞋痴慢。

“To stop at the ultimate goodness” is the effect or function of “illuminating the clarity of virtues” and “affinity to the people.”  It means to apply the supreme wisdom, the skillful and expedient to reach the goal of purity, equality, and enlightenment; which can be actualized through the sequence of the following eight stages:

 

1st stage:  The eradication of materialistic desires:  to eradicate the avarice for things; which means to let go, to let go of selfishness, self-interests, fame, reputation, riches, offerings; to let go of the five cravings and the six sensations; and to let go of greed, anger, stupidity, and pride. 

 

第二、致知,就是發上求佛道,下化眾生之心,深信念佛是因成佛是果,讀誦大乘經典,勸進一切有緣眾生,同發菩提心,念佛求生淨土,圓成佛道。

2nd stage:        To attain wisdom is

to avow that one will seek upwards the way to become a buddha and downwards the way to help and transform sentient beings;

to deeply believe that the Buddha-name recitation is the cause to enlightenment and the result is attaining Buddhahood;   

to read and recite the Mahayana scriptures;

to advise all sentient beings, who have causal connections with us, and jointly proclaim the Bodhicitta;

to chant the name of Buddha Amitabha, and wish to reborn into His pure land, and to attain enlightenment through the supreme, perfect tradition.

 

第三、誠意,以佛法言,就是不執著、不分別、不起心、不動念,方能使自己的意念達到誠敬無妄。

3rd stage:  Sincerity of the mind:  According to Buddhist terminology, it means to be without attachments, without differentiations, without thoughts arising, without the heart stirring, in order to make one’s thoughts and motivations reach the state of sincerity and reverence, without falsehood. 

第四、正心,欲端正自己的心,必須要做到仁愛、道義、忠實、寬恕;將心比心,推己及人。

4th stage:  Correctness of the mind:  in order to correct one’s mind, one must be benevolent, righteous, loyal, tolerant and forgiving, empathetic (to put oneself in other’s shoes), and to consider others while considering oneself.

第五、修身,具體落實在五倫、五常、四維、八德,以及佛家的五戒、十善,這是修身的具體科目。

5th state:  Cultivation of the person:  manifested and actualized in the five ethical relationships, the five constant morals, the four cardinal supports, the eight virtues, and the five precepts and ten virtuous karmas of Buddhism.  These are the actual categories for self-cultivation.

第六、齊家,就是管理自己的家庭,要有家道、家規、家學、家業。

6th stage:  To rule/unify the family is to manage one’s family with mottos, family rules, family education, and family business.

第七、治國、就是治理國家,要有共識、和睦,依法行政,是治國的根本;聖賢君子是法的根源。

7.  To govern a country is to administer a country through consensus, harmony, and according to the law.  Law is the foundation of the governance of a country.  The saints, sages, and gentlemen are the roots and source of law.

 

第八、平天下,天下太平(安泰祥和),要做到國與國之間,政黨與政黨之間,種族與種族之間,宗教與宗教之間,平等對待,和睦相處。

8th stage:  World peace:  to have peace on earth (safe, prosperous, auspicious, and harmonious); to reach the state whereas the relationships between countries, political parties, ethnic groups, and religions are all harmonious; and all are equally treated. 

王:為天下王。出自《孟子》。商湯王僅以七十里之地而能行王道於天下,為天下做出了榜樣;周文王僅以百里之地而能行王道於天下,為天下做出了榜樣,都是由於遵循了以上格物致知誠意正心修身齊家治國平天下的規律。

(Benevolent) King:  to be the (quasi) king of the world (not a ruler of a super country, or in terms of geographic area), from the Book of Mencius.  King Tong ruled an area of 70 Li but could let the whole continent implement the benevolent way of his rule; his regime was a paradigm for the world.  Likewise, King Wen ruled an area of 100 Li, but could let the whole continent implement his benevolent way of governance; and his regime was a paradigm for the world.  It is all because they followed the principles of eradicating desires, attaining wisdom, correcting the mind, cultivating the person, unifying the clan, governing the country, therefore, peace on earth was achieved.

  

君子養心,莫善於誠;致誠無他,唯仁之守,唯義之行。誠心守仁,則能化;誠心行義,則能變。變化代興,謂之天德。不誠,則不能化萬物;不誠,則不能化萬民。誠者,君子之守而政事之本也。君子恥不修,恥不信,恥不能,不恥不見用。是以不誘於譽,不恐於誹,率道而行,端然正己,不為物傾側,是謂之君子。

There is nothing more beneficial than sincerity for a gentleman’s cultivation of the mind.  To attain sincerity means nothing more than the keeping of one’s benevolence; and nothing more than the practice of one’s righteousness. With a sincere heart and the upkeep of benevolence, all can be transformed; with a sincere heart and the practice of righteousness, all can be transcended.  Such transformation and transcendence, replacing the old, manifest the virtue of Heaven.  Without sincerity, things cannot be transformed; without sincerity, people cannot be inspired.  Sincerity is a gentleman’s upkeep and the basis for (the administration of) governmental affairs.  A gentleman is ashamed for his lack of self-cultivation and credibility.  He is ashamed for the lack of such abilities (or virtues, characteristics), but not ashamed for his lack of regards or recommendations for employment.  He will not be tempted by fame, nor afraid of slander; practice within the boundaries of the Way, pristinely correct himself; and never slide off because of material things; such is a gentleman.

選自《群書治要》卷三十八之《孫卿子》

Excerpted from A Compendium of Books on the Essentials of Governing, vol. 38, “Sun Ching Zi.”

【譯文】君子修養心性,沒有比真誠更好的了。要做到至誠,沒有其他方法,唯有信守仁德,實踐道義。以至誠心來守住仁德,就能教化百姓;以至誠心行使道義,就能改尚風俗,變易人們的舊習,使民心向善。

[Explanation]  There is nothing more beneficial than sincerity for a gentleman’s cultivation of the mind.  There is no other way to reach the state of ultimate sincerity except by believing and keeping the virtue of benevolence and practicing the righteous way.  With an utmost sincere heart to keep the virtue of benevolence, one can educate and transform people; with an utmost sincere heart to practice the righteous way, one can change (nonvirtuous) mores, transform people’s bad habits, and inspire people to be good. 

善良風俗代而興起,如此可說是與天同德不真誠就不能化育萬物,不真誠就不能感化萬民。真誠,是君子遵循的品德操守更是治理國家的根本君子以不修德行為恥,以不誠實守信為恥,以自己不賢能為恥,不以不被瞭解不被任用為恥。因此君子不會被虛假的聲譽所誘惑,去追求名譽;不會恐懼小人的誹謗,遵循道義而行,端正自己的身心,不被外物所動搖。這樣就可以叫做君子了。

When kind and virtuous mores replaced the old, it can be said as to have the same virtue as Heaven.  Without sincerity, things cannot be transformed; without sincerity, people cannot be inspired.  Sincerity is a gentleman’s upkeep of his morals and the basis for governing a country.  A gentleman is ashamed for not cultivating virtues, for his lack of honesty and credibility, and the abilities to be a sage, but not ashamed for being misunderstood or unemployed.  Therefore, a gentleman will not be tempted by the illusions of esteem and thereby chasing fame; nor be afraid of slander by vile people.  He will practice within the Way of righteousness, pristinely correct himself; and never vacillate by external temptations; such a person can be called a gentleman.

 

 

  有亂君,無亂國;有治人,無治法。禹之法未亡,而夏不世主;文武之法猶存,而周不世王。故法不能獨立,得其人則存,不得其人則亡

There had been tyrants while his country was not in chaos; there had been good rulers while his country was without good laws.  The laws established by King Yu had not been abolished, yet his kingdom, the Shia Dynasty, was overthrown; while the laws established by King Wen and King Wu were still in existence, their empire, the Zhou Dynasty, already vanished.  Therefore, the law is without independence, it survives with the administrator, without such a person, the law becomes obsolete.

法者,治之端也;人(君子)者,治之源也。故有君子,法雖省,足以遍矣;無君子,法雖具,足以亂矣。故明主急得其人,身逸而國治。愛民而安,好士而榮。公道達而私門塞,公義明而私事息。德厚者進,而佞悅止;貪利者退,而廉節者起。

The law is the beginning of governance; but the person (gentleman) is the source of governance.  If there is a gentleman (ruler), even if the law is very simple, it will suffice to rule the world; without a gentleman (ruler), even if the law is comprehensive, it is enough to cause upheavals.  Therefore, a sagacious ruler is desperate for the right people (to put his country in good hands), he can then be in leisure while his country operates smoothly.  If a ruler loves his people, his country will be safe.  If he honors the capable and virtuous, his country will be prosperous.  If the public affairs are open and just, the backdoor shenanigans will be blocked.  If the public laws are just and fair, underhanded dealings will stop.  If men of rich virtues are put in high positions, the sycophants cannot exist with their flatteries.  If people who have integrity (and cannot be bribed) are advanced, those greedy for profits have to retreat.

選自《群書治要》卷三十八之《孫卿子》

Excerpted from A Compendium of Books on the Essentials of Governing, vol. 38, “Sun Ching Zi.”

 

  【譯文】有亂國的君主,沒有自行混亂的國家。有治人,無治法。夏朝開國之君大禹王所制定的法規並沒有滅亡,而夏禹的後代沒有堅持下去,所以不能世世代代做君主。周文王、周武王為周朝確立的法度尚存,但是周朝的後代子孫不能遵循,所以不能世代永遠為王。

[Explanation]  There had been tyrants while his country was not in chaos; there had been good rulers while his country was without good laws.  The law established by King Yu, the first king of the Shia Dynasty, had not yet been abolished, his kingdom was already overthrown; it was because his descendants failed to followed his law so they could no longer be kings for generations to come.  Likewise, the laws established by King Wen and King Wu were still in existence, yet their empire, the Zhou Dynasty, already vanished, because their descendants failed to obey their laws.

所以法規再好,它不能獨立存在,唯有教導出賢人君子,這個法規才能得以實施;失去了賢人君子,這個法就無法行之於世。聖人確立的法是國家平治的開端,而依法行事的人,才是國家得到治理的源頭。

No matter how good the law is promulgated, it cannot exist alone.  Only by teaching people to be sages and gentlemen, the law can be properly executed.  Without sages and gentlemen, even good laws cannot be effectively administered in the world.  The laws established by the saints are the inception of a good government, but the virtuous and capable people executing the law accordingly are the source of good governance. 

所以,國家如果有聖賢君子,那麼法規雖然簡省,也足以普遍得到治理;如果國家沒有聖賢君子,法令制度雖然完備,但是也能夠令國家混亂。所以賢明的君主治理國家,第一急務就是得到受到良好教育的聖賢君子,如果得到賢才治理國家,君主就會身心安逸而國家平治,功績廣大,聲名美好。如果沒有賢德之人,小人當位,君王就會身心疲勞而國家混亂,功業不成而名節受辱。

To conclude, if there are saints, sages, and gentlemen (as administrators), even if the law is very simple, the country can be comprehensive (widely and capably) governed; without such excellent administrators, even if the law is comprehensive, the country can still be in upheavals.  Therefore, the first priority of a sagacious ruler is to find saints, sages, and gentlemen who had received good education.  If his country is in such capable hands, it will be peaceful and prosperous, accomplished in a myriad of great enterprises while he is in leisure and enjoys the reputation of a good king.  In contrast, without the virtuous and talented people, if the country is ministered by vile people, the king will work till him drop, his country in chaos, nothing is accomplished, and his reputation in tatters.

是故,賢明的國君重視人才,從而令國家垂拱而治。國君因為愛民如子而獲得安定的政治局面,因為禮賢下士而令國家繁榮。這樣就能令致力於為國效力者獲得重用,而以謀私利為目者無法得到任用。天下為公的正義得到彰顯而為謀一己私利的情況銷聲匿跡。德高望重的人或的職位而那些奸佞諂媚者難謀公職;貪心謀利者退下來,而廉潔有氣節的人則獲得聲望和地位。

            Thus, a sagacious king puts great emphasis on talents; hence he can rule by laissez faire (his country is well governed without his involvement, his hands in it).  A country that has a good administration is due to the benevolence of the king for his people.  A country is prosperous is due to the honors the king granted to the capable and virtuous.  In such a way, those who are dedicated to contribute their efforts to their country will be placed in high positions, those who only aim for private profits will not be hired.  Those policies for public justice and welfare will be advocated and implemented; those who scheme for personal profits will vanish.  Men of rich virtues are put in high places; those sycophants will disappear with their flatteries.  If people who have integrity and cannot be bribed are highly praised and put in high ranking offices, those greedy government officials scheming for profits have to retreat (retire, quit).

 

諸佛教人,持戒、修定、開慧。所謂因戒得定,因定開慧。戒者,規矩也;不以規矩,不成方圓。故持戒必先弟子規,次感應篇,次十善業、沙彌律儀,以奠根基。再以兩年,熟背古文二百篇,取得文言文之金鑰匙;則閱覽四庫,深入三藏,可以得心應手矣。而後,於儒釋道,取其一經一論,一門深入,十年熏修。

All the Buddhas teach people to adhere to the precepts, cultivate a meditative mind, and attain (recover) innate wisdom; the so-called “to attain Samadhi through precepts, to reveal innate wisdom through meditation.”  Precepts mean rules and disciplines; as said in the adage “without the tools of rulers and protractors, one cannot draw a square or a circle.”  An adherent of the precepts must lay a foundation first with the standards set in Di Zi Gui, then, the Chapters on Responses and Retributions, followed by the Sutra of the Ten Virtuous Karmas, and finally, the Precepts and Rituals for the Novice Monks in such an order.  Then, he should dedicate two years’ time to learn and memorize 200 essays written in the old texts, in order to get the golden key to the Chinese classics.  Thereafter, he should study the Emperor’s Treasured Library of the Four Branches of Knowledge; understand the Tripitaka so he can be an erudite Buddhist scholar.  Finally, he can choose one book, one sutra, or one treatise from Confucianism, Taoism, or Buddhism in order “to penetrate through one door, and to cultivate for ten years.”

 

【譯文】諸佛教導人們,要持戒、修定、開慧。這就是所說的因戒得定,因定開慧。其中戒的意思是規矩。沒有規矩,不成方圓。

[Explanation]  All the Buddhas teach people to adhere to the precepts, cultivate a meditative mind, and attain (recover) innate wisdom.  This is the so-called “to attain Samadhi through precepts, to reveal innate wisdom through meditation.”  Precepts mean rules and disciplines; as said in the adage “without the tools of rulers and protractors, one cannot draw a square or a circle.” 

因此持戒必須要首先學習《弟子規》,然後學習《太上感應篇》,而後學習《十善業道經》和《沙彌律儀》以此來奠定成佛、成聖、成賢的根基。再用兩年的時間,熟背二百篇古文,取得文言文的金鑰匙。閱覽四庫全書,深入經、律、論三藏典籍,就可以得心應手了。之後從儒釋道的經典中選取一本經論,一門深入,十年薰修。

Therefore, an adherent of the precepts must lay a foundation for becoming a Buddha, a saint, or a sage by first learning Di Zi Gui, then, the Chapters on Responses and Retributions, followed by the Sutra of the Ten Virtuous Karmas, and finally, the Precepts and Rituals for the Novice Monks.  Secondly, he should use two years time to dedicate his efforts to memorize and recite 200 essays written in the old texts in order to get the golden key to the Chinese classics.   Thereafter, he should study the Emperor’s Treasured Library of the Four Branches of Knowledge; understand the Tripitaka of the sutras, the precepts, and the treatises, so as to be an erudite Buddhist scholar.  Finally, he can choose one book, one sutra, or one treatise from Confucianism, Taoism, or Buddhism in order “to penetrate through one door, and to cultivate for ten years.”

 

  「教之道,貴以專。」十年專攻一經,即是持戒。常人三四年,即可得三昧(定),六七年不能澈悟,亦當成大悟(慧)。悟後起修,學儒必成聖賢、君子,學佛則成佛、菩薩,學道則成神、仙。此乃是人生真實大事因緣也。願天下有志者事竟成。

            “The best way to teach is to emphasize on specialization.”  To dedicate ten years to study only one sutra is adhering to the precepts.  Ordinary people can reach the state of Samadhi (meditation) within three to four years, and if he cannot be totally enlightened within six to seven years, he can reach the state of being awakened (innate wisdom).  After he is awakened, he can then cultivate.  Confucian disciples should cultivate to become saints and sages; Buddhist students should cultivate to become Bodhisattvas, or Buddhas; and the Taoist practitioners should cultivate to become celestial beings, or gods.  This is the most important thing in life and its realistic, attainable causes and conditions.  Wish all the success to those who have such aspirations. 

 

【譯文】「教之道,貴以專。」用十年的時間專門攻讀一部經,就是在持戒。平常人三四年後就可以得定,六七年後雖不能做到大徹大悟,也能成大悟(開慧)。

[Explanation]  “The best way to teach is to emphasize on specialization.”  To dedicate ten years to study only one sutra is adhering to the precepts.  Ordinary people can reach the state of Samadhi (meditation) within three to four years, and if he cannot be totally enlightened within six to seven years, he can reach the state of being awakened (innate wisdom). 

開悟之後起修,學儒一定能成為聖賢君子,學佛的一定能成為佛、菩薩,學道的一定成為神仙。讀經修行開慧,這是人生中最真實的大事因緣。願天下人,有志者事竟成。

After he is awakened, he can start to cultivate.  Confucian disciples should cultivate to become saints and sages; Buddhist students should cultivate to become Bodhisattvas, or Buddhas; and the Taoist practitioners should cultivate to become celestial beings, or gods.  To read cannons, to cultivate, and to attain innate wisdom are the most important things in life and their realistic, attainable causes and conditions are as outlined.  Wish all the success to those who have such aspirations. 

 

金剛經云:若有善男子、善女人,受持讀誦此經,若為人輕賤,是人先世罪業,應墮惡道;以今世人輕賤故,先世罪業,即為消滅;當得阿耨多羅三藐三菩提。

The Diamond Sutra stated: “if there are virtuous men or women who read, recite, and abide by this Sutra, and were humiliated by others, due to their crimes and evil karmas from past lives, which would have made them fall straight to the horrible planes of existences; because of such humiliation in this life, their crimes and evil karmas from past lives, are immediately eradiated; and they will attain Anuttara-Samyak-Sambodhi.”

選自《金剛經》。Excerpted from The Diamond Sutra.

 

【譯文】《金剛經》上講:如果有善男子、善女人,能受持讀誦這本經,反而被人輕賤(輕視、小看,甚至毀謗、譏刺、侮辱),這是因為他前世造了極重的罪業,本應墮入三惡道(地獄道、餓鬼道、畜生道)受盡種種苦難,但因今世被人輕賤的緣故,先世的罪業就被消滅了。應當成就圓滿佛果。(注:梵語阿耨多羅三藐三菩提,中文直譯為無上正等正覺,就是佛。)

[Explanation]  The Diamond Sutra stated that if there are virtuous men or women who read, recite, and abide by this Sutra, instead of being honored, they were humiliated (looked down upon, demeaned, or even slandered, ridiculed, vilified) by others.  This is due to their heavy crimes and evil karmas from past lives, which should have made them fall straight to the three evil planes of existences (of hell, hungry ghosts, and animals) to suffer a myriad of tortures.  Because they were humiliated in this life, their crimes and evil karmas from past lives are immediately eradiated; and they will attain the supreme, perfect, wisdom of Buddhahood.  (The Sanskrit word “Anuttara-Samyak-Sambodhi” was translated into Chinese as the supreme, correct, enlightenment, which is a Buddha.

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