|字體：小 中 大|
Excerpted from A Compendium of Books on the Essentials of Governing, vol. 1, “Book of Changes, Doctrines of the Divinations, The First Half.”
[Explanation] Confucius said: “A gentleman must first protect his body before he takes action; must make sure his mind is tranquil before he speaks; must treat people honestly to establish trust and credibility before requesting something from others. A gentleman who practices these three things can comprehensively protect himself from harm.”
A gentleman (ruler) will not forget danger while secure; will not forget annihilation while established; will not forget upheavals while in peace; thus, he is secure in person, and his country is also protected.
Excerpted from A Compendium of Books on the Essentials of Governing, vol. 1, “Book of Changes, Doctrines of the Divinations, The Second Half.”
[Explanation] A gentleman ruler will not forget the hidden risk of calamities while enjoying serenity and happiness; will not forget the danger of annihilation while his state is established; and will not forget the threat of upheavals while in peace and order; thus, he is secure in person, and his country is also protected.
The Way of Heaven is Yin and Yang; the Way of Earth is gentle and firm; the Way of mankind is benevolence and righteousness.
Excerpted from A Compendium of Books on the Essentials of Governing, vol. 1, “Book of Changes, Hexagram of Guan (Contemplation).”
[Explanation] The rules of operation for Heaven are the interchange of Yin and Yang; the rules of operation for Earth are the mutual benefits of gentleness and firmness; the standards of conduct for mankind are benevolence and righteousness.
◎中國特色: The characteristics of Chinese civilization are as follows:
Five ethical relationships: the affinity between father and son; the difference between the husband and wife; the righteousness between the king and his subjects; the order between the elder and younger siblings; and the trustworthiness between friends.
The Five Constant Morals: benevolence, righteousness, etiquettes (propriety), wisdom, and trustworthiness.
The four cardinal supports: propriety, righteousness, integrity, and shame.
The eight virtues: loyalty, filial piety, benevolence, love, trustworthiness, righteousness, harmony, and peace.
重義循理 Emphasize righteousness and follow reason.
五倫出自《孟子》。 The Five ethical relationships are from the Book of Mencius.
The Five Constant Morals: benevolence, righteousness, etiquettes (rituals, propriety), and wisdom were delineated by Mencius. Dong Zhongsu of Han Dynasty added trustworthiness and made them into five morals, later on called the Five Constant Morals, or the Five Cardinal Virtues.
The Four Cardinal Supports were from Guan Zi. The Eight Virtues were promulgated by Dr. Sun Yet-Shian.
[Explanation] The characteristics of Chinese civilization are the five ethical relationships, the five constant morals, the four cardinal supports, and the eight virtues. If every one can put emphasis on righteousness and follow reason, families will have happiness, societies will be harmonious and peaceful; in other words, the country will be prosperous and the people safe.
The Five Ethical Relationships are:
1. The affinity between father and son, which is our true nature. Parents would love, protect, and educate their children, and children should respect their parents; perform filial duties; and show piety and submissiveness toward their parents. This is called the loving-kindness of the father and the filial piety of the son.
2. The difference between the husband and wife. When a male and female marry and become a couple, they each have different duties. The male should work outside the home and be responsible for the income of the family. The female should stay at home to keep the household in order, take care family members, help her husband, and teach the children (good manners).
3. The righteousness between the king and his subjects. The leader and his subordinates must obey and follow the way of righteousness.
4. The order between the elder and younger siblings. The elder brothers should treat his younger brothers as if friends, and the younger brothers should show respect to his older brothers, both will be polite towards each other and let the other have things first.
5. The trustworthiness between friends. In the relationship between friends, they should keep their promises. A person should advise his friends when they make mistakes and help them reform. He will help his friends to accomplish their good deeds and treat them, whether rich or poor, equally. Friends should be able to rely on each other and follow the way of righteousness; naturally, there will be trust between friends.
The Five Constant Morals--benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, and trustworthiness—are the five fundamental virtuous conducts. Constant means everlasting, consistent, never changing, never deviates even for a moment, thus it is called Constant.
四維The four cardinal supports:
1. Propriety: Propriety is a standard to restrain the bodily movements and facial expressions. Every movement, action, word, or smile must conform to propriety. A person whose mind is internalized with honesty and reverence, his external speech and conduct will naturally be proper.
2. Righteousness: Righteousness means to fulfill one’s obligations and to serve all sentient beings without seeking rewards, compensations, or rights and privileges.
3. Integrity: Integrity means not to take bribery, anything not belonging to oneself, or take advantages of others. It is the understanding that frugality is a virtue; to live within one’s station, without wasting a grain of rice or a sip of water in daily life.
4. Shame: to know shame, to be ashamed and/or remorseful. According to Chinese ethics, shame and remorse mean whether a person’s thoughts, motivations, speeches, and actions are conscionable and without regrets. Shame is what the Chinese call one’s conscious, it means to examine whether one’s thoughts, motivations, speech, and actions are conscionable. Remorse is a mental state caused by other’s opinions or criticisms. In other words, to know shame is a mental state aroused by the introspection of whether, internally, one violated one’s conscious, and externally, one aroused other’s criticisms or recriminations.
A person who knows shame will regulate his conducts; will introspect whether his thoughts, motivations, speeches, and actions are proper and virtuous; and whether his thoughts and actions will bring shame to his parents, ancestors, or against his own conscious. Would my actions not bring criticisms or recriminations of others? He uses inner strength and outer criticisms to control and discipline himself.
The Eight Virtues are the eight fundamental ethics mankind should have:
Loyalty: not biased, not personal, not deviant, a mindset of steadfastness (devotion).
Filial piety: the greatest foundation, origin, and spirit of Chinese civilization, as well as the foundation of the Mahayana Buddhism. Humans must show filial piety towards their parents and reverence to their teachers and elders.
Benevolence: benevolence is to love people; to put yourself in other’s shoes; to consider others when thinking about oneself; to not to do unto others what you would not have others done to you; and what I would not do willingly, I would not ask others to do either.
Love: love is the core essence of the traditional Chinese culture as well as the core essence of the universe. In the traditional Chinese culture, mothers teach “love” to her children at the embryonic stage. When the mother’s heart is loving, the fetus can feel it (will be responsive to it); this is called the embryonic education. After birth to three years of age, during these one thousand days, what should be taught to the child? It is to affirm his loving mind, everything the child sees, hears, or in contact with should be full of love. A child should not be allowed to see, hear, or in contact with anything that is in violation of a loving heart. This is the way to cultivate the child’s loving heart.
Trustworthiness: refers to the credibility of a person’s words, to be trustworthy is the basis of being a human. A person who keeps his words will take care with his responsibilities. He will do whatever he says, without lying or cheating. Such a person will be supported and helped by the general public. Confucius said: “A person without credibility cannot establish himself.” Thus, our ancestors deemed trustworthiness as the bottom line of ethics, a basic virtue, and called it the virtue of trustworthiness.
義：解釋如前。Righteousness: as explained above.
Harmony and peace: harmony is the cause and peace is the result; to be harmonious in associations with people and matter. If there is harmony, there will be no arguments. To live harmonious with others and to treat everyone equally, world peace can be achieved.
Emphasize righteousness and follow reason: emphasize means to pay special attention to; to give great importance to something. Righteousness means correct, just, and proper rationale or actions. “Follow” means to obey, to do something according to tradition. Reason means the rules and regulations of things.
To illuminate the clarity of virtues (essence): the realm of absolute reality, the true and the same; the self-nature.
Affinity to the people (forms): refer to the benefits of the realm of absolute reality; the greatest compassion and loving-kindness.
To stop at the ultimate goodness (effects/functions) (purity, equality, enlightenment): the supreme wisdom, the skillful, expedient means.
Actualized in the eradication of materialistic desires (to eradicate the avarice for things); let go (of selfishness, self-interests, fame, reputation, profits/riches, offerings, five cravings, six sensations, greed, anger, stupidity, and pride).
To attain wisdom: to proclaim Bodhicitta, to deeply believe in the law of cause and effect, to read and recite the Mahayana scriptures, and to advise practitioners and help their progress.
Sincerity of the mind: without attachment, without differentiation, without thoughts arising, and without the stirring of the mind.
Correctness of the mind: benevolence, righteousness, loyalty, forgiveness, and to consider others while consider oneself.
Cultivation of the person: the five ethical relationships, the five constant morals, the four cardinal supports, and the eight virtues (five precepts, ten virtuous karmas).
To rule/unify the family: family mottos, family rules, family education, and family business.
|( 不分類｜不分類 )|