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2013/04/13 04:39:44瀏覽349|回應0|推薦4

『與鬼神合其吉凶』,這條現在人不講了。其實,吉凶禍福與鬼神確實有關係。所以中國從前的社會秩序,最重要的一條就是祭祀。祭祀以什麼為主?以鬼神為主。鬼神是指自己的祖先。儒家十三經裡面講的鬼神,統統指自己的祖先。

With respect to “corresponding to the auspice and ferocity of the ghosts and gods,” this is no longer discussed by the modern people.  Actually, fortune, misfortune, merit, and calamity do have a real connection with the ghosts and gods. One of the most important things to maintain social order in ancient China is the rite of offerings.  Who is the principal in such offerings?  It is mainly to make offerings to the ghosts and gods.  The ghosts and gods here refer to our ancestors.  The ghosts and gods mentioned in the Thirteen Classics of Confucianism all refer to our ancestors. 

《論語》講,「非其鬼而祭之,諂也」,不是你自己的祖先,你去祭祀他,那你是巴結,這是不合理的。所以祭祀 要祭祀自己的祖先,這是對的。山川神祇,這個神祇不是自己祖先,那是屬於一個地方,一個國家的,有國君、地方官員,他來代表祭祀。我們平民不祭祀,平民只 祭祀祖先。所以五禮裡面,祭祀是吉禮。

In the Analects, it is stated that “an offering to ghosts other than your ancestors is obsequious.”  If one makes an offering to someone other than one’s ancestors, one is committing bribery, this is not proper.  So, when we conduct the rite of offerings, we make an offering to our ancestors.  This is correct.  The spirits/gods of mountains and rivers are not our ancestors; they belong to a place, or a country, and it is the place of the king or local officials to perform the rite of offerings to them.  It is not proper for citizens to perform such a ritual.  Citizens only make offerings to their ancestors.  Therefore, in the Five Rites, such offering is called the Rite of Auspice.

我們心善、行善就與鬼神合其吉,心惡、行惡就與鬼神合其凶。佛說「一切法從心想生」,小的是一個人,個人的 吉凶禍福,家庭的吉凶禍福;大就是我們講的共業,到整個社會,整個國家,乃至於整個世界。如果大家的念頭都是貪瞋痴三毒,就是與鬼神合其凶;大家都想戒定 慧,就與鬼神合其吉。

Our kind heart and good deeds correspond to the auspice of the ghosts and gods, our vile heart and evil deeds conform to their ferocity. The Buddha said “everything derives from the way we think,” whether it is as small a thing as the fortunes or misfortunes of a person, to the prosperity or ruination of a family; or whether it is as large a thing as an entire society, an entire country, or even the entire world, what the Buddhists call the “joint karma.”  In other words, if our thoughts are full of the three poisons of avarice, malice, and ignorance, they will correspond to the ferocious side of the ghosts and gods; if our thoughts are full of precepts, meditation, and wisdom, they conform to the auspice of the ghosts and gods.

「吉」,善神保佑,國泰民安,人民快樂幸福。「凶」,就跟惡神、羅剎結合在一塊,必定有災難。這是『世間聖人』,他完全能夠依照這個原理原則生活。

“Auspice” means the protection and blessings of the benevolent gods, which will make a country prosperous and the people secure, and all live happily and propitiously.  “Ferocity” means forming ties (striking a chord) with the non-benevolent gods, raksana (ghosts who eat human flesh), and certainly there will be disasters and ruinations.  This depicts the “secular saint,” he will totally follow and live by this principle.

 

                   君子以厚德物。

A gentleman uses his immense virtue to embrace (carry) all things.

 

選自《群書治要》卷一之《周易·坤卦》

Excerpted from A Compendium of Books on the Essentials of Governing, vol. 1, “Book of Changes, Hexagram of the Receptive (the Earth).”

 

【譯文】大地的氣勢厚實和順,君子應當敦厚自己的品德,接人待物,度量要像大地一樣,包容一切,沒有任何東西不能承載。

[Translation] The capacity and sustaining power of the Earth is immense, firm (solid), harmonious, and submissive.  A gentleman should solidify and enrich his virtues, to treat people and things with a mind as broad as the Earth, tolerating and embracing all things; nothing he cannot support and carry.

 

                   積善之家,必有餘慶;積不善之家,必有餘殃。

The family that accumulates goodness is sure to have superabundant happiness; the family that accumulates evil is sure to have superabundant misery.

選自《群書治要》卷一之《周易·坤卦》

Excerpted from A Compendium of Books on the Essentials of Governing, vol. 1, “Book of Changes, Hexagram of the Receptive (the Earth).”

 

【譯文】自古以來,凡是淳厚樸實、積德行善的人家,其德澤之厚,福蔭可以庇護後代子孫;積累惡行的人家,其負面影響之深遠,所帶來的災禍,必然殃及後代子孫。

[Translation] Since the ancient times, the richness of the merits accumulated from the good deeds of families that are unsophisticated, kind, honest, and tolerant, can protect their descendants; the far-reaching repercussion of negativity from families that accumulated evil deeds, and the disasters it brings, will definitely cause many misfortunes to their descendants.

 

君子敬以直內,義以方外,敬義立而德不孤。

A gentleman cultivates reverence to straighten his inner principles, righteousness to square his external acts; the establishment of his reverence and righteousness will not make his virtues solitary (or of a single class).

選自《群書治要》卷一之《周易·坤卦》

Excerpted from A Compendium of Books on the Essentials of Governing, vol. 1, “Book of Changes, Hexagram of the Receptive (the Earth).”

 

【譯文】君子內心正直無邪,嚴肅謹慎;對外能規範自己的言行,做事符合道義,為世人做榜樣。做到內心充滿恭敬,處世合乎道義,表裡如一,必然能感得同心同德者相從。

[Translation]  Internally, the mind of a gentleman is straightforward, pure and innocent, strict and serious, cautious and circumspect; externally, he can discipline his speech and conducts, everything he does conform to righteousness, and sets a paradigm for the world.  An inner mind full of reverence, the outer actions comport with righteousness; inner and outer merge as one, a gentleman can certainly attract people of like mind and virtue to follow him.

 

蒙以養正,聖功也。

To cultivate and correct the minds of the young is the endeavor of the saints.

選自《群書治要》卷一之《周易·蒙卦》

Excerpted from A Compendium of Books on the Essentials of Governing, vol. 1, “Book of Changes, Hexagram of Inexperience (the Youth).”

 

【譯文】童蒙教育之時就要用正道來培養,這是造就聖人的功業啊!

[Translation] The education of the young starts with the cultivation and nurturing of the correct way; this endeavor (accomplishment) of the saints begets their sainthood.

 

                   容民畜眾,開國成家。

Embrace the people and nurture the masses, establish states and reconstruct families.

選自《群書治要》卷一之《周易·師卦》

Excerpted from A Compendium of Books on the Essentials of Governing, vol. 1, “Book of Changes, Hexagram of the Discipline (Leader/Army).”

 

【譯文】能夠能容納人民,令其安居,此為「作之親」;繼而令大眾普遍有經濟收入,使其樂業,此為「作之君」;並且,在上位的領導人之所以能夠待民寬和,使其富足,是源於教育得當,此為「作之師」。如此,就可以建立邦國,成就家業。

[Translation]  The ability to embrace people and to settle them in safe environments is called “to be their parents”; thereafter, to make the public financially independent and happily employed is the meaning of “to be their leaders”; in addition, the reason the leaders can treat people with generosity and can enrich them originates from proper education, this is called “to be their teachers.”  In such a way, the leaders can establish states, countries, and reconstruct families (accomplish family enterprises?).

 

                   小人勿用,必亂邦也。

Never employ vile people; they will definitely put the state in turmoil.

                   選自《群書治要》卷一之《周易·師卦》

Excerpted from A Compendium of Books on the Essentials of Governing, vol. 1, “Book of Changes, Hexagram of the Leader (Army).”

 

【譯文】國家不可任用識見淺狹、人格卑劣的小人,即使曾經立功,也不可以任用他們,因為他們一定會擾亂國家,敗壞社會。

[Translation]  A leader of a country must not employ people of inferior knowledge, tunnel vision, and base character, even if they were successful in some endeavors, they cannot be employed for they will definitely disrupt the nation and corrupt the society.

 

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