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群書治要-5
2015/04/18 10:36:39瀏覽289|回應0|推薦2

Qunshu Zhiyao (A Compendium of the Essentials of Governance)    (Lecture 5) by Professor Yuli Liu  群書治要  (第五集)  劉余莉教授  

 

Respected friends, greetings!  Today we will continue with the Fourth Passage of Qunshu Zhiyao 360.

  尊敬的諸位朋友,大家好我們今天繼續學習《群書治要360》,我們看第四句:

 

“Color’s five hues from the eyes their sight will take;
Music's five notes the ears as deaf can make;
The flavors five deprive the mouth of taste;
The chariot course, and the wild hunting waste
Make mad the mind; and objects rare and strange,
Sought for, men's conduct will to evil change
[A1] .[1]

 

五色令人目盲。五音令人耳聾。五味令人口爽。馳騁田獵。令人心發狂。難得之貨。令人行妨。

 

This passage is selected from Qunshu Zhiyao vol. 34, Laozi (Dao De Jing or Tao Te Ching)[2].  “Color’s five hues from the eyes their sight will take,” this verse refers to the five solid colors of red, greenblue, redyellow, white, and black, and yellow.  Here “Color’s five hues” also imply the full spectrum of the colors and the kaleidoscope of visual contoursIn other wordsit cautions us that, over-indulgence in the kaleidoscope riots of colors, chasing after the kaleidoscope of visual contours a riot of colors or the pleasure of visual effects will make people’s lose their vital spiritualenergies, mental powers or Chi, and their spirits disperse externally, eventually harm their eyess and dull their visions.  The manifestation of this verse is more obvious in our modern society.  Especially after the invention of television, computer, and the Internet, more and more people become near-sighted and need to wear glasses.  Most of us are near-sighted and this verse points out the crucial reason for this phenomenon and that is [c]olor’s five hues from the eyes their sight will take.” Indulge in the stimulation of visual effects is detrimental to our eyesight.

這句話出自《群書治要》卷三十四《老子》。『五色令人目盲』,這個「五色」就是指青、赤、白、黑、黃五種顏色,在這裡也泛指各種顏色,以及五彩繽紛的色相。意思是說,過分地貪戀五花八門的色彩,追求五彩繽s紛的色相,注重視覺的享樂,會使人精氣神外散,讓眼睛受傷,視覺遲鈍。這句話在我們現代社會表現得更加明顯。特別是電視、網路、電腦發明以後,近視的人愈來愈多,戴眼鏡的人也愈來愈多。包括我們自己也是近視。什麼原因?這句話給我們指出了重要的原因,那就是「五色令人目盲」。沉溺於這些光刺激之中,對眼睛的傷害很大。

 

Here, “their sight will take” does not mean blindness only; it also means the blindness of the heart.  In other words, we cannot see the needs of others.  Since the invention of television, computer, and cell phone, more and more people wallow in the stimulation of the spectacular visual effects.  People spend more time seeing movies, watching TV programs, and play video games.  In contrast, they ignored the interactions between people; their family members no longer exist in their sight and they can no longer perceive the needs of people around them.  It is a common phenomenon nowadays to see people busy texting, reading text messages, or talking on their cell phones even in the social gatherings of classmates, friends, or colleagues.  With the development of modern science and technology, people rely more and more heavily on external communication devices.  In turn, the face to face direct communications become less and less; and the ability of telepathy, what the ancients would call the ability to read people’s mind by observing their visage and speech, is already a lost art.  If we observe other’s facial expressions, especially when we care about them, one look from their eyes will make us understand their physical and mental conditions.  Are they under pressure or such?  When we truly care for another person and constantly think of that person, we can even telepathically communicate with that person without seeing each other face to face.  The two minds can telepathically communicate with each other.  The ancients had demonstrated this ability showing that they had higher transcendental spirituality.

當然這個盲,不僅僅是指眼盲,而且還指心盲,也就是看不到別人的需要。自從電腦、電視、手機發明之後,愈來愈多的人過分地沉溺於絢麗多彩的色相刺激之中,把時間用來看電影、看電視、打遊戲,反而忽視了人與人之間的交流,因而看不到家人、周圍人的需要。甚至在同學、朋友、同事聚會的時候,大家都各自發各自的短信、各自看各自的微信、各自打各自的電話。所以隨著現代科學技術的發展,人們愈依賴外在的通訊工具,而人與人之間直接的交流卻愈來愈少,心與心的感應能力也愈來愈差。古人所謂的察言觀色,特別是當你特別關心一個人的時候,你看一下他的面目表情,他的一個眼神,你就知道他身心的狀況,他是不是有壓力等等。甚至你真正關心一個人的時候,心裡時時刻刻念著一個人的時候,兩個人都不需要見面,心與心之間就能夠互相感通。說明什麼?說明古人的靈性很高。

 

For example, once Zeng-zi[3] (505–435 BC), one of the Four Sages of Confucianism, was away from home and a friend came to visit.  His mother was very kind and became anxious about the two friends missing each other.  What can Zeng-zi’s mother do under such a situation?  Since she knew that mother and son can communicate with their hearts, she bit her finger.   At the same moment, Zeng-zi felt a sharp pain to his heart and knew immediately that something happened to his mother.  He hurried home and found that his mother was well and only a friend came to visit.  His mother was just using this method to notify him.

譬如說我們看曾子他有一次外出,家裡正好來了一個客人。他的母親很仁慈,不希望這個朋友來了看不到曾子,在情急之下怎麼辦?她就把自己的一個手指咬破了。母子連心,這個時候曾子就感覺到心猛一陣疼痛,知道母親有事了,於是就趕緊往回跑。結果回到家裡一看母親安好,只是家裡來了客人,母親是用這種方法通知他回家。

 

We may feel such story is unbelievable.  That is because parents are never on the mind of today’s children. All their thoughts are about selfish desires--chasing after external fame and riches.  They cannot see the needs of their mother even when she is right next to them.  Even if the mother were to bite all her fingers and bleed, the son will feel nothing.  This shows that modern people’s ability of telepathy and their spirituality are declining.

我們看了這樣的故事,感覺到好像不太可能因為現在人心裡沒有父母,念念都是自私自利,追求外在的名聞利養,結果母親的需要看不到,甚至母親在身邊,也不知道她真正的需要在哪裡。即使母親把手指都咬破了,這個兒子還沒有絲毫的感受。說明什麼?說明我們人感知人心的能力、靈性的能力愈來愈差了。

 

As for us practitioners, the purpose of cultivation is to elevate our spirituality.  Therefore, we must keep far away from the visual stimulations of televisions, computers, and cell phones.  Why our minds are no longer telepathic?  It is because our minds are totally occupied by desires, afflicted thoughts, and vexations; hence can no longer retain our innate supernatural powers.  The ancients had a phrase called “vacuous spirituality.”  This phrase is very interesting.  Only when we empty our minds can they become sensitive and alert in order to better perceive other’s needs.  In Buddhism there is a terminology called “Ceto-pariya-ñāna,” the intuitive mind or the supernatural power to know other’s mind.  This intuition that knows other’s mind actually is an innate ability of mankind.  The reason we don’t have such abilities any more is simply because we are lost in the external phenomena world and gradually our innate abilities are lost as well. 

對於修行人而言,修行的目的就是要提高自己的靈性。所以一定要遠離來自電視、電腦、手機的視覺刺激。人的心為什麼不靈了?就是因為被欲望、思緒、煩惱給佔滿了,所以才不靈。古人有一個詞叫「空靈」,這個詞很有味道。只有把心空掉,它才能變得靈敏,它才能夠更好地感知他人的需要。所以我們看佛教講「他心通」,這個實際上是人本具的一種能力。那為什麼現在喪失掉了?其實很簡單,就是愈來愈被這些外相所迷,自己的本能也就愈來愈喪失。

 

This is especially true of today’s people who live in the midst of (máng, busy) --(máng, blind) -- (máng, confused).  The first máng (, busy) combined the semantic of (meaning heart) and the phonetics of the word  (wáng, death, destruction)[4].  From this combination we can decipher what the word (máng, busy) is trying to tell us.  When we are hustled, our mind is engrossed with so many things, it can no longer be sharp and enlightened.  The second máng (, blind) is what the first verse is referring to-- we are blind to the needs of our family and the people around us.  The third máng (, confused) means confused, clueless.  Many people may have a successful career--success in the eyes of today’s people is symbolized by high income--but in exchange they only gained the grievances and resentment of family members, divorces from their (successive) wives, and losing the custody of their children.  Eventually, they become very confused, clueless, and innocently complained:  “I am so busy, working day and night, and isn’t everything I do for our family?  How come none of you understand me?”  Such complaint demonstrates that we have not seen the true needs of our family members.

特別是我們現在人都過著一種 --茫的人生。第一個「忙」是一個豎心加「亡」。看到這個字告訴我們什麼叫忙?當我們的事情很多的時候、很忙碌的時候,我們的心被這些事情所佔滿,它就不敏銳了,就不覺悟了。第二個「盲」就是這裡邊所講的眼盲的盲,看不到家人、周圍人的需要了。第三個「茫」就是茫然的茫。雖然自己事業很成功,而現在很多人事業成功的標誌就是賺了很多的錢,但是卻換得的是家人的怨聲載道、妻離子散。最後他就很茫然、不知所措,很無辜地說:「我這樣忙碌,這麼樣辛苦,不就是為了這個家嗎?但是為什麼大家都不理解我?」因為我們沒有看到家人真正的需要。

 

For example, on mother’s day, many reporters would interview successful people and ask them:  “What do you think is the best way to show filial piety to parents?”  These successful people would bombastically talk about making lots of money, buying good cars and big houses so that their parents can ride in limousines and live in mansions.  However, this is the way to display one’s riches so as not to lose face.  Then those reporters would interview these people’s mothers.  The reporters would ask:  “What do you think is the best way for your children to show filial piety?”  Surprisingly, all the mothers’ answers are the same without exception:  “I don’t want to live in mansion or ride in limousine; I just want my children to come home more often and to spend some time chatting with me.”  From this answer we can conclude that all our busy efforts chasing after monetary gains have blinded us to the true needs of our parents.  We may be busy working, but actually we are working for riches and fame, which cannot exchange for true happiness.

譬如說在母親節的時候,很多的記者都去採訪一些成功人士,問他們,說「你認為最好的孝敬父母的方式是什麼?」這些人開始誇誇其談他說那要掙很多的錢,要買好車子、要買好房子,讓我的父母坐上豪華轎車,住上大房子。這樣的話才很闊氣,他臉上也有光。這些記者又去採訪了這些人的母親就問她們,說「您認為兒女最好的孝敬您的方式是什麼?」沒有想到的是這些母親無一例外地回答說,我也不想要住什麼大房子,坐什麼豪華轎車,我只是希望我的兒女有時間多回家看看,陪我嘮嘮家常就夠了。所以你看我們因為工作的忙碌,追求財富的增長,看不到父母真正的需要在哪裡。雖然儘管很忙碌,其實也都是無非為了名利兩個字,沒有換來真正的幸福。

 

Of course, many people would argue that in this age we cannot live without TVs, computers, and the Internet.  If we do not understand these high-techs, our skills will become obsolete.  These arguments are specious.  In reality, fortune and calamity are interdependent.  Let’s look at the following story.

當然很多人看到了,說我們不看電視,也不上網、不用電腦,在這個時代,人的生活根本離不開這些高科技,不懂這些會被淘汰。這些看法其實是似是而非,實際上禍福是相依的。我們看這樣一個故事:

 

A middle-aged, unemployed man was looking for a job.  He saw that Microsoft Corporation (“Microsoft”) was looking for a janitor and applied for it.  The supervisor from Microsoft’s human resource department interviewed him and asked:  “Do you have access to the Internet?  If you are hired, we will post your employment on Microsoft’s website.”  The guy answered:  “I am sorry, but I don’t know how to use the Internet.”  The interviewer said:  “You are absurd.  How can you apply for a job at Microsoft and do not know how to use the Internet?”  He was shown the door.

有一個中年男子失業了,很想找一份工作,結果看到微軟公司正好在招聘清潔工,於是他就去應聘。微軟公司的人力主管給他面試,然後問他:「你會不會上網?如果你被錄取了,我們會在公司的網站上公布。」那個男子回答說:「對不起,我不會上網。」人力資源的主管說:「不會上網還想來微軟應徵,你有沒有搞錯?」說完就把他給趕了出去。

 

The man was a little upset and found that he only had ten dollars left.  Suddenly, he had an inspiration and bought a large bag of potatoes in the market and started to sell his potatoes door to door.  Unbelievably, he quickly sold all the potatoes and made a profit of U.S. $30.00.

那個男子走出門外,感覺到有一些失意,摸一摸身上僅有十元美金。他靈機一動,在商店買了一大袋馬鈴薯,然後就開始挨家挨戶地去拜訪並且去販售他的馬鈴薯。但是沒有想到,很快就把這些馬鈴薯都賣完了,並且因此還賺了三十元的美金。

 

From then on he worked even harder to sell his potatoes door to door everyday.  Gradually, he had his own business.  With a few hundred dollars, he started a company to distribute fresh produce and soon established a big chain store.  Eventually, he became a billionaire.

從那以後他更加勤苦,每一天都挨家挨戶去拜訪並且銷售他的馬鈴薯,慢慢開始了他的創業生涯。從數百元美金,到開設了一個新鮮蔬果宅配公司,並建立了很大的連鎖店,最終他成了億萬富翁。

 

One day a salesperson came to sell insurance to this billionaire.  Before leaving his office, the salesperson said: “All of our company’s insurance products are introduced in detail on the Internet.  If you have any needs, we can provide you with instant service.” The billionaire replied: “I don’t know how to use the Internet.”  The salesperson was greatly surprised and asked: “How can you manage such a big company without knowing how to use the Internet?” The billionaire told the story of his interview for the janitor job at Microsoft and said: “if I knew how to use the Internet at the time, I would still be a janitor today.”

有一天,有一位保險業務員來找這位億萬富翁推銷保險,臨走之前這個保險業務員說:「我們公司的產品在網上都有很詳細的介紹,如果您有任何需要,我馬上可以服務。」這位億萬富翁說:「我不會上網。」保險業務員很驚訝地說:「您身為億萬富翁,掌理這麼大的事業,竟然不會上網?」於是這位億萬富翁就把他當年到微軟應徵清潔工的故事告訴了這個業務員,並且說:「如果我當年會上網的話,我到現在可能仍然是一個清潔工。」

 

The fortune and calamity in life are interdependent and can transmute.  Sometimes a calamity may actually be a blessing in disguise.  As the ancient proverb has said in the story of “the old man from the frontier losing his horse, how could anyone have known that it would not be fortuitous?”  Therefore, in today’s society we cannot follow the crowd, drift with the currents, or conform to other’s opinions (by peer pressure).  We must differentiate between right and wrong, good and bad, aesthetics and ugliness.  What are their standards?  It all depends on whether they are on a par with our innate virtues.

所以人生的禍福都是相依存的、相轉換的。有的時候看起來這個是一個禍,但是實際上他可能因禍得福,所以「塞翁失馬,焉知非福」。所以在現代社會,我們不能夠隨波逐流、人云亦云,要懂得明辨是非、善惡、美醜。是非善惡美醜的標準是什麼?就看它與性德是不是相應。

 

Why do practitioners stress on the importance of personal cultivation?  It is because “[t]he Way to Great Learning is to illustrate the illumining virtues; to have an affinity with the people; and to rest in the highest excellence[5],” as stated in the prologue of the Great Learning.  The purpose of personal cultivation is to illustrate the illumining virtue, to unveil our innate virtuous luminosity and make it manifest.  Our original nature is pure and never stainable.  It is still, never changing, and forever illumining.  How come our original nature does not illuminate anymore?  The reason is simple.  It is obstructed or concealed by selfish desires and external phenomena.  Our mind seeks externally without cessation; hence it is further and further away from its pure and pristine original nature.

修行人特別重視修身。為什麼重視修身?《大學》的開篇就說:「大學之道,在明明德在親民,在止於至善。」修身的首要目的就是明明德,使自性本具的明德給它開顯出來。人的本性本自清淨無染,寂而常照,那為什麼現在變得不明?原因很簡單,就是被私欲、外物所障蔽。因為人心不斷向外馳求,所以就離本自清淨愈來愈遠。

 

Our true nature “neither moves nor stays,” or our self-nature originally is undisturbed, as the Six Patriarch of Chan Buddhism, Venerable Master Hui-neng[6] had said.  The mind that moves or is disturbed is called the false heart.  Actually, our true heart and our false heart are one and the same (in the noumenon).  When it is still or immobile, it is called the true heart; when it is disturbed, it is called the false heart. The patriarchs often used water and wave to analogize their relation.  They are one entity and not two, just like water and wave are one and the same.  When the water is disturbed, waves are produced like the false heart.  When the water is still like a mirror, not moving, it is just water without waves like our true heart.  Therefore, when our mind is reposed, when there are no thoughts activated, no differentiation nor obstinate attachments as instructed in Buddhism, at such moments, our true heart is revealed.   

人的真心就像惠能大師所說的「本無動搖」能動的就是妄心。其實這個真心和妄心是一個心,它不是兩個心。不動的時候就叫真心,動了的時候就叫妄心。所以你看古人常用水和波的關係表明真心和妄心的關係。真心和妄心是一不是二,就像水和波是一不是二的道理是一樣的。當水波動的時候,它就是波,就是妄心;當水平如鏡的時候,不動的時候,它就是水,就是真心。所以你把這個心定下來,佛教上講不起心不動念、不分別不執著的時候,這個心就是真心。

 

Why people’s mind is disturbed?  Our deluded mind’s disturbances are the affections conditioned upon the external world.  Therefore, in the Book of Rites, the “Records of Music” began with

 

“All the modulations of the voice arise from the mind, and the various affections of the mind are produced by things (external to it).  The affections thus produced are manifested in the sounds that are uttered….  On this account the ancient kings were watchful in regard to the things that affect the mind[7].” 

 

This prose tells us that the disturbance of the deluded mind is produced by external phenomena.  The various affections of the mind are responses to things external to it (like wind making waves on the water).  In other words, our eyes are beguiled by the five hues of colors; our ears are attached to the five notes of music; our tastes are lured by the five flavors of food; our mood swings accordingly; and eventually our mind loses its originally correct and temperate state.

人心為什麼會動?人心之所以會妄動都是緣於外境的感發。所以《禮記.樂記》上說:「人心之動,物使之然也。感於物而動……是故先王慎所以感之者。」這句話告訴我們,人心之所以會妄動,都是外物使它產生了波動,感於外物而發的。也就是說你眼見色被五色所迷惑,耳聞聲被五音所牽引,口嘗味被五味所誘惑,這個本心就會隨而遷化,喪失了本有的中正狀態。

 

“On this account the ancient kings were watchful in regard to the things that affect the mind.”  For beginners especially, to recover their illumining virtues, to hold onto their original nature, they must first be prudent in what they see and hear.  In other words, adhere to what Confucius had instructed:  “Look not at what is contrary to propriety; listen not to what is contrary to propriety; speak not what is contrary to propriety; make no movement which is contrary to propriety[8].”  This instruction was also the methodology prescribed by Master Cheng (Cheng-zi, 1033-1107)[9], an influential neo-Confucian scholar of Song dynasty.  Master Cheng said: “To renounce the external in order to cultivate the mind.”  Master Cheng was prohibiting what one sees, hears, eats, speaks of, and thinks of.  The purpose is to keep the mind still.  We all know that the purpose of personal cultivation is to illustrate the illumining virtues.  Therefore, we cannot be careful enough when it comes to the things in direct contact with our sensory organs, such as our eyes, ears, mouth, nose, body, etc.  We must abide by what Di Zi Gui proscribed: “Never go near rowdy places; never ask about devious or perverted things.”  Especially in today’s society, rowdy places are everywhere, such as casinos, KTVs, Karaoke bars, discothèques, etc.  All these rowdy places will lead people astray.  With the external temptations of the five human desires[10] and the six perceptions[11] and the internal poisons of avarice, anger, and ignorance in the mind, it is very difficult not to be contaminated and distracted by the modern environments.  This couplet is reminding beginners to proactively keep away from the source of contaminants when the mind has not yet reached the state of “no attachment to external phenomena; no disturbance within the mind.”  One will not be tempted if insulated from such places.

「是故先王慎所以感之者」。特別是對初學者而言,要想恢復明德、操存本心,首先要做到的就是戒慎視聽,也就是要做到孔老夫子所教導的「非禮勿視、非禮勿聽、非禮勿言、非禮勿動」。這個方法就是程子所說的「制於外所以養其中」。就是你制止你所看的、所聽的、所吃的、所說的、所起心動念的,為的是什麼?為的是你能夠保持本心的不動。所以我們知道了修身的目的在於明明德,對於耳目口鼻身等等器官所交接的東西就不能夠不謹慎。一定要做到《弟子規》所說的:「鬥鬧場,絕勿近;邪僻事,絕勿問。」特別是在現代社會,這個鬥鬧場特別多,你看這個賭場、KTV,還有卡拉OK、迪斯科、casino等等,這全都是鬥鬧場,全都是誘惑人墮落的場所。所以外有五欲六塵的誘惑,內有貪瞋痴三毒的煩惱,要想在現代環境不受誘惑污染確實很難。所以這句話就是提醒初學者,在還沒有達到「外不著相,內不動心」的境界時,要懂得主動遠離污染源,不接觸就不會受到誘惑。

 

Qunshu Zhiyao adopted the “Commentary of Laozi by Ho Shang Gong (Elder Living next to the River)” to explain this verse. According to this Commentary, “Color’s five hues from the eyes their sight will takemeans that “licentiousness and lasciviousness[12] will harm a man’s vital energy and cause blindness (weaken his vision).”  In the Commentary, the word “color” is not interpreted as the contour of forms and colors, but as the female contours or their sex appeal.  From this interpretation we understand that classic text has more than one meaning; the so-called “the benevolent sees benevolence; the wise sees wisdom.”  Moreover, even the same person reading the same text will have different interpretations and perceptions at different age.  All the text in the classics is in accord with our original nature and innate virtues.  Therefore, every sentence has infinite meanings.  Every time we read them, we may have an epiphany in the semantics and context.  Thus, in the Analects, Confucius said:  “Is it not a pleasure to learn with constant reviews and applications?”  The ancients began to study the Analects in their formative years and would still be reading the Analects in their seventies and eighties.  Why would they find constant reading of the same book such a pleasure?  It is because the increments of experiences gained with age gave them different and more profound understandings of the text.

在《群書治要》上對這一句話的註解,「五色令人目盲」,採取的是《老子河上公註》。他的註解說:「貪淫好色,則傷精失明。」這個註解把這個色就不是解釋為色相、色彩的色了,而是解釋為女色。從這裡我們也知道,經典中的句子不只是有一種意思,所謂「仁者見仁,智者見智」。即使是同一個人在不同的年齡階段,對同一個經句的理解和體悟也都有所不同。這個經典裡邊的句子都是和性德相應的,所以每一句話都有無量義,所以你讀一遍又一遍,每一遍的義趣都不同;所以古人小的時候讀《論語》,到了七、八十歲的時候還在讀《論語》。但是「學而時習之,不亦說乎」!樂在其中,為什麼?就是因為隨著年齡閱歷的增長,他對一句經句的體悟又有所不同,有所提升。

 

“Licentiousness and lasciviousness will harm a man’s energy and cause blindness (weaken his vision)” means that lust for female physiques will harm men’s visions.  This annotation is reminding males not to be infatuated with female appearances, to restrain desires, and don’t let the hormones run wild.  Confucius also cautioned: “In puberty, the physical body and energy levels are not fully grown and developed, adolescents must guard against lust.”  The vital energies and Chi of adolescents are not stable and their bodies are not fully developed or mature; they must guard against lust and renounce sex.  Otherwise, the Chi of the kidneys will be harmed and eventually impair their visions.  According to the ancient Chinese, human body is a miniature of the cosmos.  Once we indulge in carnal desires, the body will lose its equilibrium.

「貪淫好色,則傷精失明」指的是,假如貪好女色,就會傷害眼睛。這句話主要是提醒人要懂得不要過分地迷戀女色、節制欲望,不可以放縱。像孔子也說:「少之時,血氣未定,戒之在色。」人在青少年的時候血氣未定,身體的發育還沒有完全成熟,那個時候對於色要特別謹慎,要戒禁,否則會縱欲傷腎,最後連眼睛都會受影響。在中國古人看來,人體是一個小宇宙,一旦放縱欲望,整個身體就都會失衡。

 

The proverb says: “Licentiousness is at the top of all sins.”  A practitioner aspiring to cultivate the person and to be virtuous must renounce sex; prohibiting lewd behavior is a top priority.  “Self-discipline should start with the affliction that is most difficult to eradicate,” said the ancient.   A person wishing to overcome selfish desires must begin with the desire that is the hardest to quit.  If we can extinguish our lust and licentious desires, not only can we overcome our desires, we can also become saints or sages.  In addition, we will be full of vitality with a strong physique to cultivate and transcend into celestial beings or a Buddha.  Otherwise, we will age fast.  Moreover, if we cannot bridle our desires, we will easily become degenerates and perpetrate myriads of transgressions that will invoke unspeakable sufferings in samsara.

常言說「萬惡淫為首」,一個人要想修身立德,戒色、戒淫是首要的。為什麼這麼說?古人說:「克己須從難克處克將去。」一個人要克除自己的私欲,要從最難克除的那個東西給下手。人如果能夠戒除貪淫好色,不僅僅可以戰勝自己的欲望而成聖成賢,還可以強身健體,使精氣神充足,修鍊成仙、成佛。反之,不但會容易衰老,在不能自抑的時候也容易敗德亂行,做出種種的惡事,因為這些惡事受種種的輪迴苦報,苦不堪言。

 

Therefore, the ancients emphasized caution when it comes to “sensuality.”  Various canons told us to renounce sex.  In the Precious Canon of Health and Longity, a story is told of a man named Lan Ren-yu.  Lan had displayed remarkable talents before attaining adulthood.  He was handsom with gracious manners.  All his classmates believed that he would become a high ranking government official who would wait at the Golden Horse Gate to be received by the emperor, have conferences with other ministers in the Jade Hall, and enjoy the riches and noble ranks life can offer.  His neighbor was a government minister and had a daughter whose beauty and talents were outstanding and widely known at the time.  She was already engaged but not yet married.  Once Lan saw a beautiful girl riding in a carriage and was infatuated and could not stop thinking about her.  One day he was strolling in his backyard and heard a melodious female voice from next door.  He climbed on a ladder and took a peek of the girl.  He immediatley recognized the girl as the one he saw in the carriage.  Thereafter, he dugged a hole in the dividing wall and peeked at the girl everyday.  Half a year had passed and the girl got married.  Lan had no more chance to look at her and was melanchony.  He wrote a poem called “Long in Rememberance.”  A friend of his saw the poem. After reading it, his friend did not say anything; instead, he burned it right away and cautioned Lan not to mention this to anyone because it is extremely detrimental to his latent merits.  Not only did Lan paid no heed his friend’s advice but also laughed at him as being pedantic, “a stickler of propriety’s rules.”  Soon he took the imperial examination (which traditionally took three days to finish and students are enclosed in the testing place).  During this time Lan dreamed of a deity who dugged out his eyes.  When he woke up, his pupiles were hurting like needles puncturing them.  He could not open his eyes or finish the exam.  When he returned home, his eyes were still hurting and eventually he became blind.  When the exam result was posted, of course, Lan failed and his friend who burned the poem passed with flying colors.

所以古人對於這個色字看得十分重,很多聖賢書都是告訴人要戒除女色。在《壽康寶鑑》上就記載著這樣一個故事:說藍潤玉這個人弱冠年少,就是很年輕的時候就已經才華橫溢,而且相貌風姿卓越。他的同學都一致認為,他以後一定是金馬玉堂、富貴人間。他的家和一個尚書家是鄰居,尚書有一個女兒,已經許配給人家了,但是還沒有出嫁。這位女子才華、相貌都很出眾,可以說是傾動一時。藍潤玉偶爾在一次這個女子坐車的時候碰到了她,回來之後就思慕不已,患了單相思。有一天,他閒步來到後園,聽到隔壁的女子在說話,於是他就搬了梯子偷看隔壁家的大院。結果一看,原來就是車上的那個女孩。於是他就在自己家的大院牆下,偷偷地鑿去了半磚,每一天都偷看這個女孩。過了半年,這個女孩出嫁了,藍潤玉也就再也沒有機會看這個女孩子了。結果非常地鬱悶,於是就寫了一首《長相思》的詞,被他的一位朋友發現了,這個朋友二話沒說,就把這個詞投入火裡給燒掉了,並且告誡他,此事萬萬不可以再跟其他人說了,因為太損陰德。藍潤玉不僅沒有聽他的勸告,而且還嘲笑說「你太迂腐了」。後來到了考試的時候,藍潤玉夢到有神明把自己的眼睛給挖掉了,醒來之後就感覺眼睛很痛,兩隻瞳孔就像有針刺一般,睜不開眼,因而就交了白卷。回家之後還是疼痛不止,結果雙目失明。等到開榜的時候,考試結果一下來,那位燒《長相思》詞的朋友卻金榜題名。

 

Stories like this are too numerous to count in ancient times.  They warned us that licentiousness not only harm our bodies but also harm our latent merits.  Although Lan Ren-yu did not put his desires into action, just by peeking at the girl he had harmed his career as a government official by passing the imperial examination.  Thus, the ancient scholars were apprehensive and cautious when it comes to the word “sex” and would be a stickler of rules and never overstep the boundaries of propriety.

像這樣的故事,可以說在古代數不勝數。它告誡我們貪淫好色不僅僅傷身,而且有損陰德。雖然藍潤玉還沒有付諸於實際行動,僅僅是偷看而已,就已經有損功名了。所以古代的讀書人對於「色」這個字是戰戰兢兢,不敢越雷池半步。

 

The Precious Canon of Health and Longity recorded a positive story as well.  It was about a man named Tang Hao.  One day Tang was reading under the window.  A young girl heard someone reading with a baritone voice in the study and thought that this person with such a good voice will definitely accomplish great deeds in the future.  She licked the window paper and made a hole to look at Tang admiringly in the hope of expressing her affection.  When Tang Hao saw this, he immediately patched up the hole in the window and wrote a two-line verse: “Easy to patch up the hole in the window paper created by licking; hardest is to patch up the detriment to one’s latent merits.”  He was not beguiled by female sex appeal and activated his correct thoughts immediately.  Soon after he passed the imperial examine with the highest scores and became famous in the empire.  If everyone who studied the teachings of the saints and sages are like Tang Hao, never does anything to harm his latent merits, never deviates from propriety, how can there be so many misconducts that offend public decency?  How can there be so many indecent pictures and videos on the Internet?

在《壽康寶鑑》上還記載著一個正面的故事,就是唐皋。唐皋這個人少年的時候,有一天在窗讀書,有一位少女聽到書房內傳來琅琅的讀書聲,心想此人日後必成大器,於是就將紙窗用舌頭舔破了一個洞,而且目送秋波,想藉此通情。唐皋一看,立刻就將破洞補了起來,並且題詞,題了一首詩說:「舔破紙窗容易補,損人陰德最難修。」你看,他沒有被女色所迷惑,而且立刻提起了正念。結果怎麼樣?後來考中了狀元,名播天下。所以你看每個人如果都學習聖賢教誨,都像唐皋一樣注重陰德,絲毫不虧,怎麼會出現那麼多傷風敗俗的事?在網路上又怎麼會有那麼多的不雅視頻和照片?

 

From the ancients’ perspective, to write pornography and disperse such materials to incite people’s lust are detrimental to one’s latent merits and will invoke calamaties upon oneself.  A man named Qian Da-jin from the Schezuan Province was very handsome, prolific with high literary talent; everytime he wrote, a thousand-word prose flowed easily from his writing brush.  He left home to study at the age of seventeen and attended the imperial exams several time but never passed.  In the year of Ganzi, before the exam, he went to the shrine of the God of Literary Attainment and prayed devoutly.  That night he dreamed of a boy dressed in blue who took him to the God of Literaray Attainment.  The daity ordered celestial beings to check the records of imperial examinations and found the following passage:  “Qian Da-jin: originally should be placed in the second position in the county examination at the age of 20, should have passed the imperial court examination and well known in the empire, should be appointed to government officials of the 2nd ranking, and could have lived to be 73 years old.  However, because he wrote three pornographic novels, all his merits, ranks, and longivity are cancelled.”  Fortunately, the God of Literaray Attainment advised him by saying:  “You have been loyal to the nation, tolerant with friends, and without transgression in the virtue of filial peity.  However, your ficticious pornographies have ruined the reputations and virtues of many people male and female.  If not for your latent merits in previous life, you would have already been suffering in hell now.”  Warned of his transgressions, Qian Da-jin made a sincere vow to reform.  From then on, he was very conscientious and would constantly advise people to prohibit lewdness.  Whenever he saw pornographic books, he would buy them, then burn them.  Later, he was appointed as a government official for his knowledge in the scriptures and lived to be sixty-two years old.

在古人看來,寫淫書,傳播這些引起人貪欲的故事、書籍等等,都會有損自己的陰德,給自己招來災禍。四川人錢大經,相貌俊秀,而且下筆千言,文才很好。十七歲就外出求學,歷經科考應試多年,但是每一次都考不中。這一年是庚子年,考試在即,錢大經就來到了文昌帝君的壇前虔誠祈禱,當晚就夢見了有一個青衣童子,把自己領到了帝君面前。文昌帝君就命這些神吏來查看簿冊,結果一看,這個冊上記載:「錢大經,本當二十歲考中鄉榜第二名,接著考取殿試會考,名聞天下,官位做到二品,享年七十三歲。但由於編撰了三部淫書,因此功名全部削奪,壽命也不長了。」文昌帝君教導錢大經說:「你一向存心忠厚,而且在孝道和朋友之交方面也沒有什麼過失。無奈你編撰淫書,使得很多男女看了之後敗名喪節。要不是你前世時積了許多陰德,你今生早就入地獄受苦了。」錢大經聽了之後非常地警醒,於是就發重誓,逢人便勸人戒淫,遇到淫書就買來焚毀。後來他以明經任官,活到了六十二歲。

 

There are many similar stories in such books as the Precious Canon of Health and Longity, the Complete Collection of Mr. An-shi, the Treatise on the Response of Rewards and Retributions, etc.  Contemporary people would not read the classics written by the saints and sages.  Instead, they are influenced by the immoral concepts of the West and become promiscuous.  Females are lacking in the virtue of chastity.  With the wide reach of TV broadcast and the Internet, the relationships between the sexes are utterly in disarray and the pheonomena of pruriency prevails.

在《壽康寶鑑》,還有《安士全書》,還有《太上感應篇彙編》等等這些書之中,都有很多類似的故事。現代人不讀聖賢書,反而受西方一些不良觀念的影響,兩性關係變得愈來愈隨便,女子的貞操觀念也愈來愈淡薄。再加上電視、網路的廣泛傳播,最後使得兩性關係混亂不堪,邪淫的現象也愈來愈多。

 

 To avoid the temptations of carnal desires, first we must be cautious and guard against what we see and hear.  We must "look not at what is contrary to propriety; listen not to what is contrary to propriety; speak not what is contrary to propriety; act not which is contrary to propriety."  We should isolate ourselves from contaminants and uphold our pure heart.  Second, we must deeply believe in the law of cause and effect, the doctrine that rewards and retributions are invoked by our thoughts and deeds, and understand that the loss is greater than the gain if we have a propensity for lascivousness.  Especially, the harm of promiscuity is grave.  Thus, “do not commit adultry” has been proscribed as a major precept by all religions. 

要避免受到色欲的誘惑,第一、就是必須戒慎視聽,做到「非禮勿視、非禮勿言、非禮勿聽、非禮勿動」,遠離污染源,保持自己的清淨心。第二、就是要深信因果報應的道理,要明白貪淫好色得不償失。特別是邪淫危害很大,所以各個宗教都把「不邪淫」作為一條重戒。

 

Let’s recapitulate the various detriments of promiscuity/adultery.  It will harm the latent merits and blessings in this life.  For instance, a person who is supposed to advance in rank would lose the promotion; those who could make a fortune failed to have any profit.  In addition, they will be restless, uneasy, and worry about the exposure of their transgressions that will ruin their reputations and bring shame to their families.  It will also make their careers full of obstacles.  They will contract numerous illnesses, such as the various sexually transmitted diseases that are deadly.  Moreover, infidelity will also illicit the violations of other precepts such as false speech and frivolous speech because they need to lie to their family members, relatives, and say words to lure and beguile others.  “Desire is a bottomless abyss.”  Lost in sensuality is developing the animalistic side of mankind and ignoring the transcendence of our spirituality.  Some would say that they cannot let go of the beautiful friendship between them.  However, if one party has sexual desire toward the other, it will destroy this beautiful friendship.  It is the equivalent of leading each other to the fire pit, as if going to hell together.  Hence, it is not loving that person but harming him or her.  To a Buddhist, “committing adultery” is traducing Buddhism with the one’s body.  If a Buddhists transgressions are known by others, s/he is traducing the Buddha Dharma because others will lose faith in Buddhism and the wish to learn.  Finally, the harm is in losing the chance to get out samsara and be reborn in Amitabha Buddha’s Pure Land.  Instead, after death, they will fall into the three evil realms; suffer in hell where bitter karmic retributions are boundless.  Once we understand these detriments, we should vigorously, single-mindedly overcome the temptations of sensuality.

我們概括一下,這個邪淫的危害有這許多種。損害現世的陰德福報,你看本來有功名,就沒有功名了;本來可以賺很多的錢,這個錢也賺不到了。還使自己身心不安,家人蒙羞,一旦自己擔心東窗事發,自己的名聲受損,家人也跟著蒙羞。還會招致事業不順利、身體各種各樣的疾病,你看現在的各種性病愈來愈多,很多性病都是致命的。因為邪淫還會觸犯其他像妄語、綺語等等的戒律因為要邪淫,就要矇騙親人、家屬,就要說妄語,還要去說一些勾引、誘惑別人的話,所以也觸犯了其他的戒律。「欲是深淵」,沉迷於欲望,就是等於發展了人禽獸的一面而忽視了靈性的提升。有的人說,兩個人感情很好,就是放不下[A2] 。其實如果邪淫的話,也破壞了兩個人之間美好的情義,等於是相牽入火坑、相牽入地獄,那不是愛,那就是害他了。對於學佛的人,還是以身謗佛。因為自己不檢點的行為,讓別人知道了,那就是毀謗佛法,讓人對學佛失去信心。還有就是不能出離輪迴,往生淨土死後還會墮落三途,到地獄受苦,苦報無邊。所以明白了這些禍害,就能夠勇猛精進,克服色欲的誘惑。

 

The ancients had prescribed many methods to divest licentious desires;F for example, the “contemplation on the impurities of the body.  The ancients analogized our body as a dirty, odorous skin bag.  The surface looked nice with ornaments, dressed in silk and velvet, sprayed with perfume, painted with cosmetics, etc.  In reality, the skin bag was filled with blood, pus, flesh and other dirty stuff.  Once we understand the truth, we will not be fooled by its external camouflage.

古人也有很多的方法來克除邪淫的欲望。譬如說「不淨觀」。古人把人體比作一個臭皮囊,外邊好像裝飾得很好,穿著綾羅綢緞,還有要噴上一些香水、化妝品等等,但是實際上裡邊都是裝著像血、肉等等很骯髒的東西。所以明白了這一點的話,對於事實真相就比較明瞭,就不會被表象所迷惑。

 

The next verse in the Fourth Passage is “[m]usic's five notes the ears as deaf can make.”  The five notes of Gong, Shang, Jue, Zhi, Yu are the pre-Tang names of the five notes of the pentatonic scale, corresponding roughly to do, re, mi, sol, la.  The annotation to Qunshu Zhiyao statedexplained:  “Tthe melodious five notes can create a harmony that goes to make the heart harmonious.”  We all know that the contemporary popular music is relatively not too tranquil.  After listening to such music makes people easily annoyed and impetuous.  If we observe today’s students sitting in classrooms, we will find that they cannot concentrate for even an hour.  The external stimulation of pop music not only harms the eardrums but also harms our spirituality.   The mind becomes very agitated and cannot settle down or stay calm.  Not only that, people would lack self-control and will be lured easily by any temptation.  When temptation dawns, they lacked the self-discipline to control themselves. 

下面說『五音令人耳聾』,這個「五音」就是指宮、商、角、徵、羽五個音級。《群書治要》上的註釋說:「好聽五音,則和氣去心也。」我們知道現在的流行音樂都比較不平和,聽了之後還讓人很浮躁,我們觀察一下現在的學生上課就知道了,坐一個小時保持專注都很難。所以外面這些不良聲樂的刺激,不僅傷了人的身體,也傷了人的心靈,讓人變得很浮躁,心很難定下來。不僅如此,還特別沒有定力,就是任何誘惑一來,很容易被誘惑,沒有自制力,控制不了自己。

 

In the Book of Rites, the Records of Music also stated: 

 

Thus we see that the ancient kings, in their institution of ceremonies and music, did not seek how fully they could satisfy the desires of the appetite and of the ears and eyes; but they intended to teach the people to regulate their likings and dislikings, and to bring them back to the normal course of humanity[13].” 

 

The purpose the ancient kings in composing music and instilling proprieties was not to satisfy people’s appetites or to entertain their eyes and ears.  They aspired to cultivate people to have the correct likes and dislikes; hence return them to the correct path of humanity.  Music indeed can transcend the spirits, but it has to be like the hymn with serene harmonies; and not nerve-wrecking music.  Excessive psychedelic music cannot achieve any good effects to the spirit.  Instead, it will let people indulge in their desires; make people lose their souls to the point that they cannot bridle their passionsThus, the ancients believed that music is not just for entertainment purposes, it must also take up the important responsibility of transforming people. 

In the Classic of Filial Piety, Confucius said: “For changing their manners and altering their customs, there is nothing better than music[14].”  Whenever Confucius visited a place, he would not inquire about the local governance.  Instead, he would first listen to the local popular music, a priori, he would understand the social morēs of this locality.

在《禮記》上說:「先王之制禮樂也,非以極口腹耳目之欲也。將以教民平好惡,而反人道之正也。」先王制禮作樂的目的並不是滿足人們口腹耳目的欲望,而是教導人們培養出正確的好惡而返回到做人的正路上來。音樂確實可以陶冶性情,但那是德音雅樂;不好的音樂,過度奢靡的音樂,不僅僅起不到好的效果,反而還讓人放縱欲望、心靈空虛,甚至於對於情感不知節制。所以古人認為,音樂不是僅僅為了達到娛樂至上的目的,而是要承擔起教化人心的重要作用。像在《孝經》上就說:「移風易俗,莫善於樂」,孔老夫子到了一個地方,他沒有問這一個地方的政事辦得如何,首先聽一聽流行什麼樣的音樂,他就知道這個地方的民風如何了。

 

There is a passage iIn the Lushi Chunqiu (Lu’s Spring and Autumn Annals)[15] that described the characteristics of music in chaotic times.  It stated that during chaotic times if percussions or musical instruments made with leather are played, the chords would be like thunder clapping.  If the brass instruments or musical instruments made with stones are played, the chord will be like bombing.  If musical instruments made of bamboo or silk for dancers are played, the sound will be like howling and yelling.  Such cacophony can achieve the purpose of disturbing people’s mind and spirit, shocking the eyes and ears, and letting people indulge in debauchery.  However, as musical instruments they would never bring any joy to people.  Therefore, as music becomes more and more psychedelic, people become more and more depressed, the nation becomes more and more chaotic, and the role of the ruler becomes more and more debased.  The original intention of music is lost as well.

在《呂氏春秋》上也有這樣一段話,給我們描述了亂世之樂的特點。它說亂世的音樂,如果你演奏木製、革製的樂器,聲音就像打雷;演奏銅製、石製的樂器,聲音就像霹靂;演奏絲竹歌舞音樂,就像大嚷大叫。用這樣的聲音來擾人精神,震動耳目,放蕩性情,倒是可以辦到的;但是用來作為音樂演奏,就絕對不可能給人帶來快樂。所以音樂愈是放縱奢華,人民愈是抑鬱,國家就愈混亂,君主的地位就愈卑下。這也就失去了音樂本來的意義了。

 

Music's five notes the ears as deaf can make is reminding people not to over-emphasize the enjoyment of audio effects.  Nowadays people like to listen to rocking roll, some like to dance in discothèque, disco dancing, which is pure venting and can cause great harm to people’s audio perceptions.  Dr. Masaru Emoto of Japan had conducted the water crystal experiments which exposed water to different types of music.  As of present, the results have shown that water crystals formed after exposing to Elvis Presley’s songs, or the “Boom, Boom, Boom” produced by heavy metal music are all ugly and repugnant to the eye.;

所以「五音令人耳聾」,就是提醒人不要過分重視這個覺的享樂。現在人喜歡聽的搖滾樂,還有喜歡去跳迪斯科、蹦迪,那純粹是發泄,對人的聽覺傷害很大。像日本有一位江本勝博士做了一個水結晶的實驗,給 這些水聽不同的音樂。結果聽到現在的,像貓王他們的這種音樂,就是「砰砰砰」那個刺激性很強的音樂,結果這個水的結晶都很醜惡,一看就讓人很厭惡。

 

Music's five notes the ears as deaf can make; also tells us that excessive indulgence in audio effects will make us deaf to our heart and other’s mind.  The ancients called the sound of the heart “the sound of silence.”  People chanting the name of the Amitabha Buddha will realize this.  When people are quietly chanting in their mind, they could hear the sound inside their heart.  However, if the surrounding environment is very noisy, the sound of the heart is difficult to hear.  The above is the explanations for this verse.

五音令人耳聾」,過分放縱於聽覺的享受,就聽不到自己和他人的心聲,古人把這個聲稱為「無聲之聲」。像念佛的人都能夠有體會,當一個人在心裡念佛的時候,他是能夠聽得到的,但是如果外界很嘈雜,這個心聲就難以被聽到了。這個是我們講的這一句。

 

 “The flavors five deprive the mouth of taste” is the next verse.  The five flavors are: sweet, sour, bitter, spicy, and salty.  Of course, the five flavors also comprehensively refer to all the flavors or flavors combined together to make gourmet food.  Deprive the mouth of taste” means that too enthusiastic about gourmet food will harm our taste buds.  For example, the tongue will become insensitive if a person has strong taste or loves spicy food; eventually s/he can no longer taste the original flavors of whole foods, such as the aroma of fresh vegetables.  In contrast, the lesser one’s desires for food and the lighter demands for flavors will make a person highly sensitive to the original taste of foods.;
 
下面一句說『五味令人口爽』,這個五味就是指酸、甜、苦、辣、鹹五種味道。在這裡也泛指各種味道或者調和眾味而成的美味食品。「口爽」這個「爽」有喪敗的意思,也就是過度重視這些美味,也會傷害到自己的味覺。人如果特別喜歡辣、辛等味道特別重的食物,吃到最後這個舌頭都吃壞了,不敏銳了。一些食物的原味,譬如說青菜原本的清香就嘗不出來了。人對食欲的欲望愈淡、口味愈輕,反而他的味覺非常地敏銳,他能夠吃到食物的原味。

 

Nowadays people love to eat food with heavy sauces or dressing.  When a bowl of noodles is placed on the table, people immediately add ground pepper and hot chili sauce into it.  Some commented that there are three stages to eating chili peppers.  The first stage is called “afraid of spicy chili.”  The second stage is called “not afraid of spicy chili.”  The third stage is called “afraid the chili not spicy enough.”  Actually, our taste buds will demand heavier and heavier flavors, which will cause great burdens to our bodyEventually, we will have this or that disease such as high blood sugar, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, heart disease, etc.  All these chronic diseases are related to eating too much heavy food.  As our taste for flavors is getting stronger and heavier, we lose self-control eventually.  Thus, Mencius said:  “To nourish the mind there is nothing better than to make the desires few[16].”  Here the desires also include the desire for food.

現在很多人都喜歡吃味道很重的食物,譬如說這個麵一端上來,胡椒、辣椒全都放進去。有人說吃辣椒有三種境界,第一種境界叫怕辣,第二種境界就是不怕辣,第三種境界是怕不辣,嫌這個辣椒不夠辣。實際上愈吃口味愈重,給身體造成了很大的負擔,最後就得這樣或者那樣的病。現在的像高血糖、高血脂、高血壓、心臟病等等,都和吃的味道過重有關。欲望愈來愈重,最後自己也控制不了自己了。所以孟子說:「養心莫善於寡欲」,這個欲望也包括了食欲。

 

The annotation to Qunshu Zhiyao explained:  “Good taste is a falsehood.  People’s cravings for the five flavors will invoke a falsehood of the tongue and in turn lose the Dao (proper course) of speech.”  Here cravings for the five flavors emphasize the epicurean taste.  Their avarice for good taste will become more demanding; every increment will influence their speech patterns; and eventually they will become very talkative.   We can observe those foodies and will discover that they are especially talkative at dinner tables.  However, one is bound to have a slip of the tongue if one talks too muchAnyways, when the false heart is activated, inappropriate words will come out.  Our covetousness will disturb the tranquil mind.  When the false heart is activated, inappropriate speech such as frivolous, vulgar, and rude words will come out.  More important, the mind also follows speech.  For example, as you are acrimoniously scolding someone, angry speech will make you more enraged, the false heart becomes more agitated and turbulent.

在《群書治要》上註解說:「爽,妄也。人嗜於五味,則口妄,言失於道。」這個「嗜」就是嗜好的嗜。很重視、很喜歡味覺的時候,貪欲也會跟著愈來愈重。而貪欲一增加,也可能會影響人言語的態度,變得好說。所以我們觀察,往往特別喜歡吃的,在餐桌上也特別好說,然後言多又必失。總之,心動言出,這個貪心、欲望擾亂了清淨心,這個心一妄動,不合禮的話,譬如說綺語、惡口就都說出來了。言出心隨,這些不合禮的話一說出口,譬如說你罵人,結果愈罵這個心愈生氣,心也愈妄動,使心更加地起伏不定。

 

“The mouth is the gate to fortune and calamities,our speech has great impact on our fortune, misfortune, glory, and humiliation.  The ancients cautioned that we must cultivate and foster virtuous speech and never say anything that is inappropriate in order to maintain the purity of our original nature.  In The Book of Change also told us that we can observe people from their speech.  In the Great Treatise II to the Book of Change, it stated:  “The words of a goodlucky man person are few; those of a coarse man mind are many[17].”  People who talk less, constantly nurturing and conserving their energy, honing their strength, discreet in their speech, and prudent in their actions will have less desires, expend less energies, thus do not need to eat much.  In contrast, those who are restless are especially talkative.  It seems like they feel insecure if they do not talk.  The above expounds our sensory of taste.

而「口為禍福之門」,禍福榮辱事關重大所以古人告訴我們,務要涵養口德,做到「非法不道」,才能保守本心的清淨。《易經》上告訴我們,觀察人,也可以從人的言語上來觀察:「吉人之辭寡,躁人之辭多。」你看講話很少、時時養精蓄銳、謹言慎行的人,他的欲望也少,消耗能量也比較少,所以不需要吃太多。相反,一個人心裡很浮躁,就特別愛講話,好像不講話就沒有安全感。這是我們講的口。

 

The chariot course and the wild hunting waste make mad the mind is the next verse in the Fourth Passage.  The wild hunting waste; depicts horse racing and hunting for wild animals. When the horse is in motion, the mind of the rider will not be tranquil.  It will be excited to rambunctiousness.  Besides, the hunted animals all have spirits and killing them will invoke their anger and vengeance.  Their spirits will haunt their killer and wait for the chance to take revengeIt will result in the endless cycle of “an eye for an eye.”  Moreover, when hunting animals, the mind is aroused to slaughtering, which is incompatible to humanity’s compassionate heart. 

Mencius said: “The Superior person keeps away from slaughter house and the kitchen to maintaincomplement his commiserating mindion.”  Why would the superior person distance himself from the kitchen?  It is because the kitchen is the place where small animals are slaughtered.   People will become oblivious to the sight of killing if they have seen too many live animals being killed.  Consequently, their loving-kindness and commiserating feelings will be erodedThus, the Superior person keeps away from slaughter house and the kitchen” to keep their commiserating mind whole.

下面一句『馳騁田獵,令人心發狂』,「田獵」就是打獵。騎著馬馳騁、打獵,追逐野獸,這個馬又一直在動中,所以人會心神不寧,心性會被引發得比較狂野。而且獵取的野獸本身都有靈性,你把牠給殺了,牠也會憤憤不平,想著有機會來報復你,結果就冤冤相報沒完沒了。而且在殺野獸的時候都是一種殺戮的心,這個與人的慈悲心是不相應的。孟子說:「君子遠庖廚,所以全吾惻隱之心也。」為什麼君子人遠離廚房?因為在廚房裡經常要殺這些小動物,殺生害命的事見得多了,就見怪不怪了,人的同情心、慈悲心就愈來愈差了。所以君子遠離庖廚就是為了保全自己的惻隱之心。

 

Taizong of Tang dynasty started out as a military general; therefore, he loved hunting too.  Once he was out hunting and on the way he was caught in a rainstorm and was totally drenched.  At the time he was accompanied by the chancellor of internal affairs, Gu Na-LuChancellor Gu had a nickname called thewalking encyclopedia of the Nine Scriptures” given by Chu Shui-liang, another famous subject of Taizong.  The Thirteen Scriptures (Thirteen Classics[18]) known today were selected and organized during the Song dynasty.  In the early years of Tang dynasty

Library of the Nine Scriptures.  The thirteen scriptures are nominated after Sung dynasty.  In the beginning of Tang dynasty, scholarscholars were required to understand the Ddivision of Sscriptures and the imperial examinations would test on nine scriptures.  The Nine Scriptures includeing the Three Rites and the Three Commentaries.  The Three Rites are:  the Rites of Zhou, Yi-Li (the Book of Rites, Ceremonies and Etiquettes), and the Book of Rites.  The Three Commentaries are: the Commentary of Zuo or the Chronicles of Zuo (Chun-qiu Zuo Zhuan), and the Gongyang Zhuan (Commentary of Gongyang)  and Guliang Zhuan (Commentary of Guliang), which are the Three Commentaries on the Spring and Autumn Annals.   With the addition of the Book of Changes, the Book of Documents, and the Book Classic of Poetry together they constituted the Nine Scriptures.  Since Gu Na-lu was called the “walking encyclopedia of the Nine Scriptures,” he clearly had a thorough understanding of them.

我們看到唐太宗他是武將出身,所以很喜歡打獵。有一次他外出打獵,在途中突然遇上了大雨,他這個雨衣也被雨澆漏了。於是他就問谷那律,谷那律當時擔任的是諫議大夫,他有一個綽號,就是當時的名臣褚遂良給他起的,叫「九經庫」。這個九不是我們現在喝酒的酒,是數字的這個九,經典的經,「九經庫」。我們現在講的十三經是宋朝以後確定的,在唐朝初年的時候,明經科,考九經。這個九經就是三禮、三傳。三禮就是指《周禮》《儀禮》和《禮記》;三傳就是指《左傳》(《春秋左傳》)《春秋公羊傳》《春秋穀梁傳》。還有就是《易》《書》《詩》,合起來稱為九經。谷那律被稱為「九經庫」,說明他對於經典非常地通達。

 

Taizong of Tang asked Gu Na-lu how to make raincoats that can expel rain completely.  Gu Na-lu replied:  “If using roof tiles to make raincoats, they would definitely expel rain without drenching Your Majesty.  How can anyone use roof tiles to make raincoats?  It is impossible.  Besides it will be too heavy and inconvenient to wear such material.  In the Analects, Confucius said: “The superior man uses his ears to hear distinctively (the implied meanings)[19].”   Taizong being a superior man understood the implied meaning of Gu’s reply.  Gu was advising Taizong to refrain from hunting.  If he would not hunt, he would not be drenched by rain.  Taizong was very pleased with his answer and rewarded him with fifty bolts of brocade and a belt decorated with gold.  From this story we can discern that although Taizong loved to hunt but his proficiency in the classics made him understand the detriments of hunting.  Therefore, when the chancellor of Internal Affairs reminded him of the harm, he would gladly accept and exhort subjects to give him good counsel.

唐太宗問谷那律,說這個雨衣怎麼樣做才不會漏雨呢?谷那律怎麼回答?他說:「如果用瓦來做,肯定不會漏雨」。你看怎麼能夠用瓦來做雨衣?那是不可能的,穿在身上也很重、不方便。所以「聽思聰」,唐太宗就明白了他的言下之意就是希望自己不要經常出來打獵,那也就不會被雨澆到了。唐太宗對他的回答大為讚賞,就賞了他五十段錦,還有一條黃金為飾的帶子。從這裡我們看到,唐太宗雖然喜歡打獵,但是他也熟讀經書,知道打獵的害處。所以當諫議大夫提醒他的時候,他也非常高興地接受,並且鼓勵人們給他提建議。

 

Our modern society is relatively more civilized and hunting of wild animals is prohibited in most countries.  Many people commented that children today do not hunt in reality but they hunt in video games.  The majority of these video games have rules for advancement to the next level of the game based on the number of people the player killed.  The result of such killing games is that children at the age of twelve or thirteen will not be terrified after they have killed people.  Their daily killing in video games has made them oblivious and apathetic.  When the police asked them why would they commit such felony?  Their answer was that “the victim will be revived after a while.”  This type of games has severely damaged people’s nerve systems.  Their nerve systems are in disorder.  Thus, those people who designed such games, same as those writing pornography, are perpetrators of abominable sins and their karmic retributions will be horrifying.

現在社會發展相對文明了,打獵在一般國家都是被禁止的。很多人說現在的孩子都不打獵了,現在的孩子打什麼呢?現在的孩子打電動玩具、打遊戲。而且這些遊戲,都是以殺人、打人的多少為進級的標準。最後打到什麼程度?一個十二三歲的孩子把別人殺了,居然一點都不驚恐。因為什麼?因為他每天都在遊戲上殺啊殺啊,殺到最後自己都麻木了。當警察問他的時候,你怎麼犯了這麼大的錯?他怎麼回答呢?他說:「等一下他就活過來了。」你看這種現象把人的整個精神都損害了,神經系統都出了問題。所以設計這些遊戲的人和寫淫書的人一樣,造的孽都很大,這個果報也會很慘烈。

 

The final verse is “objects rare and strange sSought for, men's conduct will to evil change.”  Precious and hard to get things are “objects rare and strange.”  For example, gold, silver, pearls, gems, extinct birds and exotic animals, jade, precious stones, antiques, curios, etc., are all things that will excite the heart.  The phrase “evil change” refers to the detriment to people’s livesWhen people see the above things, their greed will be incited and their whole life will be wasted in the pursuit of satisfying their materialistic desires.  We have seen or heard of people spending all their energies shopping for cars, houses, luxurious items, and eventually neglected to take care of their children and families. Of course, there is no hope for them elevating their spiritualityAs a result, such people will end their lives in tragedy as well.  

下面一句,『難得之貨,令人行妨』,這個「難得之貨」就是很貴重的、難以獲取的貨物,譬如說金銀珠寶、珍禽異獸、玉石古玩等等,這些東西都會讓人心浮動。「妨」就是損害的意思,就是人看到這些金銀珠寶、珍禽異獸、玉石古玩等起了貪心,要去追求了,那麼一個人的一生都會耗費在物欲的追求中。你看很多人買房子、買車子,買這些昂貴的奢侈品,耗掉了一生的精力,最後連自己的孩子、家庭都沒有照顧好,更談不上個人靈性的提升了,最後人生也會很悲哀。

 

Besides the harm to the person, the harm to social morés is also severe.  In Huai Nan Zi (Tthe Philosophers of Haui-Nan)[20], “Placing Customs on a Par” recorded documented a the special characteristic of society in declining times is “treasure exoticexalting goods from afar and treasuringe hard to get riches.”  It means that goods from far away will become stylish, hard to get things will be deemed as precious, and the basic necessities of life will be ignored.  This will result in the decline of the simple, honest, and bonhomie social ambiance in the world; purity and innocence will be treated as stigmas.  People will lose their original nature.

那除了對自身的傷害之外,對社會風氣的傷害也很大。在《淮南子》上記載,衰敗之世的社會風氣有一個重要的特點,那就是「貴遠方之貨,珍難得之財」。什麼意思?就是重視遠方而來的東西,珍視難得的財物,而不注重生活必需品的基礎,使天下質樸敦厚的風氣都日漸淡薄,以清為濁,人們都喪失了本性。

 

Once the social morés of “treasuring exalting exotic goods from afar and treasuring hard to get riches” are formedestablished, people will rush to purchase them, collect them, and do everything in their power to acquire them.  The result of such phenomena is the rise in theft.  iIn n the Analects, the majordomo (prime minister) of the Duke of Lu, Ji Kang Zi, distressed about the number of thieves in the state, inquired of Confucius how to do away with them[21].  Confucius replied:  “If you, sir, are not covetous, even if they people are rewarded people to steal, they would not do so.”  If the leaders are not covetous of material goods, including such exotic goods and hard to get treasures, even when they reward people to steal, people would not do so.  What the uppers do, the lowers will follow.  Whatever the leaders like, the subordinates will emulate.  If people at the top stress ethical relations and virtuous conducts, people at the bottom of the ranks will focus on personal cultivation.  If people at the top covet hard to get goods, people at the bottom of the ranks will rush to buy them and collect the same.  Therefore, iIn Dao-De Jin, Laozi commented that the sagesaints had said: “I will manifest no ambition, and the people will of themselves attain to the primitive simplicity[22].”  If the leaders are without personal desires, the social morés will naturally become simple, honest, and sincere.

這種「貴遠方之貨,珍難得之財」的風氣一旦形成,人們就會去搶購、收藏這些東西,想方設法獲得這些東西結果怎麼樣?結果偷盜的現象也會愈來愈多。所以《論語》上記載,季康子患盜,就去請教孔子。孔子怎麼回答的?孔子回答說:「苟子之不欲,雖賞之不竊。」如果你自己不貪圖財物,包括這些遠方而來的財貨和難得的珍寶,你自己不貪圖的話,即使你獎勵人們去盜竊,人們都不會去做的。上行而下效,上邊喜歡什麼,下邊就會跟著效仿。上邊的人重視倫理道,下邊的人也會去注重修身;上邊的人重視這些難得之貨,下邊的人也會跟著去收藏、搶購。所以《老子》上說:「我無欲而民自樸者也。」如果在位者自己沒有欲望,那麼百姓之間的風氣也就自然淳樸。

 

In Qunshu Zhiyao, Shang Shu (the Book of Documents)[23] recorded a story of King Wu of Zhou dynasty.  The country of Xi-Lu paid homage to Zhou dynasty and offered the Tibetan Mastiff, a vicious dog, as a tribute.  Upon hearing this, the grand protector, Duke of Zao, immediately wrote a prose called “Lu’s Mastiff” to remind, advise, and caution King Wu of Zhou.  The prose stated that sagacious rulers in the cultivation of their persons would be prudent in their conducts; thus subjugating foreign states from the four corners of the world to pay tribute to the suzerainty.  Near or far these foreign rulers will offer local products as tokens of their tribute, usually in the form of food, clothing, utensils, etc.  The sagacious rulers will use this opportunity to grant favors to the dukes of nobility so that they will not neglect good governance in their duchy.  They will gift dukes of royalty with precious jade to stress the closeness of kinship.  The dukes would not devalue such gifts because they represent the graciousness of the monarch.  The monarch with sublime virtues will not slight people, or be discourteous.  If the monarch slights people in the leader’s position, they will neglect their duties.  If the monarch slights the common people, they will not be diligent.  ,

Trifling with people destroy one’s virtues.  will  Trifling with hobbies destroy one’s will.  To be successful, one should not spend time in useless pursuits and neglect the important things in life.  Do not exalt exotic things; do not neglect pragmatic things; hence the common people will live in prosperity.  Do not raise dogs and horses that are not indigenous.  Do not breed exotic birds and animals in the state.  Don’t elevate the status of strange and erotic goods; thus people from far away will be subjugated.  Elevate only the status of the sage; thus people close by will feel secure.  From morning till night work diligently.  Careless in the minute details of daily conducts will eventually harm the great virtues. It is like building a nine - ren mountain but

Tlack the last basketful of earth; or one step short of successSincere adherence to these caveats will make the people live in peace forever; and the Sons of Heaven kings in every generation. One step short of success

在《群書治要.尚書》上記載,在周武王的時候,西旅國來向周朝朝見時,獻上了一種名叫「獒」的猛犬。太保召公得知此事之後,立刻撰寫了《旅獒一文,用來提醒勸誡周武王。在這篇文章中這樣寫道,聖明的君王慎修德行,所以四方外族之邦都來歸順朝見,不論遠近都獻上當地的特產,不過都是一些吃穿器具之類。聖明的君王於是藉此來顯揚恩德(?)異姓諸侯國,使他們不要荒廢了政事;又將寶玉分賜給同姓的諸侯國,以表達對親情的重視。人們不輕看這些物品,是因為它代表了君王的恩德。君王德行隆盛就不會輕視、怠慢他人。君王若輕視怠慢了在位的君子,他們就不會盡心;君王若輕視怠慢了百姓,他們就不會盡力。玩人喪德,玩物喪志。玩弄人就喪失了自己的品德,玩物就會讓自己的志向喪失。不要做那些無益之事而耽誤、妨害了那些有益的事,這樣才能成就事業;不看重奇異之物、不輕視實用之物,百姓才能富足。犬馬不是土生土長的不畜養;珍禽異獸不在國內繁育。不要把遠方之物看得那麼寶貴,則遠方的人就會歸服;所看重的只是賢德之人,則近處的人就會安心。要從早到晚無不勤奮平時不慎重對待細微的行為,最終會損害大德。譬如要堆起九仞的高山,卻功虧於一簣。若能真誠地奉行這些勸告,百姓將永保安居,天子才能世代稱王。

 

The ancients had the ability to see a straw shows and know which way the wind blows.”  (From small clues the ancients would know the whole picture or what would happen in the future.)  Seeing the gift of a Tibetan mastiff, the sage would immediately worry King Wu will crave for exotic things and treasure tributes from afar and lose his virtuous conduct.  Right away he wrote this prose to warn the king to

Early detection of evils can prevent insidious destructions. To nip a vice in the bud and to obstruct the insidiousness of evils.

你看古人「見微知著」看到有人送了這個獒的猛犬,立刻就擔心武王沉溺於遠方之物,把遠方的貢品看得很珍貴,而喪失了自己的德行。所以馬上就寫了這個文章來勸諫,防微杜漸。

 

 

If people spend all their efforts in the pursuit of far away goods, hard to get riches, they will not use their energy to elevate their virtues.  They will even ask you what does “illustrate the illumining virtue” mean?  How does it benefit me?  Of course, any one who can ask these questions are not completely hopeless.  At least they know there is an illumining virtue that needs to be illustrated.  A lot of leaders Llive a befuddled life as if drunk or in a dream; indulge drowned in the midst of desires and the gratification of pleasures; backslidinge into/plunge intoin depravity daily without any awarenessHow can such leaders know to; “illustrate the illumining virtue?

如果人的心思都花費在追求遠方之貨、難得之財上,人心就不會用在提升德行方面。甚至他會問你,什麼叫明明德?那對我有什麼用?當然能這樣問的人已經不錯了,因為他還知道有一個明德需要明。很多領導醉生夢死沉溺於欲望的享受和滿足之中,一天一天墮落卻不知不覺,哪裡還懂得明明德?

 

Therefore, a good leader will mobilized the good norms of a society.  The ancients said:  “It is easy to accumulate merits in governmental bureaus.”  Government officials who have wider influence and higher social status have heavier responsibilities.  It will be very easy for them to accumulate merits or, vice versa, create bad karmaFrom the office decorations in Chairman Xi’s office, we can observe that Chairman Xi is in fact leading a good social custom.  The pictures in his office are photos of him with his family.  He advocates family ethics, stresses filial piety, understands loving fathers have filial sons, and emphasizes ethical relations and moral educations.  Especially this year, his office added the volumes of Qunshu Zhiyao, which is best known as the book Chairman Xi loves to read the most.”  This is also guiding us to focus on the study of the canons of the saints and sages; to absorb the excellent teachings and experiences of historical governance.  There are also many files in his office, showing his diligence in governance that Chairman Xi is , Qunshu Zhiyao attending to a myriad of state affairs daily.  There are many photos of him with the people, setting the example for us to become one with the masses, to love the people.  All these are actually setting good social norms.  This is the paradigm of Chairman Xi as a sagacious leader.,

所以一個好的領導者,他會帶動整個社會好的風氣。古人說:「公門好積德」,一個人的影響力愈高、社會地位愈高、責任愈重,積德或者造惡也就愈容易。我們從習主席辦公室的擺設就可以看到,其實主席在引導一種好的社會風氣。你看這個辦公室所擺的照片都是和家人在一起的照片。他提倡重視家庭倫理、重視孝道,知道要父慈子孝,重視倫理道德的教育。特別是今年,在辦公室裡又擺上了《群書治要》,這本書被譽為「主席最愛讀的書」。這也是引導我們要重視學習聖賢典籍,重視汲取歷史治國理政的經驗教訓;還有擺著很多的文件夾,說明做領導者的要勤於政事,日理萬機;還有很多照片都是和人民百姓在一起,引導我們要和群眾打成一片,要愛民。實際上是在引導一種好的社會風氣,這就是習主席的明君風範。

 

Today’s lesson will end here.  I welcome everyone’s corrections and criticisms due to my insufficiencies.  Thank you all!

那我們今天就先講到這裡,不足之處歡迎大家批評指正。謝謝大家。



[1] Translation by James Legge.   See, http://ctext.org/dao-de-jing

 

[2] Laozi is a Chinese classic text. According to tradition, it was written around 6th century BC by the sage Laozi (or Lao Tzu,  literally meaning "Old Master"), a record-keeper at the Zhou dynasty court, by whose name the text is known in China. was a sage, philosopher and poet of ancient China. He is the founder of philosophical Taoism, but he is also revered as a deity in religiousTaoism and traditional Chinese religions. Although a legendary figure, he is usually dated to around the 6th century BC and reckoned a contemporary of Confucius.  See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tao_Te_Ching

 

 

[3] Confucians considered Zengzi to be his second most senior student, after Yan Hui. Zengzi taught Zisi (Kong Ji), the grandson of Confucius, who was in turn the teacher of Mencius, thus beginning a line of transmitters of orthodox Confucian traditions.  Along with Yan Hui, Zisi, and Mencius, Zengzi is considered to be one of the Four Sages of Confucianism.  He was said to have composed and/or edited the Classic of Filial Piety under the direction of Confucius. He was also associated with transmission of the Great Learning. 

See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zengzi

 

[5] Reference to translation by James Legge.  See, http://ctext.org/liji/da-xue

 

[6] Venerable Master Hui-neng ( 638–713) was a Chinese Chán (Zen) monastic who is one of the most important figures in the entire tradition, according to standard Zen hagiographies. Hui-neng has been traditionally viewed as the Sixth and Last Patriarch of Chán Buddhism.  The original verse by the Six Patriarch Hui-neng when he became enlightened can be translated as “How amazing our self-nature neither moves nor stays!:  Our original nature is in the absolute, therefore, moving or staying cannot be in the absolute of our self-nature.

See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huineng

 

[7] Translation by James Legge.  See, http://ctext.org/liji/yue-ji paragraphs 1 and 2.

 

[8] Translation by James Legge.  See, http://ctext.org/analects/yan-yuan

 

[9] One of the six great masters of Song dynasty.  See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheng_Yi_(philosopher)

 

[10] The five human desires are riches, sexuality, fame, food and drink, and slumber.  See, http://www.chinabuddhismencyclopedia.com/en/index.php/Five_desires

 

[11] The six dusts or six perceptions are: color/forms, sound, scents, aroma, tactile sensations, thoughts. 

See, http://www.chinabuddhismencyclopedia.com/en/index.php/Six_Perceptions

 

[12] The Revel Bible Dictionary defines "lasciviousness" as "wanton, licentious. The Greek word means unrestrained greed, or an animal-like indulgence in any passionate desire. Lasciviousness appears in several lists of immoral behavior (Mark 7:22; Galatians 5:19). Paul describes its nature well: 'Having lost all sensitivity, they have given themselves over to sensuality [lasciviousness, KJV] so as to indulge in every kind of impurity, with a continual lust for more" (Ephesians 4:19).  Nelson's Illustrated Bible Dictionary defines "Lasciviousness" as the "KJV word for LICENTIOUSNESS. In turn, it defines "Licentiousness" as "undisciplined and unrestrained behavior, especially a flagrant disregard of sexual restraints (Mark 7:22; 2 Corinthians 12:21); (lasciviousness, KJV). The Greek word translated as licentiousness means "outrageous conduct," showing that licentious behavior goes beyond sin to include a disregard for what is right."

See, Lewdness (Lasciviousness) by Mayberry, Mark http://www.watchmanmag.com/0405/040518.htm

 

[13] Translation by James Legge.  See, http://ctext.org/liji/yue-ji, paragraph 6.

 

[14] Translation by James Legge.  See, http://ctext.org/xiao-jing.  Amplication of the All-Embracing Rule of Conduct in Chapter 1.

 

[15] The Lü shih ch'un ch'iu is an encyclopedic of Chinese classic text compiled around 239 BCE under the patronage of the Qin dynasty Chancellor Lü Buwei.  It is praised as unique among early works in that it is well organized and comprehensive, containing extensive passages on such subjects as music and agriculture, which are unknown elsewhere.  See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C3%BCshi_Chunqiu

 

[16] Translation by James Legge.  See, http://ctext.org/mengzi/jin-xin-ii, paragraph 81.

 

[17] Translation by James Legge.  See, http://ctext.org/book-of-changes/xi-ci-xia

 

[18] The Thirteen Classics is a term for the group of thirteen classics of Confucian tradition that became the basis for the Imperial Examinations during the Song dynasty and have shaped much of East Asian culture and thoughtIt includes all of the Four Books and Five Classics but organizes them differently and includes the Classic of Filial Piety and Erya, a dictionary and encyclopedia.  See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirteen_Classics

 

[19] The Analects, the House of Ji, paragraph 10.  See, http://ctext.org/analects/ji-shi

 

 

[20] Huai Nan Zi is a 2nd-century BCE Chinese philosophical classic from the Han dynasty that blends the concepts of Daoism, Confucianism, and Legalism, including theories such as Yin-Yang and Five Phases. It was written under the patronage of Liu An, Prince (King) of Huainan, a legendarily prodigious author. The text, also known as the Huainan Honglie 淮南鸿烈 ("The Great Brilliance of Huainan"), is a collection of essays presented as resulting from literary and philosophical debates between Liu and guests at his court, in particular the scholars known as the Eight Immortals of HuainanThe Huainanzi is an eclectic compilation of chapters or essays that range across topics of mythology, history, astronomy, geography, philosophy, science, metaphysics, nature, and politics. It discusses many pre-Han schools of thought (especially Huang-Lao Daoism), and contains more than 800 quotations from Chinese classics.  See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huainanzi

 

[21] Refer to translation by James Legge.  See, http://ctext.org/analects/yan-yuan, paragraph 18.

 

[22] Translation by James Legge.  See, http://ctext.org/dao-de-jing, paragraph 57.

 

[23] The Book of Documents (Shujing, earlier Shu-king) or Classic of History, also known as theShangshu, is one of the Five Classics of ancientChinese literature. It is a collection of rhetorical prose attributed to figures of ancient China, and served as the foundation of Chinese political philosophy for over 2,000 years.  The chapters are represented as records of formal speeches by kings or other important figures.  See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Documents

 


 [A1]“Color’s five hues can make people blind; music’s five notes can make people deaf; the foods’ five flavors can make people crave; the racing and hunting sports can make the mind mad; rare and precious objects can make men’s conduct evil.”

 

 [A2]What does it mean? Can’t let go of the friendship, affinity, closeness? 

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