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拯救世界的中國傳統文化
2015/04/12 04:28:50瀏覽990|回應0|推薦5

(The article praised by my queen as the best she had read in recent year.)

THE TRADITIONAL CHINESE CULTURE THAT SAVES THE WORLD

拯救世界的中國傳統文化

Discourses of Joseph Needham and Bertrand Russell on the value of Traditional Chinese Culture——李約瑟、羅素談中國傳統文化的價值

 

I.  INTRODUCTIONBENEVOLENCE AND HARMONY CAN BRING HAPPINESS

一、開篇——仁愛、祥和帶來幸福

 

In 1922, the world-famous British philosopher, Bertrand Russell, after visiting China to lecture for a year, wrote his well-known book The Problem of China and commented:

 

The Chinese have discovered, and have practised for many centuries, a way of life which, if it could be adopted by all the world, would make all the world happy.  We Europeans have not.  Our way of life demands strife, exploitation, restless change, discontent and destruction.  Efficiency directed to destruction can only end in annihilation, and it is to this consummation that our civilization is tending, if it cannot learn some of that wisdom for which it despises the East. [1]

 

一九二二年,英國著名的哲學家羅素,在訪華講學之後寫下了他的名著《中國問題》:「中國人摸索出的生活方式,已沿襲數千年,若能夠被全世界採納,地球上肯定會比現在有更多的歡樂祥和。追求速度效率導致的破壞,最終只能帶來毀滅,而我們的文明正走向這一結局。因此需要借鑒一向被我們輕視的東方智慧。」

 

    This is the conclusion reached by Russell after he personally visited China.  Russell was born in 1827 and is lauded as one of the most influential philosopher, mathematician, and logician of the twentieth century.  He was also one of the most prominent anti-war activists in the West (and went to prison for his pacifism during World War I[2]).  “It was on the Volga, in the summer of 1920,” Russell witnessed the “inactive despair” brought by industrialization to the Russian nomads on the sandbank of Volga that he wrote:  “I first realized how profound is the disease in our Western mentality….  It was in this mood that I set out for China to seek a new hope.”[3] He expected the Chinese civilization to bring new hope to the world.  The next year Russell went to Beijing to lecture on philosophy and wished to understand the Chinese civilization through personal experience.  A year later, he exclaimed that in the face of the humility, patience, generosity, benevolence, and the wisdom of the Chinese, erudite philosopher like him has nothing to teach.  He humbly expressed that he came to China to learn.[4]

這是羅素在中國實地考察之後得出的結論。出生於一八七二年的羅素,被譽為二十世紀最有影響力的哲學家、數學家和邏輯學家之一,也是西方最著名的和平主義社會活動家之一。一九二年夏,羅素在伏爾加河畔,目睹了工業化給當地人帶來的絕望和麻木,深深地感到,整個世界正在經歷一場文明的危機,他因而期待著中國文明給世界帶來新的希望。次年,羅素赴北京講學,期望身臨其境以了解中華文明。一年後,他感歎道:面對謙卑、忍耐、豁達、仁愛、智慧的中國人,像他這樣的知識淵博的哲學家,原來是無學可講的。他謙卑地說,自己是到中國來學習的。

 

Thirty-three years later, Joseph Needham, the scientist and sinologist also from Britain, wrote in his book Within the Four Seas: the Dialogue of East and West:

 

A high degree of bureaucratic government seems quite inevitable given the technological complexities of modern society, but modern science has provided a thousand aids and adjuncts which could make it work well….  Nothing is lacking except goodwill.  Goodwill is the commitment to treating ordinary people with sympathy and understanding…This is the promised peace on earth, and whoever puts first the real needs of real people will inherit it….  Here the Chinese may have a great task to perform in the teaching of the rest of the world, as their bureaucracy has an experience of more than two millennia.  There may yet be virtue in Confucian traditions, as there was in the eighteenth century when the Latin translation of the classics revealed to an astonished world the existence of a morality without supernaturalism, and of a great continuing culture which had emphatically not been based upon the pessimistic doctrine of original sin.[5]

 

三十三年後,同樣來自英國的科學家、漢學家李約瑟在《四海之內:東方和西方的對話》中,說道:

 

「(現代社會)有許多工具、設備都可以拿來為我們所用,可是我們唯一缺少的只是一點——仁愛的精神。所謂「仁愛」就是自願地以同情和體諒的態度對待普羅大眾。……這種仁愛的精神就是世界和平的希望所繫。只有真正把人民的需要放在第一位的人,才能具有這樣的仁愛精神。……在這一方面,中國人負有重大的責任去教育世界上其他各國的人民,因為中國已經有兩千多年的政治經驗。我們在孔子的傳統思想中,還可以找到不少有益的東西,正如在十八世紀,傳統中國的經典著作譯成拉丁文之後,震動了整個世界,人們這才意識到,世界上還有一種超脫現實之上的道德規範,還有一種源遠流長的偉大文化,不是建立在原罪的基礎上。」[6]

 

Joseph Needham is the sinologist most respected by the Chinese and is acclaimed as “the Old Friend of Chinese.”  For over half a century, he buried himself in research and combed through more than two millennia of the history of Chinese technology.  His accomplishment in compiling a list of every mechanical invention and abstract idea that had been made and conceived in China is a first in world history.[7]  In 1954 he published the first volume of Science and Civilisation in China, which his students are still proceeding with the project under the schema of a total of 7 volumes.  In Science and Civilisation in China, he depicted the splendid Chinese technological civilization since ancient times from the perspective of world cultures so that people can profoundly perceive its precious value to the world.

李約瑟是中國人最為尊重的漢學家,被譽為「中國人的老朋友」,五十多年來,他索隱鉤沉,終於梳理出中國兩千多年間的科技史,此為有史以來的首次創舉,他開創了編寫《中國科學技術史》的事業,至今仍由他的學生們繼續研究。《中國科學技術史》以世界文化的視角,闡述古代燦爛的中華科技文明,使人們深刻感到中華文明對於世界文明的寶貴價值。

 

For the development of Chinese studies, he set up the Joseph Needham Institute at Cambridge University.  In the last year of his life in 1995, he told the public that he believed China will rise again because a nation possessing such greet civilization and such great people will definitely contribute greatly to world civilization.  On March 23 of the same year, the day before Needham passed away, he still had someone reading materials concerning China to him.  At the last moment of his life when he could not speak, he was still trying hard to utter the word “China.”  As an old friend of the Chinese people, he had most poignantly manifested the profundity of humanity, a genuine heart innocent as a child. 

為了進行中國研究,李約瑟創立了「劍橋大學李約瑟研究所」,在他生命最後的一九九五年,他告訴大眾,自己確信中國能夠再度崛起,「一個擁有如此偉大文化的國家,一個擁有如此偉大人民的國家,必將對世界文明再次做出偉大的貢獻。」同年三月二十三日,李約瑟在臨終前一天,還讓人給他朗讀有關中國的資料;在說不出話的最後一刻,還在努力念出China。中國人民的老朋友,對於人類深沉、真摯的赤子之心,令人動容。

 

This “Elder’s Wisdom” of Joseph Needham as a caveat has high value.  What he meant when he said “China will rise again” is the restoration of the traditional Chinese culture in the perimeters of the whole world.  The reason this culture can benefit the whole world is because it can make ordinary people benevolent and righteous and every family live in harmony.  If Russell discovered the humble, yielding, harmonious way of life according to Chinese tradition that can bring real happiness to the entire human race; then, Needham further explained the root cause of this happy life—the goodwill of “treating ordinary people with sympathy and understanding”; to live a life adhering to a code of ethics; to firmly believe in the innate goodness of human’s original nature when interacting with people and things; and to govern with goodwill.

李約瑟的「老人言」具有高度的警示價值,他所說的「再度崛起」是指中華傳統文化在全球範圍內的復興,這個文化之所以能夠惠利天下,其表現便是能夠讓普羅大眾人人心存仁義,家家生活祥和。如果說羅素發現了中國傳統謙讓、祥和的生活方式,能夠給整個人類帶來真正的幸福,那麼李約瑟則進一步說明了幸福生活的根本所在:讓心中充滿了仁愛、遵循道德規範去生活、以堅信本性本善的心待人接物,並本著仁民愛物的思想來辦政治。

 

In the prologue of the nursery rhyme Tri-Word Couplets, it instructed children: “The original nature of people is goodness.”  Because the self-nature of mankind is innately good, the virtues of beneficence, modesty, tolerance as an attitude of life, a way of life, is shared by every race in the world.  The core value of all human religions is love.  The Bible said: “For God so loved the world…”[8]  In the Koran, Allah is described as “the entirely Beneficent, the Especially Merciful.”[9]  The Western people often acclaimed Confucius and the education of Confucianism, although not a religion, but have the effect of a religion, especially in the function of stabilizing the society.  This is because filial piety as a Confucian virtue in the true Chinese tradition will expand and regard mankind as a single unity; will respect, love, and protect all males and females in the world as one’s own parents; and this type of universal love is in accord with the religious education.  Therefore, Needham quoted a passage in the Analects to conclude his life study of China: “Let the superior man never fail reverentially to order his own conduct, and let him be respectful to others and observant of propriety -- then all within the four seas will be his brothers[10].

中國童蒙教材《三字經》,第一句話就教小朋友:「人之初,性本善」。因為本性本善,所以心存仁愛、謙和包容的生活態度、生活方式,是全球各族人民所共有的。人類宗教教育的核心,就是愛,《聖經約翰福音》說「神愛世人」(《約翰福音》3:16);《古蘭經》說:真主安拉:「他是至仁的,他是至慈的。」(《古蘭經》59:22)。西方人常常將孔子和儒家教育譽為「雖不是宗教,卻與宗教教化起到了同樣安定社會的作用」。這是因為,傳統中國儒家的孝道,擴展開來,就是將整個人類視為一體、恭敬愛護一切男女宛若父母雙親,這種博愛的精神,與宗教教育相合。所以,李約瑟用《論語》的一句話總結了他一生的中國研究:「君子敬而無失,與人恭而有禮,四海之內皆兄弟也。」

 

With the advanced development of modern technology, globalization is a naturally tendency.  The different races isolated from each other before are now meeting frequently; the different religions developed indigenously are now coexisting and their disciples live together as neighbors.  At this moment, the discovery of Russell and the conclusion of Needham have made the modern interpretation of traditional Chinese culture prominent--the life attitude of beneficence, respect, honesty, modesty, and harmony, which can make our multi-cultural world truly unify and fraternize, regard all as brothers and sisters.

現代科技高度發展、全球化成為必然的趨勢,原先老死不相往來的族群,如今經常會面;原先各自在不同地區發展出來的宗教傳統,現在成為共同生活在一起的鄰居。此刻,羅素的發現以及李約瑟的總結,便突出顯示出中華傳統文化的現代意義:仁愛存心、誠敬謙和的生活態度,能夠讓多元文化的世界,彼此真正團結,情同手足。

 

II. THE LIFE EDUCATION OF TRADITIONAL CULTURE—EVERYONE KNOWS PROPRIETY AND RIGHTEROUSNESS

二、傳統文化的人生教育——人人知禮義

 

The China Russell visited in the 1920’s was at the turning point of transforming traditional China into modern China.  The family education and the education of traditional culture have not yet completely disappeared.  The modern industrialization of the Chinese society has not yet formed.  Therefore, Russell was able to personal feel the tremendous, transformative impact of traditional Chinese culture.  Because of his personal experience, Russell exclaimed that nominally he was teaching China but actually he was taught by China.  It is noteworthy that the people who impressed Russell were not just the literati but also those illiterate, ordinary people who are deeply conscious of righteousness and reverently observant of propriety.

羅素所處的一九二年代的中國,是傳統中國和現代中國的轉折點,傳統文化教育、家庭教育尚未完全消失,現代工業化社會還未形成,因而羅素得以親身體會到傳統文化巨大的教化力量。因為有了這一番親身經歷,羅素感歎自己名義上是執教中國,實為中國所教化。 值得注意的是,真正在中國教化羅素的,不僅僅有知識分子,還有那些不識字卻深明大義、心存禮敬的普通老百姓。

 

Gu Hong-ming, with the pen name Amoy Ku, (1857-1928), renown for his Confucian values, knowledge of several European languages and European culture,[11] told the story of a Scotch friend of his in his essay The Spirit of the Chinese People as follows:[12]  

 

The friend had a Chinese servant who was a perfect scamp, who lied, who "squeezed," and who was always gambling, but when my friend fell ill with typhoid fever in an out-of-the-way port where he had no foreign friend to attend to him, this awful scamp of a Chinese servant nursed him with a care and devotion which he could not have expected from an intimate friend or near relation. Indeed I think what was once said of a woman in the Bible may also be said, not only of the Chinese servant, but of the Chinese people generally:—"Much is forgiven them, because they love much." The eyes and understanding of the foreigner in China see many defects and blemishes in the habits and in the character of the Chinese, but his heart is attracted to them, because the Chinese have a heart, or, as I said, live a life of the heart—a life of emotion or human affection.[13]

 

Many foreigners staying in China, before and after the Chinese Revolution in 1911, like this Scottish person, have good relationships with the Chinese.  They are all of the same opinion that the Chinese is very caring and tolerant.

一九一年代,一位在中國工作的蘇格蘭人請了一位中國苦力做僕人。這位僕人喜歡賭博,讓他的蘇格蘭僱主非常看不起,理所當然地覺得他道德低下。然而,當蘇格蘭人在一個偏僻的港口染上傷寒,身邊沒有一個朋友願意照顧他的時候,就是這位不識字、看上去「不道德」的中國苦力,對他全心全力、悉心照顧、直到康復、無怨無求。苦力對生病的僱主,危急時刻不離不棄、充滿愛心、雪中送炭,讓這位蘇格蘭人深受感動,他感歎:「就算是我的親人、最好的朋友都也沒有對我這麼好過!」[14]像這位蘇格蘭人一樣,很多在晚清和民國初年在中國工作的外國人,都非常喜歡和中國人相處,他們不約而同地感到:中國人厚道、有愛心。

 

 

Master Gu, a literati of Chinese classics in the last vestige of Chin dynasty, opined that only those Chinese who had accepted the education of ethical relations, virtues, and the law of cause and effect expounded by the traditional culture can be called the “real Chinaman,” whether they are the literati or illiterate, high ranking government officials or grass root commoners.  In his words,

 

The real Chinaman…is a man who lives the life of a man of adult reason with the heart of a child. In short the real Chinaman is a person with the head of a grown-up man and the heart of a child. The Chinese spirit, therefore, is a spirit of perpetual youth, the spirit of national immortality….  Now if the spirit of the Chinese people is a spirit of perpetual youth, the spirit of national immortality, the secret of this immortality is this happy union of soul with intellect.” [15]

 

正因如此,晚清的國學大師辜鴻銘認為,接受了傳統文化的倫理、道德、因果教育的中國人,才算是「真正的中國人」,無論是知識分子還是文盲,無論是地位崇高的政要還是草根階層的百姓,「真正的中國人就是有著赤子之心和成年的人的智慧,過著心靈生活的一群人……中國人的精神乃是一種永葆青春的精神,是族類不朽的精神……這種精神就是心靈與理智的完美和諧。」

 

A man of adult reason with the heart of a child is the virtue of filial piety; the manifestation of “the affinity between father and son.”  Filial piety in children makes them responsible in the support their parents and in turn responsible and loyal in their work ethics.   To nurse the gravely ill employer “with a care and devotion which he could not have expected from an intimate friend or near relation” is the extension of filial piety—to honor the aged as we honor our own aged parents.  Although emphasizing spirituality and human affection but without losing rationality in the attendance of people and things is the manifestation of reverence and sincerity.  It is “embracing love and respect in the heart.”

雖然有著高度智慧卻依然赤子之心不改,這是孝道、是「父子有親」的具體體現;因為侍奉雙親孝順,故能對工作忠心耿耿,事奉病重的僱主宛若孝子事父,這是「老吾老及人之老」,是孝義;雖然重視精神與情義,待人處事卻依然不失理智,這是「愛敬存心」,是真誠恭敬的具體體現。

 

Russell felt that the future of mankind hinges on traditional Chinese culture and said:

 

The natural Chinese attitude is one of tolerance and friendliness, showing courtesy and expecting it in return. If the Chinese chose, they could be the most powerful nation in the world. But they only desire freedom, not domination…

 

Comparing the civilization of China with that of Europe … [i]t seemed to me that the average Chinaman, even if he is miserably poor, is happier than the average Englishman, and is happier because the nation is built upon a more humane and civilized outlook than our own. [16]

 

The Chinese, from the highest to the lowest, have an imperturbable quiet dignity….  The business of "saving face," which often strikes foreigners in China as ludicrous, is only the carrying-out of respect for personal dignity in the sphere of social manners.  Everybody has "face," even the humblest beggar; there are humiliations that you must not inflict upon him, if you are not to outrage the Chinese ethical code. [17] 

 

羅素感到這才是人類的未來所繫。他說:「中國人溫文爾雅,他們所要求的只不過是正義和自由。比起西方文化,他們的文化更能使人類快樂……中國人,從上層社會到底層百姓,都有一種冷靜安詳的尊嚴……他們在社會上形成互相尊敬的風氣,每個人,都有面子,即使最卑賤的乞丐。如果你不想違犯中國人的倫理準則,那就連乞丐也不能侮辱。」[18]

 

III. CAUTION IN THE DEVLOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGYTHE VISION AND STRATEGY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE CULTURE

三、謹慎發展科技——中國傳統文化的深謀遠慮

 

Embracing love and respect, educated under traditional culture the Chinese, especially those leaders and social elites often “worry about the future ten millennia within their short lifespan of less than a century.”  In the traditional Chinese society, from the emperor to the subjects, from the highest to the lowest, all seek harmony and love peace.  In the administration of national affairs and policies concerning the livelihood of the common people, they take into consideration the responsibility towards posterity in the millennia.  Russell greatly admired this mentality and said: “The Chinese nation, is the most, patient in the world; it thinks of centuries as other nations think of decades[19].”  He commented that the thinking units of the Chinese are not decades but ten millennia.

因為愛敬存心,傳統文化教育下的中國人,尤其是領導人和社會精英,常常是「生年不滿百,常懷千歲憂」。所以,傳統社會的君臣上下,無不熱愛和平、尋求和諧,在處理關乎社稷、國計民生的大事時,所考慮的,是要對千秋萬代的子孫負責。羅素對此非常欽佩,他說:「中華民族是全世界最富忍耐力的民族,當其他民族只顧及到數十年的近憂之時,中國則已想到幾個世紀之後的遠慮。」羅素說:「中國人的思考單位,不是十年,而是萬年。」

 

Unfortunately, the Chinese Russell was in contact with almost disappeared by the 1950’s when Joseph Needham visited China.  During those thirty years, China went through two World Wars.  Especially, after the invasion of Japan, China has lost the traditional family and clans and, even worse, has neglected the traditional cultural education of ethical relations, virtues, and the law of cause and effect.  Education is the vital force of a culture.  Losing the education of the saints and sages, the traditional culture is facing the crisis of disruption.  The unfortunate result of this cultural disruption is evident today.  Therefore, to restore the education of traditional culture is a top priority, the most urgent business.

遺憾的是,羅素一九二年代所接觸到的中國人,李約瑟在一九五年代已經不多見了。中國在此三十年間, 經歷了兩次世界大戰。尤其是在遭受日本侵略之後,中國普遍失去了傳統意義上的家庭、家族,更疏忽了傳統文化的倫理、道德、因果的教育。教育是文化的生機,失去了聖賢教育,傳統文化就面臨斷層的危險。這個後果在今天已經看到了,因此恢復傳統文化的教育,已是當務之急。

 

Under this background Needham proposed his famous "Needham's Grand Question", also known as "The Needham Puzzle", which stimulated tremendous feedbacks.  Joseph Needham asked that despite ancient China’s important contributions to the progress of technology for mankind,[20] why did modern science and Industrial Revolution did not origin in contemporary China?  Through research for more than half a century, Needham found that the answer lies in the Chinese education system of the literati as candidates for government officials and the managerial system of the bureaucracy. Both systems had subconsciously and autonomously restrained the development of technology.

在這個背景下,李約瑟提出著名的「李約瑟之問」(也稱「李約瑟之謎」),引發巨大的反響。李約瑟問:「儘管中國古代對人類科技發展做出了很多重要貢獻,但為什麼科學和工業革命沒有在近代的中國發生?」通過長達半個多世紀的研究,李約瑟發現這個問題的答案在於中國的文官教育制度、官僚管理制度,能夠自發地遏制科技發展。

 

This discovery demonstrated that the ancient Chinese has true wisdom, vision, and long-term strategies for the management of human affairs.  Dr. Arnold Toynbee in his later life felt deeply that the development of technology puts tremendous pressures on society and the people.  In his book Surviving the Future, he said,

 

”Quote here” (if cant find the original text, can use the following: Technological advance has created tremendous fortune for mankind but we are beginning to pay for it and the high price tag has reached an alarming point---the depletion of natural resources, the loss of happiness, and the increase in anxiety and insecurity in humans.) [21]

 

 

The Venerable Master Chin Kung had pointed out that excessive pursuit of efficiency will bring human annihilation.  The annihilation of mankind is caused by the after effects of speed, which makes people agitated, impetuous, and losing their rationality.  Mankind without rationality is Armageddon.

 

這個發現,顯示出古代中國在管理人類事務上的真實智慧和深謀遠慮。湯恩比博士在晚年,深深感到科技發展將巨大的壓力加諸於社會、人心之中。他在《在未來中生存》一書中,引用了這樣的話:技術進步為人類創造出巨大的財富,但是我們已經開始為此付出代價,而且代價之高,已經達到了不得不警戒的時候了。自然資源消耗殆盡……人類失去幸福、惶惶不安。淨空老教授曾指出:過分追求速度將給人類帶來毀滅。毀滅人類的,是速度帶來的心浮氣躁與理性缺失。人類失去理智,就是地球末日。

 

Single-minded pursuit of technological development will instigate another problem and that is greed will feed on materialistic advancement.  The worship of competition and the simultaneous neglect of religious education and the education of the saints and sages will result in the decline of ethics.  The amalgamation of the two will cause world war III; and in this nuclear age, it means the total destruction of the Earth.

一味發展科技帶來的另一個問題,便是物質進步所引發的貪欲膨脹,崇尚競爭與疏忽宗教教育、聖賢教育所造成的道德淪喪結合在一起,就會引發世界大戰。核子時代的戰爭,必然毀滅整個地球。

 

From this point of view, approximately nineteen hundred years ago, Zhang Heng (AD 78–139), astronomer, mathematician, scientist, engineer, inventor, geographer, cartographer, artist, poet, statesman, and literary scholar,[22] the Han dynasty scientific genius, has set a paradigm of true wisdom for China’s scientific geniuses today.  Although he invented the world's first water-powered armillary sphere to assist astronomical observation and invented the world's first seismometer, which can detect the cardinal direction of an earthquake (310 mi) away,[23] he put great emphasis on studying the rites of Zhou dynasty and set up the code of etiquettes for the Han dynasty.  He advocated and propagated the law of cause and effect and the doctrine of awards and retributions incurred by individual actions.  He solemnly warned the emperor and the imperial court that to view natural disasters as caused by the decline in ethics is the correct way.  Additionally, he dedicated his old age to the establishment of rites and the composition of music.  He focused on moral education and abandoned scientific studies and refused to transmit his scientific knowledge to people.

由此看來,大約一千九百年前的張衡,為後世中國的科學天才做出了一個最有智慧的榜樣。雖然他是曠世奇才,發明了渾天儀、地動儀等,但是他卻十分注重研究周禮,制定漢家禮儀,並努力弘揚因果報應的道理。他鄭重警示皇帝與朝廷,務必正確對待天災,因為道德淪喪是天災真正的原因。並且,他在晚年致力於制禮作樂,重視德行教育,而且放棄了科研,不將其學問傳給後人。

 

Scientific geniuses after Zhang Heng are also very careful in the transmission of knowledge.  Some would even destroy documents of their lifetime studies before departing from the world.  They do not do this out of stupidity but to protect the interest for posterity so that all future generations will not blindly pursue technological development for short-term profits and destroy the Earth.  This is the profound vision and long-term strategies of the ancient Chinese.  Toynbee held the same view.  He said that to pursue happiness, mankind developed technology; but the result was the common loss of feelings of happiness and making mankind slaves to technology.[24]

張衡之後的科學天才,也非常謹慎地傳承學問,甚至在離世的時候,將自己畢生的研究銷毀掉。原來這樣做不是因為愚昧,而是為了愛護子孫後代,讓他們不至於因為盲目追求科技發展之短期利益,而將整個地球破壞殆盡,這就是中國古人的深謀遠慮。湯恩比對此也與中國古人的看法相同,他說:人類為了追求幸福而發展科技,但是其結果卻讓人們普遍失去了幸福感。讓自己成為科技的奴隸。

 

Therefore, in the last few years of Toynbee’s life, he proposed that to avoid self-destruction, the world should be unified through cultural and religious education.  He opined that traditional Chinese culture can take on this solemn responsibility.  This conclusion is the consensus of all the peace-loving people of vision who understand traditional Chinese culture.  Joseph Needham also reached the same conclusion and in 1955 proposed that there is no time more urgent than now for China and the world to learn from Confucius, Laozi, and Mozi[25]

因此,湯恩比在晚年提出,為了避免自我毀滅,必須把世界統一起來,通過文化和宗教教育,將整個人類統合在一起。他認為,能夠承擔這個重任的,便是中華傳統文化。這個結論,是所有深入了解中華傳統文化的有識之士之共識。李約瑟在一九五五年也提出:「中國以及世界比以往任何時候更加迫切地需要向孔子、老子和墨子學習」。

 

Unfortunately, when Needham postulated this theory, China was going through a series of political movements; by the time in the 1970’s when Toynbee was postulating his theory that traditional Chinese culture can save the future world, China’s Cultural Revolution just ended.  Thus, the Western academics generally regarded these theories as “pedantic.”  At that time, the academics already compared traditional Chinese culture to that of the ancient Egyptian civilization; although spectacular but has no relation whatsoever with the modern society.  Currently, this concept has influenced the Chinese and many modern Chinese had labeled “tradition” with “feudalism” and swept it under the carpet.

遺憾的是,李約瑟提出這個觀點時,中國正在經歷一系列的政治運動;及至一九七年代,湯恩比提出中華傳統文化能夠拯救世界時,文化大革命剛剛結束。所以,西方的學術界普遍視之為「迂闊」。此時,學術界早已將中國傳統文化比擬古埃及文明:燦爛美好但卻與現代社會毫無關係。現在,這種思想已經影響到國人,許多現代的中國人將傳統」貼上「封建」的標籤,就置之不理了。

 

IV. THE TRADITIONAL CHINESE CULTURE BELONGS TO THE ENTIRE HUMAN RACE

四、中華傳統文化屬於全人類

.

In the past century, China faced monumental transformation which seemed incredible.  Actually, Gu Hung-ming already predicated this in 1915, a century ago.  He had observed that more and more Chinese are westernized and less and less are receiving the education of traditional culture.  He felt that if Westernization is not restrained, then the “real Chinaman,” who had received the excellent family education and the education of ethical relations, virtues, and the law of cause and effect, will disappear from the world.  Therefore, he wrote The Spirit of the Chinese People, wishing that one day the education of traditional Chinese culture can be restored and the traditional spirit of the Chinese can be recovered.

中國在一百年間出現如此巨大的轉變,看似匪夷所思,其實早已被百年前的辜鴻銘先生所預見:中國從晚清開始出現的西化的風潮,使接受傳統文化教育的人越來越少。辜鴻銘感到,如果西化不能得到遏制,那麼這些有著良好的家庭教育、接受了倫理、道德和因果教育的「真正的中國人」最終很有可能會在世界上消失。他因而撰寫《中國人的精神》一書,以期他日能夠復興中華傳統文化的教育,國人夠恢復傳統的精神。

 

Joseph Needham, Bertrand Russell, and Gu Hung-ming, all are sages who had thorough knowledge of the West and the East, all acted in concert to tell us that traditional Chinese culture can bring the perpetuating stability, peace, real prosperity and happiness to the world.  Their consensus is based on the virtues of Chinese culture--filial piety, sibling harmony, loyalty, trust, propriety, righteousness, honesty, shamefulness, benevolence, love, harmony, and peace—taught by the saints and sages.  This education of the saints and sages does not belong to China only but to all mankind.  It is a precious world heritage.

李約瑟、羅素和辜鴻銘這些學貫中西的前賢,他們都不約而同地告訴我們,中華傳統文化能夠給世界帶來持久的安定和平、真正的繁榮昌盛。其所依據的,便是中華文化有「孝悌忠信、禮義廉恥、仁愛和平」的聖賢教育。這個教育,不只屬於中國一家,更是全世界、全人類共有的寶貴遺產。

 

The great German poet, Goethe had said: “There are only two peaceful forces in the world—propriety and righteousness.[26]  Gu Hung-ming believed that the reason traditional Chinese culture can bring perpetuating stability and peace to the world is because of the simultaneous emphasis put on “righteousness” and “propriety.”  He said that

 

The moral force which in the past has been effective in subduing and controlling the human passions in the population of Europe, is Christianity….  Now if the people of Europe really want to put down militarism, there is only one way of doing it and that is, to use what Emerson calls the gun that does not need another gun, the law of love and justice,—in fact, moral force….  I believe the people of Europe will find this new moral force in China,—in the Chinese civilisation. The moral force in the Chinese civilisation which can make militarism unnecessary is the Religion of good citizenship. [27] 

. . .

A religion in the European sense of the word teaches a man to be a good man. But Confucianism does more than this; Confucianism teaches a man to be a good citizen. The Christian Catechism asks:"What is the chief end of man?" But the Confucian Catechism asks:"What is the chief end of a citizen?" of man, not in his individual life, but man in his relation with his fellowmen and in his relation to the State? The Christian answers the words of his Catechism by saying: "The chief end of man is to glorify God." The Confucianist answers the words of his Catechism by saying: "The chief end of man is to live as a dutiful son and a good citizen….In short, a religion in the European sense of the word makes it its object to transform man into a perfect ideal man by himself, into a saint, a Buddha, an angel, whereas Confucianism limits itself to make man into a good citizento live as a dutiful son and a good citizen. In other words, a religion in the European sense of the word says:"If you want to have religion, you must be a saint, a Buddha, an angel;" whereas Confucianism says:"If you live as a dutiful son and a good citizen, you have religion." [28]

. . .

 [T]he rise of civil society in the history of all nations begins always with the institution of The Church religion in Europe[29]… Confucius taught is a Code of Honour…Confucius made this Code out of the law of the gentleman. But now I must tell you that long before Confucius' time there existed already in China an undefined and unwritten code of the law of the gentleman. This undefined and unwritten code of the law of the gentleman in China before Confucius' time was known as li () the law of propriety, good taste or good manners.[30]

. . .

This sense of honour, called by Confucius the law of the gentleman, is not like the moral law of the philosopher and moralist, a dry, dead knowledge of the form or formula of right and wrong, but like the Righteousness of the Bible in Christianity[31]

 

 

 

德國偉大的詩人歌德曾說過:「在這個世界上,唯有兩種和平的力量,即義與禮。」辜鴻銘先生認為,中國傳統文化之所以能夠給世界帶來持久和平,正是在於它「義」、「禮」並重,他說:

 

歐洲人以《聖經》為藍本,建立了現代歐洲文明。《聖經》教導歐洲人要熱愛正義,要做一個真正的人。中華傳統文化的教育,不但教人要熱愛正義,做好人,更要做一個『識禮的好人』;基督教教人們要愛人,中國人則教育人們要『愛之以禮』[32][A1] 。」

 

The simultaneous focus on propriety and righteousness made the Chinese race never a lover of war but indestructible.  Russell after studying Chinese history found that--

 

The persistence of the Chinese Empire down to our own day is not to be attributed to any military skill; on the contrary, considering its extent and resources, it has at most times shown itself weak and incompetent in war…. The Huns were defeated by the Chinese after centuries of warfare; the Tartars and Manchus, on the contrary, conquered China. But they were too few and too uncivilized to impose their ideas or their way of life upon China, which absorbed them... 

 

[T]he persistence of Chinese civilization, fundamentally unchanged since the introduction of Buddhism, is a remarkable phenomenon.  Egypt and Babylonia persisted as long, but since they fell there has been nothing comparable in the world. [33] 

 

In the end, the conquerors, admired and emulated the Chinese civilization, eventually became part of the Chinese people.

傳統文化義禮並重的教育,讓中華民族從不好戰,卻反而堅不可摧。羅素觀察中國歷史,指出中國人因為天性和平而多次不敵外族入侵,遭遇外國人統治。然而,最終結果,便是中華文明反而讓其征服者因感佩而生歡喜,因歡喜而效法,因效法而最終成為中國人的一部分。

 

The authority on contemporary Chinese History, Chen Yin-ke (1890-1969),  one of the most original and creative historians in 20th century China[34], pointed out that the concept of “The Chinese,” beginning two thousands years ago starting with the Han dynasty, is a literary concept and have no relation to race or skin color.  In other words, the true meaning of “The Chinese” is those people who love “benevolence and peace”, aspire to be “filial pious, brotherly, loyal, and trustworthy,” and focus on “propriety, righteousness, honesty, and shamefulness.”  Those people are in themselves multi-cultural and multi-faiths; due to historical reasons lived together; tolerated each other with mutual respect; and call themselves “The Chinese.” 
因此,近代國史權威陳寅恪先生指出:「中國人」這個概念,從兩千年前的漢朝開始,就是一個文化的概念,與膚色種族無關[35]。也就是說,「中國人」的真正含義,就是喜歡「仁愛和平」,慕求「孝悌忠信」、重視「禮義廉恥」的人們。這一群人,本身就是多元文化、多元宗教的,因為種種歷史因緣,大家走到了一起,互相包容、彼此尊重,並以「中國人」自稱。

 

The so-called “China,” literally means the Middle Kingdom.  From different perspectives, every nation can be called the Middle Kingdom.  This name corresponds nicely with the Buddhist concept of the prefect harmony between the protagonist and the supporting roles.  Every nation can be the center of the world and all the other nations her satellite states.  In short, every nation can be number one.  People come together for the same aspiration of Dao and can become a single organic entity.  The sacred first commandment of the Ten Commandments in Catholic religion is “Honor your father and your mother.”  The Rosary of the Catholic Church venerates the humbleness of the Saint Maria.  The prophet Muhammad teaches people to be Beneficent and Faithful.  The great Christians and the Sikhs propagate the “sibling love,” the great German poet Goethe emphasized “propriety and righteousness,” the former prime minister of Malaysia, the elder Mahathir stresses on “Honesty and Shamefulness.” 

所謂「中國」,字面的意義便是「中間之國」,由於視角不同,每個國家,皆可成為「中間之國」。這個名稱與佛法之「主伴圓融」十分相應:每個國家都可以成為中心,其餘為輔,每個國家都是第一,人們因為慕道而在一起,成為一個有機的共同體。神聖的天主十誡的第一條便是「孝順父母」,天主教《玫瑰經》讚頌聖母瑪利亞的謙卑;先知穆罕默德教導人「仁慈與敬信」,偉大的基督教和錫克教講求「兄弟姐妹之情義」,德國大詩人歌德重視「禮義」,馬來西亞前首相馬哈迪長老講求「廉恥」[36]

 

The twelve virtues mentioned above, instead of being the conclusion of the virtues of traditional Chinese culture, should be the moral code of the entire human civilization.  A priori, in the early twentieth century when the cultures of the East and West conflux in the heart of China, Russell was surprised at finding that the British who lived in other parts of Asia are the same many years later, but those British who lived the longest in China will find “gradually the beauty and dignity of their existence become visible[37].”  Therefore Russell was full of faith that China will emerge eventually from the trials and tribulations of history and bring real stability, peace and order to the world.  He wrote:

The Chinese nation, is the most, patient in the world; it thinks of centuries as other nations think of decades. It is essentially indestructible, and can afford to wait. The "civilized" nations of the world…will probably destroy each other within the next hundred years, leaving the stage to those whose pacifism has kept them alive... [38]

 

由此可見,十二德目與其說是中華傳統文化的總結,不如說是整個人類文明道德標準的總結。正因如此,在二十世紀初,東西方文化在中國腹地剛剛交會時,羅素不無驚奇地發現:久居遠東其他地方的英國人,多年後一如故我,但是久居中國的英國人,「會漸漸獲得中國人的精神面貌和價值標準」。[39]  所以,羅素對於中國將最終走出歷史的困境,給世界帶來真正的和平與秩序充滿了信心,他說——「中國人堅不可摧,經得起等待。現在那些自稱為『文明』的國度……互相殘殺,最終將只剩下那些愛好和平的國家。」

 

Joseph Needham further expected the unification of the world and, in turn, the extinction of war forever.  He is as sympathetic as historian Toynbee and put great emphasis on the invaluable asset of traditional Chinese culture to world civilization.  As a scientist, Needham believed that

 

“No doubt the greatest effect of modern science on human civilization has been to unify the whole world surface.  Among the tasks of integration which humanity is now facing in the progress towards higher forms of order and union, none can well be thought larger than the confluence of the Euro-American and Chinese civilization.  The more one studies the two, the more do they see, I feel, like two different symphonies by two different composers using identical fundamental melodies.”[40]

 

李約瑟則進一步期待著世界能夠融為一體,從而永遠消弭戰爭。他與歷史學家湯恩比一樣悲天憫人,重視中華傳統文化巨大的價值。科學家出身的李約瑟,認為

 

「現代科學對人類文明所起的最大作用就是使整個世界統一起來。而當前人類最重要的任務,莫過於使歐美文化與中國文化融合在一起。我們愈深入地研究這兩種文化,就愈深刻地感到它們就像兩個不同的作曲家所譜寫的兩部交響曲,而其基本旋律卻是完全一致的。」

 

V.  CHINESE CHARACTERS AND CLASSICSTHE MEDIA AND NEXUS TO THE ACTUALIZATION OF WORLD COMITY AND UNIFICATION

五、漢字和文言文——實現全球大同的溝通媒介

 

The historian philosopher, Arnold Toynbee, specifically identified that one of the prerequisites of world unification is the efficient communication between different racial groups.  For this purpose, a universal language is required.  He believed that Chinese language will be an ideal choice because it is a construct of ideograms which can actualize the communication that transcends time and space and preserve and transmit the important legacy of mankind--wisdom.  This special quality is also emphasized by Needham and Russell.  Russell quoted an article on "Some Anthropological Problems of China," published in the Chinese Students' Monthly (Baltimore), for February 1922, by Mr. Chi Li, (p. 327) in his book The Problem of China:

 

Now, with all respects to alphabetical civilization, it must be frankly stated that it has a grave and inherent defect in its lack of solidity…. The history of the Western land repeats the same story over and over again. Thus up and down with the Greeks; up and down with Rome; up and down with the Arabs…. Certainly this phenomenon can be partially explained by the extra-fluidity of the alphabetical language which cannot be depended upon as a suitable organ to conserve any solid idea. Intellectual contents of these people may be likened to waterfalls and cataracts, rather than seas and oceans.  No other people is richer in ideas than they; but no people would give up their valuable ideas as quickly as they do. [41]

 

 

歷史哲學家湯恩比在期待世界大同的時候,特別指出統一所必須的條件之一,便是不同的族群之間能夠實現有效溝通,為此,就要有一種世界語。他認為,中文將是一個理想選擇。這一點,是基於中文作為表意文字,能夠實現超越時空的交流、保存和繼承重要的智慧遺產而言的。這個特殊性同時得到了李約瑟與羅素的重視,羅素說——

 

「使用字母文字的文化有一個嚴重的內在缺陷,那就是缺乏穩定性。……希臘人、羅馬人和阿拉伯人這些使用字母文字者,其文化無一不由盛極而衰。……造成這種現象的部分原因自然是字母語言的過分流動性,因而不能保存具體確切的思想觀點。這些族群的知識如奔湧的瀑布而非浩瀚的海洋,其思想之豐富無人能比,而放棄有價值觀念的速度之快,也令他人望塵莫及。」

 

Similarly, Needham was awed by the perpetuation of Han characters and the literary language in the Chinese classics.  He applied scientific methods to explore their depth.  If the rise and fall of civilizations are the inevitable law of history, then, what methodology can propagate their wisdom and prevent the destruction of a once splendid civilization?  Can the ancient civilization be perpetuated under one tradition with new branches growing out of the old tree trunks, a renaissance that makes it thriving again?  This became an important question for these visionary people who embrace the world.  In studying the development of pre-modern Chinese technology, Joseph Needham and Bernhard Karlgren (1889-1978), Swedish sinologist and linguist who pioneered the study of Chinese historical phonology using modern comparative methods,[42]  analogized the literary language in the Chinese classics as the ancient “world language,” quoting Karlgren--

 

“The literary language has been an artificial thing for a thousand years and more, and for all its stylistic variations it has been essentially the same throughout the ages. Once a Chinese has succeeded in mastering it, it is the same to him, from the linguistic point of view, whether the poem he is reading was written at the time of Christ, a thousand years later, or yesterday; it is just as comprehensible and enjoyable in either case….”  

 

And it is true that this old language, in spite of its ambiguity, has a concentrated, laconic, lapidary quality, making an impression of austere elegance, pith and virility, unequalled in any other invented instrument of human communication.[43]

 

因此,李約瑟對漢字與文言文之延續性感到十分驚歎,並用科學方法對它進行深入研究。如果文明盛極而衰是難以避免的歷史規律,那麼,用什麼方法保存智慧的傳承,從而讓一度燦爛的美好文明不至於毀滅呢?能不能讓古老的文明,一脈相承,老樹新枝,根深葉茂呢?這便成為胸懷天下的智者所關心的重大問題。在研究古代中國科技發展的時候,李約瑟和漢學家高本漢(Karlgren)將文言文比喻成為古代的「世界語」——

   

「高本漢說:『一千多年來,文言文一直是一種人為之物,而且儘管有那麼多格調的變化,這些年代以來,它基本上是一樣的。一個人一旦掌握了它,他所讀的詩,無論是在基督時代寫的,還是在公元一千年以後寫的,或者是昨天寫的,從語言學觀點上看,對他都是一樣的;不管是什麼時代寫的,他都能理解並欣賞它』。……

 

(所以),漢字和文言文,這個古老的文字,有一種精煉、簡潔和玉琢般的特質,給人的印象是樸素而優雅,簡練而有力,超過人類創造出來的表達思想感情的任何其他工具。」[44]

 

If sinologists can see the inscriptions on the recently unearthed vessels of ancient rites, they will be happy to discover that the historical Chinese literary language is indeed the world language.  It enables people of different language and cultural background to communicate successfully.  It is concise without losing eloquence.  This has been an important aid in the formation of China--the Middle Kingdom.  The Han characters and the literary language manifest the spirit of human civilization, the grand way of nature; therefore, people within the four seas can resonate with the truth of life and the universe recorded through the literary language.

如果漢學家能夠看到近代出土的上古禮器銘文,那麼他們就會很開心的發現,文言文在歷史上的確就是世界語,它是使有著各種文化背景、語言不通的人們,彼此成功交流的最有效、最簡潔而不失優雅的方式,也是華夏這個「中間之國」得以形成的重要助力。漢字與文言文所昭示的,是人文的精神、是自然的大道,故四方人民,對文言文所記載的宇宙人生的真理,皆能產生共鳴。

 

VI. CONCLUSIONWORLD CULTURE CONFORMS TO THE PROFOUNDITY OF DAO SUBSCONCIOUSLY

六、結語——世界文化暗合道妙

In the early third century, the ancient Roman philosopher, Plotinus (AD 204-270) was born in Egypt.  He proposed the “One" concept and pointed out that there is a supreme, totally transcendent “One," containing no division, multiplicity or distinction; beyond all categories of being and non-being.  The "One" concept of Plotinus "cannot be any existing thing," nor is it merely the sum of all things, but "is prior to all existents."  Plotinus identified his "One" with the concept of “Good” and the principle of “Beauty.”[45]  A century before Plotinus, the philologist during Han dynasty, Xu Shen (AD 58-147), was working assiduously to continue the excellent epistemology of the ancient sages.  He became the first to organize the Chinese characters by shared components (radicals), as well as the author of Shuwen Jiezi, the first Chinese dictionary to analyze the structure of the characters and to give the rationale behind them, sometimes also the etymology of the words represented by them.[46]  The first word in his analytical dictionary is “One.”  According to Xu Shen’s explanation, “One” means “the primordial existence, One is the source of Dao, which divides the heaven and earth; all beings and non-beings metamorphosized from One.”  Plotinus and Xu Shen has never met each other but the great minds think alike.  The Grand Course (Dao) originates from “One.”  It is the universal truism.  The Roman Empire and Han dynasty had each sent envoys to traverse over mountains and seas but were never able to meet.  However, their individual spirituality, without the need to communicate, resonates with each other from afar.  Tracing the roots of all the great civilizations, from ancient times to the present, from the West to the East, all conform to the profundity of Dao tacitly “using identical fundamental melodies.”

西元三世紀初,出生於埃及的古羅馬哲學家普羅提諾(Plotinus, 公元204-270)提出「一」(The One)的概念,指出萬物生於一,此為至善。一個多世紀之前,中國的許慎(公元58-147年),在家中奮力繼往聖之絕學,將古人關於造字的資料匯成《說文解字》,書中第一個字便是「一」,許慎釋之為「惟初太始,道立於一。造分天地,化成萬物」。二人從未面謀,卻英雄所見略同,是為大道歸一,放之四海而皆準。羅馬與漢朝,多次派使節翻山渡海以求彼此溝通而最終未能握手。然而其精神,卻無需溝通就能遙相呼應。可見,古今中外所有偉大的文明,究其根本是暗合道妙的,「其基本旋律也是完全一致的」。

 

Plotinus and Xu Shen although both talked about Dao, or “One,” but the words written by Plotinus are not understandable by people today.  However, Xu Shen used the literary language and can still be understood by the Chinese today.  The Venerable Master Chin Kung said: “the Han characters and the literary language are the greatest inventions in human history.”  We can see the truth of the Master’s words from this comparison.

普羅提諾和許慎,雖然所言皆是道,但是前者所寫的文字,今人讀不懂;而後者所書之文言,今人可以理解。淨空老教授說:「漢字和文言文,是有史以來人類最偉大的發明。」此中可見。

 

In the Book of Rites, the chapter on "Ceremonial Usages," Confucius stated: “When the Grand Course was pursued, a public and common spirit ruled all under the sky.”[47]  Two thousand years later, Joseph Needham was also of the same spirit and wrote his book Within the Four Seas in order to realize early what Confucius has also advocated--all are brothers within the four seas.  From ancient times to the late Chin dynasty, the tradition of family education, ethical relations, virtues, and the law of cause and effect had made the Chinese people love and respect from the heart.  They are law-abiding good citizens, with mutual trust, assistance, and love, worked together to maintain social order without police enforcement.  Both Russell and Gu Hung-ming praised highly this Spirit of the Chinese people.  It is also the excellent characteristic shared by all human beings, aided with good family education, the respect of the teachers, and the social education of mutual respect and love, all can be like the legendary emperors Yoa and Shun, and all can be future saints and sages.  Therefore, the traditional Chinese culture is a precious world heritage; the manifestation of all the excellent traditions of different races in the world.  The propagation of the education of traditional culture will surely bring real stability, peace, and happiness to the world.

《禮記》之「大道之行也,天下為公」,被兩千年之後的李約瑟所領悟,而著書《四海之內》以期待早日實現孔子所言之「四海之內皆兄弟也」。上古至晚清所傳承的家庭教育、倫理、道德、因果的教育,使人民自發成為愛敬存心、遵紀守法的好人,大家彼此信賴、互助互愛、互相配合而無需軍警維護社會秩序,這使羅素和辜鴻銘讚歎不已。所謂「中國人的精神」,原本是人類所共有的美好特質,輔之以良好的家教、尊嚴的師道以及互敬互愛的社會教育,則人人可以成堯舜,代代可以出聖賢。是故,中華傳統文化的教育,既是屬於世界的珍貴文化遺產,也是世界各民族偉大傳統的具體體現。弘揚傳統文化的教育,必然能夠給世界帶來真正的和平、安寧與幸福。

 

 

 

 



[1] Russell, Bertrand, The Problem of China, Ch. 1, ”Questions.” London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1st Ed. 1922. 

See, http://www.gutenberg.org/files/13940/13940-h/13940-h.htm#CHAPTER_I.

 羅素著,秦悅譯,《中國問題》。上海:學林出版社,1996年,頁7

 

[3] Id., The Problem of China, Ch.1 “Questions.”

 

[4] Id. Ch. XI. “Chinese and Western Civilization Contrasted.  Original text reads: “When I went to China, I went to teach; but every day that I stayed I thought less of what I had to teach them and more of what I had to learn from them.”

 

[6] Needham, Joseph, Within the Four Seas: the Dialogue of East and West, pp. 25-26.  Toronto: University of Toronto, 1969.

 

[8] New International Version of the Bible.  See,  http://biblehub.com/john/3-16.htm

 

[9] Sahih International translation of The Koran, 59:22.  See, http://corpus.quran.com/translation.jsp?chapter=59&verse=22

 

[10] Translation by James Legge.  See, http://ctext.org/analects/yan-yuan, para. 5.

 

[12] Gu, Hong-ming, The Spirit of Chinese People, ch.1.  The Peking Daily News, 1915.   http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Spirit_of_the_Chinese_People/1

 

[13] Id.

 

[14] Id. 辜鴻銘著,《中國人的精神》,頁56.

 

[15] Id. 辜鴻銘,頁60.

 

[16] Russell, The Problem of China, ch. XI, “Chinese and Western Civilization Contrasted.”

 

[17] Id., ch. XII “The Chinese Character.”

 

[18] 《中國問題》,頁159-161.

 

[19] Id., ch. 1 “Questions.”

 

[20] "Gunpowder, the magnetic compass, and paper and printing, which Francis Bacon considered as the three most important inventions facilitating the West's transformation from the Dark Ages to the modern world, were invented in China."  "The Needham Puzzle: Why the Industrial Revolution Did Not Originate in China".Economic Development and Cultural Change 43 (2): 269–292.doi:10.1086/452150.  See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Needham#cite_note-Lin_269.E2.80.93292-13

 

 

[21] Toynbee, Arnold, Surviving the Future, Chapter 4.

 

[22] His accomplishments in astronomer have been compared to his contemporary, Ptolemy. 

See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhang_Heng

 

[23] Id.

 

[24] Toynbee, Surviving the Future, Chapter 4.  湯恩比,《在未來中生存》,第四章。

 

[25] Mozi (ca. 470 – 391 BC) was a Chinese philosopher during the Hundred Schools of Thought period (early Warring States period).  His philosophy emphasized self-restraint, self-reflection and authenticity rather than obedience to ritual. Mozi tried to replace what he considered to be the long-entrenched Chinese over-attachment to family and clan structures with the concept of "impartial caring" or "universal love" (, jiān ài).   See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mozi

 

[26] 這句話引自辜鴻銘的《中國人的精神》。原文是:Es gibt zwei friedliche Gewalten auf der Welt: Das Rechtund die Schicklichkeit.

 

[27] Gu, The Spirit of the Chinese People, Introduction.

See, http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Spirit_of_the_Chinese_People/Introduction

 

[28] Gu, The Spirit of the Chinese People, Chapter 1

 See, http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Spirit_of_the_Chinese_People/1

 

[29] Id.

 

[30] Id.

 

[31] Id.

 

[32] 辜鴻銘,《中國人的精神》,頁46-47.

 

[33] Russell,  The Problem of China, Ch. 2.

 

[35] Chen, Yin-ke, Jin Ming Guan Cong Gao Chu Bian (Writings on Jin Ming Guan, Vol. 1)

陳寅恪,《金明館叢稿》(頁碼待查。)

 

[36] 見馬哈迪長老於九十高齡接受印尼希達亞都拉回教大學頒贈榮譽博士時的演講。中文見印尼《國際日報》(20140516A3)

 

[37] Russell, The Problem of China, Ch. XI, the whole text is as follows: “In art they aim at being exquisite, and in life at being reasonable. There is no admiration for the ruthless strong man, or for the unrestrained expression of passion. After the more blatant life of the West, one misses at first all the effects at which they are aiming; but gradually the beauty and dignity of their existence become visible, so that the foreigners who have lived longest in China are those who love the Chinese best.

 

[38] Id., ch.1 “The Questions.”

 

[39] Russell, Bertrand, The Problem of China, 《中國問題》頁158.

 

[40] Needham, Joseph, Within the Four Seas: the Dialogue of East and West, p.96.  《四海之內》頁94.

 

[41] The Problem of China, Ch. 2, 《中國問題》頁26.

 

[43] Needham, Science and Civilisation in China, pp. 40-41.

[44]《中國科學技術史》頁39.

 

[45] PlotinusEnneadV.2.1. In Plotinus, Ennead II, 9 'Against the Gnostics', Leuven:Peeters2012. See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plotinus

 

The One is a source of all existents. It is the eternally present possibility – or active making-possible – of all existence, of Being. (V.2.1).  The One is an equivalent to “The Good”

 

[47] Translation by James Legge.  See, http://ctext.org/liji/li-yun

 


 [A1]I can’t find the equivalent of this passage in the original text in the given pages as indicated in the footnote.  So I just digested some from chapter 1, which is more than what is given here in the Chinese translation.

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