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群書治要-2
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Qunshu Zhiyao (A Compendium of the Essentials of Governance)    (Lecture 2)    by Professor Yuli Liu  File No.: 56-167-0002

群書治要  (第二集)  劉余莉教授  香港    檔名:56-167-0002

Respected classmates, greetings!

尊敬的諸位同學,大家好!

 

Today we formally begin with the study of Qunshu Zhiyao 360.  Let’s open the first volume of Qunshu Zhiyao 360 and look at the first heading in the outline.  The first section is “The Tao (Way) of the Ruler,” which discusses how to be an excellent leader.

我們今天正式進入《群書治要360》的學習。我們看《群書治要360》第一冊,第一個綱目「君道」。這一篇主要是講怎麼樣成為一個卓越的領導者。

 

The first heading under this section is titled “Personal Cultivation.”  In the Book of Rites, the chapter on “The Great Learning” stated: “From the Son of Heaven down to the citizenry, all consider the cultivation of the person as the root of everything[1].”  To be an excellent leader, s/he must begin with personal cultivation which is the foundation of family order, state governance, and world peace.

第一個副標題是「修身」。在《大學》上說:「自天子以至於庶人,壹是皆以修身為本。」要想成為一個卓越的領導者,首先要從修身來下手,這是齊家、治國、平天下的基礎。

 

The subheading under Personal Cultivation is the Prohibition of Covetousness.  This subheading gives us the starting point of personal cultivation, which is in accordance with the stages of personal cultivation delineated in The Great Learning: “extinction of avarice, awareness of the phenomena[A1] , sincerity in thoughts, and rectification of the mind.”  People can talk about their personal cultivation only after these stages.  In other words, cultivation of the person begins with abstinence--to eradicate our desires for material goods.  When faced with the temptations of luxury lifestyle, sexual desires, rich, and fame, we should not be disturbed; hold onto our tranquil mind; and not fanned by the passions of gain, loss; defamation, eulogy; praise, ridicule; sorrow, joy.[2]  This is just the basics of personal cultivation which begins with the extinction of greed.

在修身第一個小標題就是「戒貪」,告訴我們修身從哪裡開始?那就是《大學》上所說的「格物、致知、誠意、正心」,後面才談得上是修身,所以修身要從格物來做起,格物就是格除物欲的意思。也就是我們在財色名利各種誘惑面前能夠如如不動、把持住自己,做到八風吹不動,這個修身才有一點點的基礎,所以修身從戒貪來做起。

 

THE FIRST PASSAGE (VERSE):

第一條:

 

Since the era of King Cheng and King Kang, almost a millennium had passed.  Rulers wishing for good governance were many.  But why peaceful times can no long be revived? It is because rulers abandoned disciplines and standards, indulged in selfish desires, enjoyed luxurious lifestyles, thus their benevolence and righteousness collapsed[A2] .

【自成康以來。幾且千歲。欲為治者甚眾。然而太平不復興者。何也?以其舍法度。而任私意。奢侈行而仁義廢也[A3] 。】

 

This passage comes from Qunshu Zhiyao, vol. 19, “The Book of Han[3], Fascicule 7.” 

這句話出自《群書治要》卷十九《漢書七》。

 

Qunshu Zhiyao selected materials from the Divisions of Scriptures, Histories, and Philosophers.  In the Division of Histories, it excerpted from the “Four History Books”: Shiji (Records by the Grand Historian), History of Han Dynasty, History of the Latter Han Dynasty, and Records of the Three Kingdoms. In addition, it also included History of Jin Dynasty.  History books used myriads of historical facts to testify the doctrines in the Divisions of Scriptures and Philosophers.  To combine the materials from History and Scriptures for contemplation is a prominent feature in Qunshu Zhiyao.

我們知道《群書治要》的取材是經、史、子,而在史部有《史記》《漢書》《後漢書》《三國志》,這稱為「四史」,此外還有《晉書》。史書都是由很多的歷史事實來驗證「經部」和「子部」的道理,所以經史合參的特點在《群書治要》中表現得非常明顯。

 

The commonly known “Twenty-Five Histories,” from Shiji (Records by the Grand Historian) to the Draft of History of Chin Dynasty, include a total of 24 official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to Ming dynasty, also known as the “Twenty-Four Histories[A4] ,” and a draft of the history of the last dynasty, the Chin dynasty.  The core of the Twenty-Five Histories is the rules of the rise and fall of the states and societies.  These rules can be put in one phrase and that is “causality and responses.”  The Book of Changes stated: “The family that accumulates goodness is sure to have superabundant happiness; and the family that accumulates evil is sure to have superabundant misery[4].”  It is also said in Shang Shu (Book of Documents):  “All blessings fall on the good-doer, and all miseries on the evil-doer.”   Furthermore, in the opening prologue of the Treatise on Response and Retribution[5], Laozi stated: “Fortune and misery are neither predestined nor random; they are instead caused by the karmic actions of each individual.  The rewards and retributions for virtue and vice follow each person like a shadow.”  The Twenty-Four Histories provided historical factual evidences to prove these truisms.  A book is especially noteworthy called A Collection of Historical Facts of Responses and Retributions.  The compilation of this book is based on the formal documentations from the Twenty-Four Histories to prove to us the law of cause and effect and the rendering of rewards and retributions according to each individual’s virtue and vice.  This book edifies that ‘causality and responses’ are not superstitions but universal laws proven and testified by historical facts.  It is like the truisms that we can stop hunger by eating food, end our thirst by drinking water; and if we plant melons, we will harvest melons, if we plant beans, we will harvest beans.  All these are obvious, easily observable cause and effect.  However, the not so obvious, latent cause and effect could only be observed studiously by the saints to be recorded in scriptures.  Therefore, when we study the scriptures, we are studying the “Tao” and learning the facts of causality.

自《史記》到《清史稿》一共二十五部,俗稱「二十五史」。二十五史的核心內容講的是什麼道理?它給我們講了國家社會興衰成敗的規律,而這個規律用一句話來概括就是「因果感應」。在《易經》上說:「積善之家,必有餘慶;積不善之家,必有餘殃。」在《書經》上也說:「作善降之百祥,作不善降之百殃。」在《太上感應篇》開篇也說:「禍福無門,惟人自召;善惡之報,如影隨形。」二十四史就是通過歷史的史實給我們驗證了這些道理。特別是在歷史上有一部書叫《歷史感應統記》,這部書都是從二十四史,也就是正史之中的資料,給我們驗證了我們上面所說的道理。我們看了這一部書才知道因果感應並不是迷信,而是通過歷史的史實驗證的規律。像我們吃飯能夠可以止住飢餓,喝水可以止渴,種瓜得瓜,種豆得豆,這是可以看得見的、顯而易見的因果。有一些隱而未宣的因果,這些只有聖人去認真觀察了,把它給記載下來,記在經典之中。所以我們學習經典,也就是在學習「道」,學習因果的事實。

 

We can conclude that the core of history lessons is the law of cause and effect and the truism of responses and retributions.  The first passage is excerpted from the Book of Han, scroll 7.  The Chancellor of Internal Affairs (Court Admonisher)[6], Gong Yu (cir. 127-44 BC), of Western Han dynasty, wrote these sentences to criticize and advise Emperor Yuan of Han (75-33 BC).  Gong Yu, seeing the corruption of the government, the extravagance and decadence in the imperial palace, the ineffectiveness in the education of the saints, and the decline in social norms, recommended the implementation of Confucianism to transform social morés.

這個是告訴我們,史書它核心的內容就是講因果感應的道理,這句話就是出自《漢書七》,是西漢的諫大夫貢禹勸諫漢元帝的上書中所說的兩句話。貢禹看到當時朝政腐敗,宮廷奢靡,聖教不行,社會風氣日趨日下的現狀,於是建議要興起孔子的教誨來改變世風。

 

Before the excerpted First Passage, Gong Yu wrote: “Confucius was but an ordinary person.  Nevertheless, his love for the study of the proper course, his personification of dignity and never slacking self-discipline resulted in all the rulers in the kingdom would adhere to his words and doctrines as standards for the judgment of right and wrong, good and bad.  Especially, in view of your majesty’s eminent virtues, your exalted position and power as the Son of Heaven, and the expansive territories of Han dynasty, with the blessings from Heaven, if your majesty wishes to change social morés, to regulate the Yin and Yang, to mold and cultivate all things, and through education to rectify everything in the empire, it will be easy like opening the floodgate to let water flow or (close the floodgate to) stop things from falling.”  Why[A5]  is it so easy?  How can we achieve this effect?

在這句話之前,貢禹就寫道,說「孔子不過是一個尋常之人,但是因為樂於研求道義、端正自身而從不鬆懈的緣故,以至於現在四海之內,天下的君主,都按照孔子的言論,為判斷是非善惡的標準。更何況現在漢朝的地域遼闊,陛下您德行高尚,又居天子的尊位,相信憑藉著上天的幫助,如果想改變社會風氣、調和陰陽、陶冶萬物、通過教化匡正天下,就像決堤放水、遏止物體墜落一樣容易。」為什麼這麼容易?怎麼做才能達到這個效果?

 

After these sentences, Gong Yu told us the reason why flourishing times can no longer exist and how to restore them.

後面他就說了這句話,告訴我們盛世不復存在的原因,以及如何能夠恢復盛世。

 

Since the era of King Cheng and King Kang, almost a millennium had passed. King Cheng and King Kang ruled during the Western Zhou dynasty (cir. 1046-771 BC).  During their reign the society was stable and harmonious and people lived in peace and prosperity.  The prison was empty. Punishments were no longer in use. Because no one committed crimes, there were no prisoners in prisons and tools of punishment were collecting dust.  King Cheng and King Kang followed the governance by moral education paradigm set by King Wen, King Wu, and Duke of Zhou.  More important, during the reign of King Cheng (cir. 1042-1041 BC), his uncle Duke of Zhou composed spiritual music[7] and established the etiquettes, rites, and rituals (Li)[8] (that regulated peoples social conducts).  As a result of emphasizing ethical relations and moral education, punishments were no longer of use and society was stable and harmonious.  By the time of Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD), when Gong Yu wrote this to Emperor Yuan (ruled from 48-33 BC[A6] ), almost a millennium had passed. 

這句話說『自成康以來幾且千歲』。成康就是西周周成王和周康王統治的時候,社會安定和諧,人民安居樂業,結果怎麼樣?「囹圄空虛」,監獄裡都沒有犯人;「刑措不用」,就是刑罰都放置不用,因為沒有犯罪的人。在西周的時候,周成王、周康王能夠繼承文武、周公的遺風,能夠興起道德教育,特別是周公制禮作樂那就是在成王的統治時期。因為重視了倫理道德的教化,所以刑罰都擱置不用了,社會安定和諧。到了漢代的時候,將近一千年了,『幾且千歲』,這個「且」就是將要的意思,幾乎要有一千年之久了。

 

Rulers wishing for good governance were many.  But why peaceful times can no long be revived? Many rulers wished for peace in their kingdoms.  All monarchs aspire to have their monarchy in prosperity and their subjects live in peace, and they are respected everywhere they go.  Contrary to their wishes, peaceful and flourishing times no longer arise.  The next sentence pointed out the cause as to why peaceful times can no longer be revived. It is because rulers abandoned disciplines and standards, indulged in selfish desires, enjoyed luxurious lifestyles, thus their benevolence and righteousness collapsed. Disciplines and standards do not mean laws, codified laws, executive orders, rules, regulations, etc.  Here, disciplines and standards meant moral standards, codes of conducts, ethical rules.  For example, in Guanzi (Writings of Master Guan)[9], in the chapter of Chong Kuang, it stated: Todays discourses on benevolence and righteousness should follow the disciplines and standards set by the three sagacious kings[10].A priori, disciplines and standards meant moral standards, codes of conduct, etc.

『欲為治者甚眾』,想使天下太平的君主很多,但凡是君主統治國家,都希望國家國泰民安、人們安居樂業,自己走到哪裡也備受尊重。但是卻適得其反,『然而太平不復興者。何也』,結果卻沒有出現太平盛世,太平盛世不復出現,這是什麼原因?下面這一句話給我們指出了關鍵,『以其舍法度。而任私意。奢侈行而仁義廢也。』這個「法度」不是我們所說的法律、成文法、法令、條文等等,這個「法度」它有道德標準、道德規範、規矩的意思。譬如說在《管子.中匡》篇就說:「今言仁義,則必以三王為法度。」這個「法度」就是指標準、規範的意思。

 

What is the universal law of governance?  In Mencius, there was a story about the fifth legendary Emperor Shun (2294-2184 BCE).  He appointed Chi as the chief minister[11], responsible for education, especially the implementation of the five ethical relations.  The five ethical relations are the cardinal rules that illustrate the loving affinity between father and son, righteousness between monarch and subjects, different duties between the husband and wife, order between the older and the younger. We call them the great Way of ethical relations, or the five cardinal relations.  It means that it is not a moral standard set by the saints but a natural law that existed primordially.  The Chinese often say Tao-De, Tao-De, loosely translated as the proper course.  Actually, Tao means the ultimate principle of the universe[12] and De means conducts according to this principle.

治國的常理常法是什麼?在《孟子》上給我們說,早在舜的時候,他就以契為司徒,也就是主管教育的官員,專門興起倫常教育,這個「五倫」大道就是「父子有親君臣有義夫婦有別長幼有序朋友有信」,我們把它稱為倫常大道,就是說它不是聖人給我們人為制定下來的,而是本來就有的,自然而然的規律。我們現在講道德、道德,這個「道」就是自然的規律,這個「德」就是按著自然規律去做。

 

There is a natural loving affinity between father and son:  parents love their children and children love their parents.  This natural affinity was not a mandate by the saint but a natural manifest of our humanity. This loving affinity between father and son can be observed from infants especially.  A Chinese proverb says : A new-born baby will manifest its true nature after 100 days. Toddlers will express their inner joy naturally upon seeing their parents. We can tell their love for their parents from such joy. The question is how to maintain such natural loving affinity throughout their lives, following this loving affinity without changing course.  According to the observation by the saints, only when parents rear and guide their children lovingly, their children will show filial piety towards them; consequently, the natural loving affinity can be maintained.  Therefore, to abide by the Tao of humanity, the saints commanded the virtues of loving father and pious son. In other words, parents should nurture and discipline their children with loving-kindness; children should show filial piety towards their parents.

我們看父子有親,父母愛兒女,兒女愛父母,他們之間有一種自然的親情,這個自然的親情不是聖人要求我們的,而是一種人性的自然而然的表現。這個父子之間的親情從小孩子的身上特別能夠看出來。所以中國古人說:「人生百日,體露真常。」孩子小的時候,他看到父母就有一種發自內心的喜悅,那種歡樂給我們看到了對父母的親愛。那麼怎麼樣把這種自然而然的親情保持一生,順著「親」的方向發展而不改變?聖人去觀察了,只有父母慈愛教導兒女,兒女孝敬父母,這個自然的親情才能夠維繫。所以順著父子有親這個人倫之道,就提出了「父慈子孝」的德行要求,也就是父母要慈愛教導兒女,兒女要孝敬父母。

 

The Chinese character for “loving-kindness” is (cí), meaning merciful, loving.  We can feel the loving-kindness from parents to their children in the composition of this word.  The ideogram (cí) is composed with ( here or this) at the top and (xīn heart) at the bottom.  The combination of these two words expressed the meaning of loving-kindness.  Parents’ love for their children is in their “constantly mindful of this” child.  It is expressed in parents’ constant thought about their children no matter the time or pace.  Especially those parents raising young children will understand this.  Infants cannot speak to express their needs; but when they cry, parents immediately understand whether they cry because they are hungry or have wet their diapers.  Why parents can understand babies’ needs from their crying?  It is because parents’ mind is constantly on their child.  The Great Learning stated: “no female will learn how to rear children before they are married.”  Women will not learn how to raise a child before they get married.  However, once they are married and have children, they know how to take care of them.  How do mothers do this?  Mothers learn from their sincere heart.  With a sincere loving heart, mothers care for their children no matter the time and place.  Therefore, it seems naturally that they understand infants’ needs and the best way to care for them.  A priori, from this word (cí) children should perceive the beneficence of parents.

我們看這個「慈」字,從這個字上我們特別能夠感受到父母對兒女的恩德所在。這個「慈」上面是一個「茲」,下面是一個「心」,看到這個字告訴我們什麼叫慈?父母對兒女的慈愛就表現在他的心「念茲在茲」,無時無刻不在兒女的身上。有過孩子的人可能都有體會,特別是孩子小的時候,他還不會說話,不會表達自己的意願,但是他只要一哭,父母就知道他的需要在哪裡,他是渴了還是尿了。為什麼?因為他的心無時無刻不在兒女的身上。所以在《大學》上說:「未有學養子而後嫁者也。」沒有人先是學了怎麼養兒子然後才出嫁的。但是她一出嫁,一有了兒女,她就知道如何去照顧他。她是怎麼學會的呢?就是有一顆真誠的心。有一顆真誠的愛心,無時無刻地不在關愛兒女,所以她自然知道他的需要在哪裡,應該怎麼樣去照顧他才呵護得最好。所以,兒女從這個字上就能夠體會到父母的恩德。

 

An ancient Chinese proverb says: The mother can live to be a hundred and still worries about her eighty-year old son.  The hundred-year old mother still thinks constantly about her son and cannot stop worrying about the welfare of her eighty-year old son.  When she calls him on the phone, she will still ask whether her eighty-year old son dressed properly when the weather changed and all the other minor details of his life.  In contrast, children are careless and insensitive to their parents loving care.  They often complain when parents called and say: Dont you know I am very busy right now?  And you call me and nag about trivial matters. They have no empathy for their parents love expressed in their nagging.  This word (cí) should invoke our gratitude towards the beneficence of our parents.  When we have empathy for our parents loving-kindness, we will understand that no matter what we do, we cannot repay their deep loving-kindness in rearing, nurturing, and fostering us.  Therefore, what should we do as children?  We as children must show filial piety towards our parents.

古人常說「母活一百歲,常憂八十兒」,這個老母親已經活到一百歲了,還經常惦記著、放心不下她那八十歲的兒子,所以一拿起電話,她還是要噓寒問暖、問長問短。但是做兒女的卻粗心大意,不能感受到父母的關愛,可能還覺得,你不知道我很忙嗎?現在打電話給我,還說個沒完沒了,絲毫不能夠體會父母關愛兒女的用心。從這個字上我們體會到父母的恩德,我們對父母才能夠生起感恩之心。所以,做兒女的無論怎麼樣報答父母都不為過,都不能夠報答父母養育、撫育、教育的深恩。所以要求兒女怎麼做呢?那就是要孝敬父母。

 

The word (xiào filial piety) in Chinese is composed half with the ideogram (lǎo old) and half with the ideogram (zǐ child).  This word gives us a picture of children carrying parents and the young carrying the old. In other words, when we were young, parent raised us.  Especially in the first three years of our lives, we cannot live without them as we have no ability to take care of ourselves.  We need the fosterage of our parents--to feed us, to carry us, and to support us even when we learn to walk.   When our parents are old, they also need our care.  Therefore, the word (xiào filial piety) expresses the oneness between the older generation and the younger generation.  They are one unity and not separated into two.  Most youngsters nowadays would complain about the generation gap and that they cannot communicate with their parents.  If there is a generation gap, then filial piety no longer exits.  The reason we cant communicate with our parents is due to our lack of utmost sincerity, our lack of patience, and our lack of gratitude.  All these blocked our communications with our parents.  We as children should especially put ourselves in their shoes; be empathetic and think from their perspectives.  Utmost sincerity will invoke a response.  We are One with our parents.

這個「孝」字,上面是一個「老」字一半,下面是一個「子」字,告訴我們「子承父,子承老」,背負著老人。我們在年輕的時候父母養育我們,三年不免於父母之懷,三歲之前我們都沒有生活的能力,飲食起居、走路都需要父母的照顧;等父母老的時候,他也同樣需要兒女的照顧,所以這個「孝」字就是告訴我們,上一代和下一代是一體的,而不是兩個。像我們現在很多年輕人說,和父母有代溝、不能夠溝通。如果有代溝的話,這個孝就已經不存在了。那為什麼不能夠和父母溝通呢?自己的心沒有達到至誠,自己的耐心不夠,自己的感恩心沒有生起,這些都障礙了和父母的溝通。所以,做兒女的特別需要能夠設身處地、將心比心,這樣才能夠和父母融為一體,至誠感通。

 

Historically, the person who was most pious was the fifth legendary emperor of ancient China mentioned above, Emperor Shun or Da Shun (the Great Shun).  No one can compare to him when it comes to filial piety.  There is a deep meaning in putting him at the top of the list of the Twenty-Four Most Pious Children. The reason he was the first in the list was because his father, his step-mother, and his half-brother all attempted to kill him several times.  But Great Shun never held any grudges against them.  Even when he became the emperor, he was still pondering his insufficiencies in the Tao of filial piety and would cry his heart out in the wilderness.  Eventually, his sincerity touched and transformed his step-mother and his half-brother.  Thus, putting Great Shun at the top of the Twenty-Four Most Pious Children list is telling us that a truly pious child can invoke a response with sincerity.

在歷史上把這個孝字做到極致的無過於大舜了,大舜被列為「二十四孝」之首很有深意,為什麼他被列為二十四孝之首?因為他的父母、他的後母、他的一個弟弟三番五次地要置他於死地。但是大舜並沒有懷恨在心,即使得了天子之位,仍然想著自己不能夠把兒女之道盡到,孝道做得不夠,所以經常到原野上去號泣。後來他的誠心終於感化了他的後母,也感化了他的兄弟。所以把他列為二十四孝之首,告訴我們什麼?告訴我們,一個真正有孝心的人,他就能夠做到至誠感通。

 

The story of the Great Shun also tells us that in resolving conflicts there is a difference in Western culture and the core value of traditional Chinese culture.  Mencius said: “The benevolent ruler has no enemies.”  The ideogram “ (rén, benevolence) combines the pictographs of (rén, a person) and (èr, two).  The word explicitly means two persons, implicitly means empathy.  In other words, when we think of ourselves, we should think of others as well.  If there are the thoughts of they and we, there are two unities.  The true state of benevolence is Oneness.  We and others are one in the noumenon[A7] .  Since we are all of Oneness, we will not solve problems by taking opposite stands.  We will use sincerity to reconcile conflicts.  This is the Oneness concept in Chinese culture.  When it is applied to the management of personal relationships, the relationship between humans and nature, and the relationship between mankind and everything else, it can manage them all perfectly without any residual problems and without any passive (negative) repercussions.  “The benevolent ruler has no enemies” means that the mind of a truly loving and benevolent person is never against anyone.  If s/he has any opposing thoughts of someone, or always finds something wrong in others and is never satisfied with people, s/he lacks benevolence and empathy.  Therefore, Confucianists advocate benevolence, righteousness, loyalty, and forgiveness; Mahayana Buddhists emphasize sincerity, compassion, and mercifulness.  The compassion and mercifulness in Mahayana Buddhism connote the great compassion and the great mercifulness.

他也告訴我們中國傳統文化的核心和西方文化的不同之處,如何解決矛盾和衝突呢?「仁者無敵」。有仁愛心的人,你看這個「仁」字是一個「單立人」加一個「二」,二,想到我們自己就要想到對方。實際上,有自己和對方的時候已經是二法了,真正的境界就是一體之仁,我和對方實際上是一體的。既然是一體的,這個觀念一樹立,就不會用對立的方式去解決問題了。他怎麼解決?他是用真誠心的化解。所以中華文化它有這種一體的觀念,它在處理人與人之間的關係,人與自然之間的關係,人與萬物之間的關係,都能夠處理得很圓滿,而不留後患,沒有消極的後果。「仁者無敵」告訴我們,真正有仁愛心的人,他的心裡不和任何人起對立。如果有和人對立的念頭,看誰不滿意、不順眼的念頭,這個仁愛之心就沒有了,體會不到了。所以儒家講仁義、忠恕,大乘佛法講真誠、慈悲,這個慈悲還不是一般的慈悲,是大慈大悲。

 

What is the meaning of great compassion and great mercifulness?  People generally are willing to help those they like; for example, their children, their spouse, their friends and relatives, and with those they have good karmic relations.  They can be compassionate and merciful towards them.  But those they dislike, have no affinity or connection with, or who are strangers, they cannot help them altruistically.  The great compassion and great mercifulness in Buddhism is totally different.  It is the “great compassion of altruism and the great mercifulness of Oneness.”  In other words, we should help those who are not related to us and treat strangers the same way as we treat ourselves.  “The great mercifulness of Oneness” means to care for others as if caring for ourselves.  Ordinarily, people would help others after they become rich and donate the residues.  But the compassion and mercifulness of bodhisattvas are different.  They would care for others as if caring for themselves and even put others’ welfare before themselves.  The reason bodhisattvas can do this is because they realized the truism that we and all sentient beings are of Oneness.  Since we are all One, then helping others is the same as helping ourselves; therefore, we can help others altruistically.  As enlightened beings, they have a benevolent, loving heart and this type of compassion and mercifulness.  Once we understand “the benevolence of Oneness,” we can also help all sentient beings selflessly and unconditionally.  This benevolent loving heart is a wondrous thing.  The Western Christianity and other major world religions all have this core value of benevolence and unconditional love for all.

什麼叫大慈大悲?一般的人看著自己喜歡的人,譬如說自己的兒女、妻子丈夫、自己的朋友親屬、和自己緣分很好的人,他會願意去幫助,願意去施以慈悲;但是對和自己不是很投緣的人、關係不是那麼好的人,或者是陌生人、和自己不相干的人,就沒有那種無私無求幫助的心了。但是佛教講的這個大慈大悲卻不一樣,它是「無緣大慈,同體大悲」。即使是和自己沒有親屬關係的人,或者是和自己是陌生的人,他都和像對待自己一樣去幫助他。「同體大悲」,像對待自己的身體一樣去關愛他。像一般的人都是自己富足了,有多餘的,願拿出多餘的去幫助別人。但是菩薩的慈悲卻不是這樣,他是像關心自己一樣去關心別人,甚至還是先人後己。那為什麼菩薩能夠做到這一點?因為他是個了解事實真相的人。他知道我和眾生本來是一體的,既然是一體的,我去幫助他就是幫助自己,我去幫助他就不講條件,所以覺悟的人才會有這種慈悲心,才會有這種仁愛心。所以我們體會到了這個「一體之仁」,我們才會做出無私無求地幫助眾生的事情。這個仁愛之心很好,你看西方基督教等等的宗教,也都講仁慈博愛。

 

Whats the root cause of a benevolent loving heart?  The Chinese has found the roots of the benevolent loving heart and they are: the filial piety of children towards their parents and the friendliness and respect between siblings.  Vertically, the filial piety of children towards their parents is centered in the children of the current generation, but there are also children of the preceding generations to the beginningless of time and children of the future generations to the endless of time.  Thus, the past, present, and future, from beginningless to the endless of time, all three times are of Oneness from the vertical angle.  Horizontally, we also expand the friendliness and respect between siblings to friends and to all human beings.  All are brothers in the four directions of the world, as stated in the Chinese proverb.  In other words, embrace all mankind in the ten directions of space horizontally.  The person who shows filial piety to perfection is a saint, a Buddha in actuality.  S/he is edified in the Oneness of the self and all sentient beings, which is infinite light and infinite time.  This noumenon of infinite light and infinite time is the true-nature or self-nature of all sentient beings.  To conclude, begin with filial piety, we can find and return to our self-nature.

這個仁愛的根本在哪裡?中國人就找到了這個仁愛之心的根本,那就是對父母的孝,還有對兄弟的友悌。所以我們從豎的方面看,講對父母的孝,而上一代還有上一代,過去無始;下一代還有下一代,未來無終,這過去、未來,自始至終都是一體的。這是從豎的方面看,豎窮三際。從橫的方面看,又把對兄弟之間的友悌推而廣之,講「四海之內皆兄弟也」,這就是橫遍十方。所以真正把孝做到圓滿的人,其實就是佛、就是聖人,他真正看到了自己和眾生是一體的;而這個無量光、無量壽,其實就是人的自性。所以從孝入手,就可以找到、也可以回歸人的自性。

 

The Analects has many passages on filial piety.  For example, one of Confucius students inquired about filial duty.  Confucius said: The filial piety nowadays means the support of one's parents. But dogs and horses can be likewise supported. Without reverence, what is there to distinguish one support from the other[13]?"  The so-called pious children of present times think that providing sustenance to their parents has satisfied their duties as a pious child.  However, people also provide sustenance to their dogs and horses[A8] .  If we simply support our parents without reverence, then what’s the difference between our providing sustenance to our parent and to our pets?  This instruction reminds us that the support of our parents is not only in the assurance of their food and clothing in abundance or their financial independence, but also the support of their good spirits.  This is why Confucius said “the difficulty lies in the demeanor” of the so-called pious child.  The most difficult and praiseworthy part of filial piety is in maintaining our cordial countenance when interacting with our parents.  Confucius also catechized: “If, when their elders have any troublesome affairs, the young take the toil of them, and if, when the young have wine and food, they set them before their elders, is THIS to be considered filial piety[14]?"  When there is good food, we serve our parents first; when they have problems, we take care of them; are these deeds sufficient to fulfill our filial duties?  Apparently, they are far from enough.

兒女孝敬父母,這個在《論語》上講得很多。譬如說,孔老夫子有弟子來請教什麼是孝,孔老夫子說:「今之孝者,是謂能養。至於犬馬,皆能有養,不敬,何以別乎?」說現在的所謂孝子,認為能夠贍養父母就盡到了孝道,但是對於狗、馬,牠們也能夠以自己的體力奉養主人,如果僅僅是贍養而不尊敬父母的話,怎麼能夠把父母這個盡孝,就沒有辦法和禽獸區別開來了。這句話就是提醒我們,贍養父母不僅僅要養父母之身,保證他們衣食豐足,讓他們經濟上後顧無憂,更重要的是要養父母之心。所以孔老夫子說「色難」,就是對父母保持和顏悅色是最難能可貴的了。他說:「有事,弟子服其勞,有酒食,先生饌,曾是以為孝乎?」有好東西讓父母先吃,有事情兒女去代勞,你以為這就是盡到了孝了嗎?換句話說,這遠遠做得不夠。

 

The Book of Rites also said: A filial son, cherishing a deep love (for his parents), is sure to have a cordial air; having a cordial air, he will have a look of pleasure; having a look of pleasure, his demeanor will be serene and compliant[15].”  The truly pious children will have a pleasant countenance when speaking with their parents.  Their looks will be gentle; their attitudes gracious.  They will not raise their voices, speak in harsh tones, look mean, or with a hostile attitude.  Even when their parents are in the wrong, they will advise them patiently, cordially, and gently.  Di Zi Gui also said: “when parents are wrong, advise them to change; with pleasant countenance, with gentle voice.”  Filial piety does not mean that we should be complacent about our parents’ mistakes.  When they are in the wrong, we need to rectify their mistakes; however, our attitude must be gentle and our countenance must be cordial and pleasant.  This is the proper Way to be someone’s child.  Lots of us have not learned the traditional culture and do not understand the proper way to be a child.  Consequently, they would criticize their parents harshly, with a mean look on their face, and made their parents angry, upset and heart-broken.

在《禮記》上也說:「孝子之有深愛者,必有和氣;有和氣者,必有愉色;有愉色者,必有婉容。」一個真正對父母有孝心的兒女,他對父母說話的時候,一定是和顏悅色、愉色婉容,這個態度很柔和,非常地溫柔,不能夠厲聲戾氣;即使父母做錯了,也要很耐心地、很委婉地、很柔和地去進諫。《弟子規》上也說「親有過,諫使更,怡吾色,柔吾聲」,並不是讓你順從父母的過,父母有過失的時候,也要去勸諫,但是勸諫的態度一定是要和顏悅色,這才符合人子之道。我們現在很多人沒有學習傳統文化,做兒子的不懂得兒女之道,所以和父母說話交流的時候經常是厲聲戾氣,惹得父母很生氣、很傷心。

 

The Duke of Zhou had a son called Bo Qin.  One day Bo Qin went to see Duke of Zhou with his uncle and was kicked out with a rod by his father three times.  Bo Qin was very puzzled and asked the erudite Master Shang (Shang-Zi):  Why my father hit me when I went to see him?  Master Shang replied:  There is a tree called Qiao that grows on the sunny side of the South Mountain.  There is a tree called Zi that grows on the shady side of the North Mountain.  You will understand once you see them. Bo Qin went to the sunny side of the South Mountain and saw the Qiao tree standing tall and big, with its canopy of foliage looking upward.  He went to the shady side of the North Mountain and saw the Zi tree, which was short and small and its foliage looking downward.  He reported back to Master Shang of what he had seen.  Master Shang told him that the Qiao tree is the proper way of the fatherly figure and the Zi tree is the proper attitude of a child.  Bo Qin was edified.  The next time he went to see his father, upon entering the door, he walked quickly to show respect, and once he entered his fathers room, he immediately genuflected to greet his father.  Duke of Zhou was very pleased and said: You have been instructed by an erudite scholar of great virtues.

所以我們看周公有一個兒子叫伯禽,有一次和他的叔叔一起去見周公,結果見了三次都被周公給打了出來。伯禽就很奇怪,他就去問一個很有學問的人商子,去向他那請教,說,為什麼我去見父親三次,都被他給打出來了?商子就告訴他,他說,南山的陽面有一種樹叫橋樹,北山的陰面有一種樹叫梓樹,你去看一看就明白了。結果伯禽就到了南山的陽面,看到那個橋樹長得又高又大,頭是向上仰著的;而北山的陰面,這個梓樹長得又矮又低,頭是俯著的,回來就向商子報告。商子說,這個橋木給我們講的是父道,而這個梓樹告訴我們的是為人子應該有的態度。結果伯禽很受教,下一次再去見他父親的時候,一進門就趕快小步快跑,以示恭敬,一入室就趕緊跪在下面,向父親請安。周公看了很高興,他說,你這是得到了有德行的人、有學問的人的指教了。

 

From this story we can see that as children we should treat our parents with utmost respect, full of courtesy, and an attitude of deference and humility.  But today we have adopted so many of the so-called Western advanced concepts, which are really not so advanced.  For example, we apply the Western concept of equality to the relationship between parents and children so that they are equals and there is no need to stress the courtesy between them.  However, if we act courteously, the order between the young and old naturally occurs and children will naturally treat parents politely and respectfully.  When children are polite and respectful to their parents, would they berate them, hit them, neglect their livelihood, or abandon them?  Therefore, the most important support is to support parents spirits.

我們從這裡就可以看到,身為兒女,對父母應該是這樣一種畢恭畢敬的、恭敬有禮的態度。但是我們現在,我們現在學了很多西方的所謂先進的觀念,其實這些觀念並不先進。譬如說平等,平等,好像兒女和父親就要平起平坐,沒有必要講那麼多的禮節。實際上這個禮你按照它去做了,自然而然地就會長幼有序,這個兒子對父母畢恭畢敬,怎麼會出現兒女打罵父母、不贍養父母,還有拋棄父母的現象呢?所以贍養父母最重要的要養父母之心。

 

To support parents spirits, besides being respectful, the most important part is to make them rest easy with our actions.  Dont let them worry about our actions.  Thus, the Analects stated: Parents are anxious lest their children should be sick." [16][A9] .”  Truly pious children will not let their parents worry about them except their occasional illness (but never their afflictions caused by bad habits).  For example, when elementary school children do not do their homework causing their parents to worry, they are not being pious.  When middle school children start to surf the internet, play video games, and their idleness caused them to digress in their studies, causing their parents to worry, they are not being pious.  When high school kids hang out with the wrong crowd, derelict in their duties, causing their parents to worry, they are not being pious.  When college students, without parents’ supervision, spend the night drinking in bars, singing in karaoke bars, dancing in nightclubs, wasting their time in useless pursuits, causing their parents to worry, they are not being pious.  When adult children have a job but are irresponsible, especially children nowadays will fire their boss whenever they are dissatisfied with the work environment, they are not being pious.  Furthermore, when they become government officials, they abuse their power for personal gain, exchange power for money, take bribes and become corrupt, eventually put behind bars causing shame to their parents, they are not being pious.

而養父母之心,除了恭敬父母之外,最重要的就是自己的所作所為讓父母放心,不要讓他們為自己的所作所為擔憂。所以《論語》上說:「父母唯其疾之憂。」父母僅僅為你的疾病而擔憂,完全沒有必要為你任何其他事情而擔憂了,這才是一個真正的孝子。譬如說我們小學的時候功課不好,父母會擔憂,這就是不孝;到了初中的時候,開始學會了下網吧、打遊戲,遊手好閒耽誤了學業,讓父母擔憂,這還是不孝;到了高中的時候,交了一些不三不四的朋友,不務正業,也讓父母擔憂,這還是不孝;等到上了大學,這下可好了,不在父母的面前,又開始上上酒吧、學學唱歌、跳舞,把時間都荒廢在沒有必要的事情上,這也會讓父母擔憂,這還是不孝;等我們找到了工作,對工作不認真負責,現在的孩子一不高興就把老闆給fire了,不去上班了,把老闆給解僱了,這還是不孝;還有的到了一官半職,結果以權謀私、權錢交易、貪污腐敗,最後鋃鐺入獄,這讓父母蒙羞,仍然是不孝。

 

From these phenomena, we can conclude that a truly pious child is in fact a perfect human being.  This is why the ancients said seek loyal subjects from the household with pious children, because a pious child is almost perfect, almost a saint or sage.

所以我們從這裡去觀察,一個真正的孝子,其實就是我們古人所說的「一個完美的人」了。所以古人才說「求忠臣於孝子之門」,因為這個孝子就是一個完美的,幾乎是聖賢人了。

 

Besides supporting parents spirits and let them be worry free, we should also foster parents inspirations. Parents raised us not just for us to serve them with food and drinks.  If we serve the people, contribute our efforts to benefit our country, do our utmost in our duties, we meet our parents expectations.  Therefore, when we do our best to be loyal to our country and serve the people, we are inspiring our parents.  This is a higher level of filial piety.  There are multi-facets of filial piety. Once we understand it comprehensively, we will know how to be pious without being blind or foolish in our piety and loyalty (devotion).

除了養父母之心,不讓父母擔憂之外,還要「養父母之志」。我們父母培養了我們一次,不一定就是要在他面前端茶倒水伺候他,我們為國家來貢獻、為人民服務,竭忠盡智地把自己的本分做好,這就是我們父母所期望的。所以當我們為國家來盡忠、為人民服務的時候,這就是在養父母之志,這就是盡更高層次的孝。所以你看這個「孝」的內容很全面,我們只有全面地理解了它,才知道怎麼樣盡孝才不是愚忠、愚孝。

 

The next ethical relation is the righteousness between ruler and subjects.

下一倫講「君臣有義」。

 

Ruler can be a monarch or just anyone in the leader role.  Subjects are those being led.  The relationship between the leader and those being led is evident in many social levels; for example, the relationship between employer and employee, teacher and students, parents and children in a family, and leader and followers in a team.  The question is how can their relationships be harmonious or how can they act as a unity?  The Oneness concept also applies in the management of the relationship between the superior and the inferior.

「君」就是領導者,「臣」就是被領導者。領導者和被領導者的關係,在我們現代社會也有很多的表現。譬如說老闆和員工的關係、老師和學生的關係,乃至於在家裡,家長和孩子的關係,在一個團隊也有領導與被領導的關係。他們之間怎麼樣才能夠和諧一體呢?你看,這個一體的觀念也體現在處理上下級關係上。

 

Why does the Chinese do not have the Western concept of human rights?  The reason is very simple.  In the West, the relation between the employer and the employees is polarized.  Thus, it is imperative that the employer implements all kinds of systems and myriads of policies/measures to guard against employees and to prohibit their violations of rules and regulations.  The Chinese are just the opposite.  Their perception is that the employer and the employees are of Oneness.  There should be reciprocal gratitude, mutual assistance, and cooperation.  Thus, their relationship should be founded on the virtue of righteousness.  The word righteousness means proper (or right actions at the right time and right place). In Chinese, the ideograms righteousness and proper are interchangeable.  In other words, the leader should act like a leader and the follower should act like a follower.  Both should act according to their roles and adhere to their individual duties.  Consequently, their relationship will be managed properly.

中國人為什麼沒有提出西方人所謂的「人權」?原因很簡單。你看西方人他是一種對立的思惟,老闆和員工之間的關係是對立的,所以他要制定各種制度,想方設法地防範員工,不要觸犯這些規矩。中國人恰恰相反,他認為老闆與員工的關係也是一體的,是互相感恩、互相協助、互相合作的關係,所以他們之間應該以「義」來相處。「義者,宜也」,這個「義」和適宜的「宜」是相通的。什麼意思?做領導的要像個領導的樣子,做被領導的要有被領導的責任,他們各盡本分、各守其責,這個關係就能處理好。

 

Whats the characteristic of a proper leader?  The ancient Chinese expressed it in one word and that is benevolence.  Leaders should think of others whenever they think of themselves, apply reverse thinking, think from others perspectives, and be considerate and caring of their subordinates.  Good leaders should also play three roles: leader, mentor, and parent.  A ruler not just leads, but should also act as their subordinates parent--to care for them as their blood relatives would do.  In addition to these two roles, they should also teach and guide them.  Otherwise, subordinates may still cheat them with falsified accounting records.  Leaders should teach them the fundamentals of being a good person, to set a paradigm, and act out the standards of a moral person.  People must be taught. Without learning people will not understand the Tao. When a leader has fulfilled the duty of these three roles, s/he is qualified as a proper leader.

做領導應該是什麼樣子的?中國古人用一個字來表示,那就是「仁」。也就是我們想到自己就要想到對方,能夠換位思考、將心比心,體恤關懷下屬。所以做為一個好的領導者,應該同時具備三個職能,那就是「作之君、作之親、作之師」。不僅僅當他的領導,要帶領他,還要當他的父母,像親人一樣去關愛他。僅僅做了這兩點,如果不教導他,他可能仍然會做一些假帳來矇騙你。所以還要教導他做人的根本,要給他為人師表,把做人的本分、做人的標準給他表演出來,所以要教他。「人不學,不知道」,這三個職責都盡到了,才是一個合格的領導者。

 

Mencius said: “When the rulers regard their subjects as their hands and feet, the subjects will regard the ruler as their heart and belly.”  (‘Hands and feet’ had been extended to mean siblings and ‘heart and belly’ to a confidant.)  When leaders treat and care for their subordinates as their siblings, they will discover that their subordinates will reciprocate and treat them as their confidant.  They will repay in double the leaders’ attention, kindness, and caring.

在《孟子》上就說了這樣一句話,「君之視臣如手足,則臣視君如腹心」。領導者把被領導者當成是手足一樣加以關愛,那你發現被領導者如何回饋的呢?他會對你加倍地回饋,把你視作自己的心腹一樣,更加地關愛、更加地重視。

 

In contrast, when “the rulers regard the subjects as their riding horses and hunting dogs, the subjects will regard the ruler as an acquaintance (as another citizen).”  If the leaders’ rationale is that “I have already paid you and you just do what I say,” they will order their employees about as cows and horses or paid coolies.    As a result, employees will ignore them after work and treat them as strangers or common folks.  There is no closeness in their relationship.  If employees see them in the supermarket, they will lower their head, pretend not to see them, and walk away. 

相反,「君之視臣如犬馬,則臣視君如國人」領導者把被領導者僱用來了,說我已經給你出錢了,你給我出力就好了,把他當牛做馬來使喚。結果下了班之後,這個被領導者在超市裡遇到了他們的領導,什麼表現?一低頭裝沒看見就過去了,就像看到了一般的路人、陌生人那樣,沒有太多的親密。

 

The worst case is when “the rulers regard subjects as dirt and weeds, the subjects will regard them as robbers and enemies.”  When the leaders treat followers as worthless dirt and lowly weeds, to be trampled upon ruthlessly, followers will think of them as vampires.  Or worse than that, they will talk about their leader as someone despicable.

更有甚者,「君之視臣如土芥,則臣視君如寇讎」,這個領導者把被領導者生命視為是泥土和小草一樣的低賤不值錢,可以隨意踐踏。那你發現這個被領導說起領導的時候都是這樣的,說我們那個領導簡直就是個吸血鬼,甚至連吸血鬼都不如,說起來是非常地痛恨。

 

What causes this attitude?  The reason is very simple.  It is caused by leaders attitudes toward their followers.  The righteousness between ruler and subjects will create the Oneness in the relationship between leaders and followers and not a relationship of polarization, conflict, and antagonism.

這是什麼原因?原因很簡單,都是領導對被領導的態度所導致的。所以「君臣有義」,使得領導者與被領導者之間的關係像一體的關係,而不是互相對立、互相矛盾、互相衝突的關係。

 

The next ethical relationship is the different duties between spouses.  It tells us that the husband and wife each have different duties within a family.  The difference does not lie in the difference of gender or social status, but in the difference of responsibilities.

下一倫「夫婦有別」。告訴我們一家的夫妻在職責上有分工。這個「別」並不是身分和地位上的差別,而是在職責上有區別。

 

The ancients said: Males should be outside the household, females inside the household. Husbands have the financial responsibility of supporting their families and let household members without worries about food and clothing.  The most important duty of the wife is to raise her children properly in order to be saints and sages.  A Chinese proverb says: Three matters make a child remiss in filial piety, the worst is without descendants. Without descendants does not mean without a son.  If we have several children and all of them are worthless, without abilities to carry on the familys good traditions or the family business, or have done things that ruin the people and wreck the nation, we are better off without them.  This is the true meaning of the worst is without descendants. Consequently, the ancient Chinese regarded the rearing of children as the most important duty that cannot be delegated to any one except the mother.   A priori, the husband is required to be grateful, dutiful, and affectionate.  It would be wrong of him to think that because he is the bread-earner, he can be a debauchee, or have extra-marital affairs. 

古人說「男主外、女主內」。男子要負擔經濟收入,要養家糊口,讓家人衣食無憂;而女子最重要的職責就是把兒女教導好,讓他成聖成賢。所以中國人有句話說:「不孝有三,無後為大」。這個「無後」並不是說沒有兒子。你生了七八個兒女,但是他們都是敗家子,不能把你良好的家業、家風承傳下去,還做了很多禍國殃民的事,這樣的兒子與其有還不如不有,這才是真正的「無後為大」。所以中國古人對於兒女教育這件事看得非常重要,這麼重要的職責當然不能推給別人,必須由他的母親親自來承擔。這就要求做丈夫的有恩義、有道義、有情義,不能因為自己在外面工作,就可以隨意地尋花問柳、見異思遷,這樣做就錯了。

 

Since the wife is responsible for educating the children, she should be virtuous and a good role model.  Educate by example prevails over educating by words.  Thusly, she can bring up the children properly; let the husband concentrate on his career without worries (about the family); and let family business, family tradition, and the family Tao continue into the future generations.  A females most important contribution to her society, race, and country is to rear her children to be saints and sages.  Lets ponder this for a moment, if a female can raise her children to be the next Confucius, Mencius, George Washington, or Winston Churchill[A10] , think how great her contribution to her race and her nation is.   However, if both the husband and wife work outside the family, both are capable and have great careers but without successors to carry on their legacy, arent everything they have done in vain?

而做妻子的,因為她承擔著教育兒女的責任,就需要身教勝於言教,自己有德行,這樣才能夠把兒女教導好,讓丈夫能夠安心工作,使這個家業、家風、家道代代相傳。所以做為女子對於社會、民族、國家最重要的貢獻,就是把自己的孩子教成聖賢人。我們想一想,如果你把自己的孩子培養成孔子,培養成孟子,培養成范仲淹,培養成林則徐,那我們對這個國家民族的貢獻有多大?如果兩個人都在外面工作,兩個人都很能幹,事業都很輝煌,但是後繼乏人,沒有優秀的人才可以承繼你的事業,那你們忙了半輩子,事業沒有繼承人,傳不下去,那不也是白忙活了嗎?

 

As a result, Chinese are visionaries with a long-term view on sustainable development, especially the development of successors.  Therefore, the ancient Chinese did not put females in an inferior position.  In contrast, they venerated females because their actions would greatly influence the future succession of family business.

所以中國人講可持續發展,他的眼光放得很長遠,特別重視後繼人才的培養,所以中國古人並不是輕視女子,甚至更加尊重女子,因為她關係到家業的承傳。

 

The next ethical relationship is the order between the older and younger. It depicts the natural order of the birth of siblings from older to younger ones.  Their birth order cannot be reversed and should be respected.  Di Zi Gui has a verse on how siblings should treat each other: Older siblings should befriend the younger ones, younger siblings should respect and love the older ones. Siblings who keep harmonious relationships among themselves are being dutiful to their parents[17].”  The older siblings should be friendly and loving towards their younger siblings; to care for them and help them in their difficulties.  The ideogram (yǒu friend) was written as two hands holding together in the ancient way.  It represents the law of nature that the older siblings should unconditionally help their younger siblings when they have problems.  Younger siblings should be grateful to the care given by the elder siblings and treat them with respect.  When elder siblings can be friendly toward their younger siblings and the younger siblings respectful towards their elder siblings, there will be a harmonious relationship among them.

下一倫「長幼有序」。告訴我們一家的兄弟姐妹的出生有一個自然的順序,這個自然順序不能夠顛倒,就應該給予尊重。所以在《弟子規》上說:「兄道友,弟道恭。兄弟睦,孝在中。」兄弟姐妹之間相處,應該是兄長友愛、關心、幫助弟弟妹妹。這個「友」古代寫作兩隻手互相攙扶,也就是說弟弟妹妹有了困難,做兄長的去幫助這是天經地義的事,不要再講什麼條件。而弟弟妹妹對於兄長的關心、幫助要感恩,對兄長要恭敬,「兄友弟恭」做到了,兄弟姐妹之間才能夠和睦相處。

 

Additionally, Di Zi Gui instructed: When siblings value their ties more than property and belongings, no resentment will grow among them. When siblings are careful with words and hold back hurtful comments, feelings of anger naturally die out.[18]”  If siblings value their affinity and their blood relationship more, and value property and belongings less, how could there be lawsuits among them?  In their interactions, if they tolerant each other and hold back their angry comments, there will be no grievances/grudges naturally.  These two verses are effective ways to handle the relationship among siblings.

《弟子規》上還說:「財物輕,怨何生。」兄弟姐妹更看重的是手足之情、骨肉之情,把財產看得淡一點,爭訟又怎麼會產生呢?「言語忍,忿自泯。」兄弟姐妹在交流的時候,言語上互相忍讓一下,少說一句,忿忿不平的心自然就泯滅了。這兩句話用來處理兄弟姐妹之間的關係也非常地有效。

 

The next ethical relation is the trust between friends.  Friends and we are equals.  When we interact with our friends, we must be honest and trustworthy.  The ideogram (xìn, trust) combines the Chinese characters ( rén, person), and(yán, words).  This ideogram explicitly tells us the meaning of trust lies in a persons words.  We must keep our words.  Otherwise, they are not words worthy to be spoken by a human being.  The ancients put great significance into the word (xìn, trust).  In the Analects, Confucius said: I dont know how a man not worthy of trust can get on? Using a modern analogy, it means that if a persons words are without credibility, it is like a car without an engine and cannot move,; a priori, such a person will lose social mobility (cannot move anywhere in the world). 

下一倫「朋友有信」。朋友就是和我們平等地位的人,相處的時候要一定做到誠實守信,這個「信」字是一個「單立人」加一個「言」字。看到這個字告訴我們什麼叫信?人言為信,人所講的話必須守信用,否則那都不是人所說的話了。所以古人把這個字看得非常重。孔老夫子也說:「人而無信,不知其可也」,用我們現在話比喻,就是像那個車子沒有發動機一樣,一個人言而無信,在這個社會上寸步難行。

 

In China, since the time of the legendary Emperor Shun (the Great Shun), people were taught the five ethical relations.  Once the five cardinal relations are managed well, the society will be stable and harmonious.

所以中國自舜的時候就用這個五倫大道來教導人民。所以這個五倫關係處理好了,社會安定和諧。

 

Besides the five ethical relations, there are also the five universal rules: benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, and trustworthiness.

除了五倫之外還講「五常」,也就是「仁義禮智信」。

 

In addition, there are the four tenets: propriety, righteousness, integrity[A11] , and shamefulness, proposed by Master Guan.  Master Guan cautioned that if the four tenets were not supported, a nation will collapse.  His doctrine was recapitulated into the famous verse[19]: Propriety, righteousness, integrity, and shamefulness are the four tenants of a nation, if the four tenets are not supported, the nation will collapse. Thus, propriety, righteousness, integrity, and shamefulness are like the four pillars that support the building of a nation.  If the four pillars disappear, the nation is also extinct.

還講「四維」,管子提出的「禮義廉恥」。古人說:「禮義廉恥,國之四維,四維不張,國乃滅亡。」「禮義廉恥」就像國家這個大廈四根大柱子一樣,這四個大柱子都不存在了,這個國家也就滅亡了。

 

Finally, there are the two categories of the Eight Virtues. The first was categorized by Chuzi (Master Chu) and they are: filial piety, sibling harmony, loyalty, trust, propriety, righteousness, integrity, and shamefulness.  The other is categorized by Dr. Sun Yet-Sen, which are: loyalty, piety, benevolence, love, trust, righteousness, harmony, and peace.

還有「八德」,八德有兩種說法,第一種就是朱子所提出的「孝悌忠信,禮義廉恥」;另一種就是孫中山先生所提出的「忠孝仁愛,信義和平。」

 

If we delete the repeated virtues in the two categories, we get twelve virtues: filial piety, sibling harmony, loyalty, trust, propriety, righteousness, integrity, shamefulness, benevolence, love, harmony, and peace.  These are the characteristics of the Chinese value system.  Since ancient times, China has been using the five ethical relations and the twelve virtues to educate her people.  When all the citizens understand and follow these precepts, the society will naturally be stable, harmonious, and peaceful.

我們把八德的兩種說法重複的去掉,我們就得到了十二個字,那就是「孝悌忠信、禮義廉恥、仁愛和平」。這就是中國特色的價值觀。也就是說,中國自古以來,就是用五倫還有孝悌忠信、禮義廉恥、仁愛和平的道理來教導民眾。人人都明白了這些道理,社會自然安定和平。

 

If we let go of the great Tao of the five ethical relations, the five cardinal rules, and the eight virtues, or no longer teaches such, what would happen?  When people abandon universal laws, evil will arise, as said by Master Zuo Chiuming[20] (556-451 BC).  If people no longer abide by the five ethical relations, the five cardinal rules, the four tenets, and the eight virtues, myriads of anti-social, devious phenomena will appear.  Evil means abnormal phenomena, such as the son kills his father, father and son become archenemies; brothers fight over a small piece of property and sue each other in court; husband and wife do not trust each other, dream of different things in the same bed and without fidelity.  These abnormal phenomena illustrate that evil will arise.

如果把這些五倫大道、五常八德都給忘記了,不去教導了,會出現什麼狀況?那就是左丘明所說的:「人棄常則妖興。」如果人不再講五常、五倫、四維、八德了,那就會有很多反常的現象出現。什麼是「妖」?就是不正常的現象,譬如說兒子把父親給殺了,父子反目成仇;兄弟因為一點點財產就起了紛爭,吵上了法庭;夫妻不能相互信任,同床異夢,互相不能夠忠誠。這都是「妖興」,反常的現象出現了。

 

The first passage, putting at the top of Qunshu Zhiyao 360, tells us why a nation will rise or fall, why a society can no longer be peaceful and prosperous.  It is all due to the abandonment of the universal law and principles that govern a nation and the rise of selfish desires in the rulers.  The last phrase in the first passage is that rulers “enjoyed luxurious lifestyles, thus benevolence and righteousness collapsed.

所以這一句話被放在《360》之首,告訴我們一個國家之所以會由盛轉衰,一個社會之所以太平盛世不能夠出現,什麼原因?就是捨棄了治國的常理、常法,而私欲興起了。後面還有一句話,說「奢侈行而仁義廢也」。

 

Currently, the whole nation is anti-extravagance.  Why the leader of our nation is totally against the four forms of decadence (formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism, and extravagance)? What is the harm in a luxurious lifestyle?

現在我們全國上下都在反對「奢靡之風」。為什麼國家領導人這麼重視反對四風?奢靡之風到底有什麼樣的危害呢?

 

In Qunshu Zhiyao (A Compendium of the Essentials of Governance), “Mohism,” Master Mo (Mozi) said: “The rich and high in rank are wasteful and extravagant, while the poor and homeless are hungry and cold. It is impossible to keep such a state out of disorder.[21]”  When the upper and lower classes are polarized, the rich and high in rank are wasteful and indulge in excess, while the poor and homeless are hungry and cold, it will be impossible for the ruler to keep his kingdom without upheaval.  Thus, Master Mo advised: “If the rulers sincerely desire the empire to have order and hate to see it in disorder, they must not indulge in excessive eating and drinking.”  Monarchs, wishing to have their kingdoms in peace and truly despise their kingdoms in chaos, must refrain from excess in food and drinks.

在《群書治要.墨子》上告訴我們,說「富貴者奢侈,孤寡者凍餒。欲無亂,不可得。」富貴的人都鋪張浪費,結果兩極分化很嚴重,貧困的人受凍挨餓,要想保持天下不亂,這是不可能的事。所以他說:「君誠欲天下治而惡其亂,當為食飲不可不節。」國君如果真想讓天下太平,真的是厭惡天下混亂,那麼從生活飲食的節儉上就不能夠不審慎了。

 

The serious harm caused by extravagance was also discussed in Guanzi[A12] Master Guan opined that the sagacious kings created carts and boats to facilitate transportation and benefited peoples livelihood.  However, the present rulers, besides making their carriages and yachts durable, light, and full of conveniences, demanded colorful embroideries for their carriages and beautiful carvings for their yachts through heavy taxation and corvée.  As a result, people were cold from lack of clothing because females had to forsake weaving to embroider for the carriage; people were hungry from lack of food because males had to forsake agriculture to make carvings[A13]  for the yacht.

在《管子[A14] 》上也論述到,奢靡之害確實非常地嚴重。他說以前聖君開始製造車船,是為了方便百姓辦事。而今天的君主製造車船就不同了,車船的完備、堅固、輕巧、便利都具備了,卻仍向百姓橫徵暴斂,用彩色刺繡裝飾車輛,用精雕細刻裝飾舟船。於是女子放棄了紡織而去學習刺繡施彩,所以百姓受凍,沒有人再去紡織了;男子放棄耕種而去學習雕刻,所以百姓挨餓。

 

Since rulers made their carriage and yachts so fancy, their courtiers followed suit (and exacerbated the dire situation of poor folks).  The common folks, perishing from hunger and cold, were forced into robbery and committing crimes.  The higher the crime rate, the heavier the punishments, eventually, such harsh punishments caused insurgencies in the nation.  Rulers truly wishing their state to be peaceful and hating it to be in disorder must beware and make their carts and boats simple.  The extravagance of carriages and yachts in ancient times depicted in Guazi (Mozi) is very similar to the harm caused by modern automobiles if we think carefully. Today we manufacture cars that are also getting more and more extravagant.  The waste of fuels and the air pollution created by oil companies cannot stop people from their pursuit of luxurious items (such as fancy sports cars, extravagant limousines, luxurious yachts or private jets).

君主製造車船如此華美,左右親近的臣子也都紛紛地仿效。這樣百姓飢寒交迫,所以才去作奸犯科。違法亂紀的事多了,那麼刑罰就愈來愈苛刻,刑罰愈來愈苛刻,國家就會動亂。國君真正想使天下太平,憎惡天下混亂,那麼從製造車船的節儉上就不能不審慎了。這裡面給我們講到了古代製造車船的奢侈,細細想來,和我們現代有異曲同工之處。我們現代用汽車,但是汽車的奢侈程度也是愈來愈厲害。浪費汽油、石油也造成了大氣的污染,但是人們還都在紛紛地追求奢侈。

 

In Guanzi, Eight Observations, Master Guan[A15]  analyzed:When national spending on luxury items are high, people will be poor. When a nation has formed the social morés of wastefulness and extravagance, the money spent on such items will be excessive.  We have observed this phenomena especially in todays developed countries. In such countries, to maintain the luxurious lifestyle of this generation, the national debt has reached into the pockets of the second and third generations.  This abnormal phenomenon is deeply rooted in such peoples selfishness and their self-interests.  To satisfy their personal covetousness, they will not even consider the welfare of their children, grandchildren, or their descendants.  When people are poor, cunning arises. Such people used to luxurious lifestyle cannot go back to a simple and frugal lifestyle, therefore, when they have no money to spend on luxurious items, they will have wicked thoughts.  Once cunning arises, devious plots are made. Craftiness in deception and evil maneuvers will come out of these people.  A priori, cunning and schemes come out of a feeling of being deprived; feeling of deprivation comes out of extravagance. Their wicked behavior is caused by their dissatisfaction; and their dissatisfaction is caused by their feeling of being deprived of their wasteful and extravagant lifestyle.  Therefore, to prohibit cunning and treachery from the roots, frugality must be advocated, extravagance must be purged; these are the pressing matters of every nation and every family (in todays world).

管子還進一步地分析說,當一個國家有了奢侈浪費的風氣時,它的花費就會非常多,「則用費」。「用費則民貧」,花費很多,老百姓就會貧窮,沒有錢財。特別是現在的很多發達國家為了保持奢侈的生活方式,他們借債已經借到第二代、第三代的錢財了。這種不合理的現象根源就在於自私自利,為了滿足自己的私欲,甚至連子孫後代的利益都不予考慮。「民貧則奸智生」,一些人已經習慣於過著奢侈浪費的生活,因為由奢返儉難,沒有錢財花費就會很難受,所以就會產生奸智的念頭;「奸智生則邪巧作」,結果邪巧的做法也就出來了。可見「奸邪之所生,生於匱不足;匱不足之所生,生於侈」,奸邪的行為之所以產生,都是因為有人匱乏不足;而匱乏不足產生的原因就在於有一些人過著過分奢侈、浪費的生活。所以要從根本上杜絕奸邪欺詐的行為,就要從提倡節儉、遏制奢靡之風開始,這是國家和每一個家庭的當務之急。

 

Guanzi scrutinized and analyzed very well the harm of an extravagant lifestyle that leads to cunning and deception.  In the Sayings of Confucius in His Household[A16] , it mentioned a dialogue between Confucius and Duke Ai of Lu regarding the reason why rulers cannot cultivate their illuminating virtues and govern by rites, rituals, and etiquettes (Li).  From this conversation we can observe that the most important reason rulers during the Spring and Autumn Era could not propagate the education of Li is because they could not live frugally like the ancient saints and sagacious kings.  Just the opposite, they lived wastefully, extravagantly, and decadently.  Due Ai of Lu inquired: What is the Great Li?  Why do you venerate Li whenever you speak of it?

這是在《管子》上分析的,由於奢靡之風導致了奸邪的產生。在《孔子家語》上也記載著孔子和魯哀公關於當時的國君為什麼不能修明禮教的對話。從這一段對話中我們可以看到,當時的國君之所以不能成功地推行禮教,一個重要的原因,就是在於他們自己不能像古聖先賢那樣行節約,反而過著奢侈浪費、荒淫無度的生活。魯哀公問孔子:「請問什麼是大禮?為什麼你一談到禮就那麼樣地尊崇呢?」

 

Confucius replied[A17] To let common people live an orderly life, Li is the most important facet.  Without Li, there will be no proper rituals to make offerings to celestial beings and earthly spirits.  Without Li, there is no way to distinguish the monarch from the subjects; the higher ranks from the lower ranks; and the elder from the younger.  Without Li, there will be no differentiation between males and females; father and son; older sibling and younger sibling; relatives by marriage and relatives within the clan; and those of intimate or distant relationships.  Therefore, the sagacious rulers venerated Li, set up a good paradigm, and then taught the common folks to act according to Li.  How did they set up a good paradigm?  They would live in a modest house and not in a grand palace.  Their apparels and accessories were simple and modest; their carriages were without ornate decorations[A18] , their utensils were without fancy inlays, and their foods were without many varieties.  Their minds are without covetousness and share their wealth with their subjects.  Such were the ways of the ancient sagacious kings who followed Li reverently!

孔子回答說:「百姓之所以能夠正常生活,禮是最重要的。沒有禮就無法按照一個合適的標準來祭祀天地神靈;沒有禮,就無法區別君臣、上下、長幼的秩序;沒有禮,就無法區別男女、父子、兄弟、婚姻、親族的遠近親疏關係。所以,君王對此非常重視,帶頭恭敬奉行,然後以自己率先所做出來的樣子來教化百姓,使他們都能順禮而行。他們怎麼做的?他們居住的是簡易低矮的房屋,穿戴節儉的衣服飾物,乘坐的馬車也不加雕飾,使用的器物也不是精雕細刻的,飲食不講求美味,心裡也沒有過分的奢望,使自己與萬民百姓有福同享。古代的賢君是這樣恭敬行禮的!」

 

Duke Ai of Lu asked further: Why todays rulers would not do so[A19] ?  Confucius replied: Todays rulers are self-seekers, their avarice are insatiable; their licentiousness are without principles; their extravagance are without restraint.  They are lazy, insolent, and their idle pursuit depleted peoples resources.   They used any means to satisfy their avarice leaving people without recourse but to complain about the government. They conscripted people to fight wars against honest and benevolent rulers violating peoples will.  They willfully punish people and torture them to death without following the law.  Past rulers governed the people according to Li; but todays rulers govern according to their desires.  We can conclude that todays rulers do not understand how to cultivate their illuminating virtues or how to govern by Li.

哀公又問:「當今的君王,為什麼不能這樣去做呢?」孔子說:「當今的君王追求利益,貪得無厭,荒淫無道,奢侈無度,懶惰怠慢,遊手好閒,一味地搜刮百姓的錢財來滿足自己的貪心,使百姓抱怨朝廷;違背眾人的意願,去征討政治清明的國家;為了滿足自己的欲望,不擇手段;任意使用暴虐嚴酷的刑罰誅殺人民,而不依據正常的法度。從前的君王治理和役使百姓是按著前述的做法去做的,而現在的君王則是按照後面的做法。可見,當今的君王不懂得修明禮教了。」

 

This dialogue tells us that if leaders satisfy their selfish desires and cannot abstain from luxurious lifestyle, the education of Li will not be transmitted.  They must set themselves as a model first, whatever the leader does, the subordinates follow.  It also tells us that the reason why flourishing times cannot be revived.  It is all because rulers cannot overcome their selfish desires and actualize the teachings of the saints and sages.  This is also the origin that caused the rise and fall, the success and failure of societies (nations?).

這段話就是告訴我們,在位者不能率先避免奢侈之風,要滿足自己的私欲,所以禮教不行,上行下效。所以這句話也是告訴了我們,太平盛世之所以不能復興的根本原因,就是在於在位者不能克服自己的私欲,不能身體力行古聖先賢的教誨。這個也是社會興衰成敗的根源。

 

We will end todays lecture here.  I welcome everyones correction and criticism due to my insufficiencies.  Thank you all!

今天我們就先學習到這裡,不足之處,歡迎大家批評指正。謝謝大家!



[1] Referred to translation by James Legge, see http://ctext.org/liji/da-xue

[3] The  Book of Han is a history of China, finished in AD 111, covering the Western, or Former Han dynasty from the first emperor in 206 BC to the fall of Wang Mang in 23 AD. It is also called the Book of Former Han.  See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Han

[5] Translation by Brian Chung, See, https://archive.org/details/Treatise2014Edition

 

[6] 中国历史的官职,三公之一,御史的首领,负责监察百官,大约相当于副丞相。类似于近代:监察院、督察处、政风廉洁处、廉政公署。防范朝廷主官于侵害人民权益、贪官污吏、贪赃枉法

See http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%BE%A1%E5%8F%B2%E5%A4%A7%E5%A4%AB

 

[7] Classic music performed at imperial court that can elevate people’s spirits.  See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yayue

[8] Duke of Zhou regulated the social conducts of ordinary people, nobles, and the royal family through etiquettes and ceremonial rites that included every aspect of human life, such as funeral, mourning, marriage, sacrifices, archery, drinking festivals in villages, etc.  See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_Rites  

[9] It is an encyclopedic compilation of Chinese philosophical materials named after the 7th century BCE philosopher Guan Zhong, Prime Minister to Duke Huan of Qi.  Although most Guanzi chapters philosophically characterize Legalism, other sections blend doctrines from Confucianism and Taoism.  See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guanzi_(text)

 

[10] The five legendary emperors were Emperor Huang and his descendants: Zhang Xu, Ku, Yao, Shun.  Their rule was called the Epoch of Great Comity.  The three sagacious kings of the three dynasties mentioned above were:  King Yu of Xia dynasty, King Tang of  Shang dynasty, and King Wen of  Zhou dynasty.   Their reign was called the Epoch of Small Prosperity.  The period from the five emperors to the three dynasties of Xia, Shang, and Zhou can be called the Golden Age of China, an equivalent of the West.  See http://big5.zhengjian.org

 

[11] See, http://www.gg-art.com/dictionary/dcontent_b.php 官名。《周禮》以大司徒為地官之長。漢元壽二年(前1),改丞相為大司徒。東漢建武二十七年(51),改稱司徒。北周依《周禮》置六官,為地官府之長,以卿任其職。

 

[13] Translation by James Legge.  See, http://ctext.org/analects/wei-zheng.  See also Lectures by Venerable Master Hua, translated into English by Yong Wei Kwong and Liew Yen Chong; http://www.drbachinese.org/vbs/publish/485/vbs485p019.pdf

 

 

[14] See above.

[15] Referred to translation by James Legge.  See, http://ctext.org/liji/ji-yi

 

[16] Translation by James Legge.  See, http://ctext.org/analects/wei-zheng

 

[17] See translation by Pure Land Learning College, Toowoomba, Australia, p. 46 http://www.amitabha-gallery.org/pdf/plc/hzdzge.pdf

[18] See above, p. 47.

[19] See, New History of the Five Dynasties by Ouyang Xiu, and Zizhi Tongjian (the Comprehensive Mirror in Aid of Governance), vol. 291. 五代史馮道傳論, 資治通鑒》卷第二百九十一,歐陽修論.

[20] Zuo Qiuming was a court writer of the State of Lu, and contemporary of Confucius during the Spring and Autumn Period of ancient China.  He wrote the  Chronicle of Zuo or the Commentary of Zuo, is among the earliest Chinese works of narrative history, covering the period from 722 to 468 BC.  Wikipedia

 

[21] Translation by W. P. Mei, see,  http://ctext.org/mozi/indulgence-in-excess


 [A1]http://www.dfg.cn/big5/chtwh/rxjj/24-dxzd.htm

學道的人即在格物致知上用功。自心每起一念,即觀察其自何而起,落在何處。此念起落如果皆在時間空間等一切假相之內,便是陷入形而下,也就是本有的明德妄生物相,大學名之為「格物」,當下即知,不使繼起,此即「致知」。

 [A2] they ceased to observe benevolence and righteousness;

were laid to waste. 

I used collapse because later on the lecture talked about that without the four pillars supporting the house of nation, the nation will collape. 

 [A3]Almost a thousand years have passed since the heyday of King Cheng and King Kang, and many rulers having tried to attain the same glory. But this golden era of peace and prosperity never returned. Why has this been so? It is because rulers have forsaken the law and moral standards, and have instead pursued selfish desires, spoiling themselves with extravagance, and totally neglecting the practice of benevolence and righteousness.

 

Scroll 19: Han Shu, Vol. 7

This citation is different from mine.

Means pretty much the same in modern terms.  Since Qunshu Zhiyao is older than the book of Han, I used volume 19, which is more common in western citations.an

See, http://www.sageea.com/mavista/cms/ch/home/28495

 

 [A4]I added this explanation of  二十四史, as this paragraph later mentioned 二十四史 and never mentioned 二十五史 again.

 [A5]孔子,匹夫之人耳,以樂道正身不解之故,四海之內,天下之君,微孔子之言亡所折中。況乎以漢地之廣,陛下之德,處南面之尊,秉萬乘之權,因天地之助,其於變世易俗,調和陰陽,陶冶萬物,化正天下,易於決流抑隊。自成康以來,幾且千歲,欲為治者甚眾,然而太平不復興者,何也?以其舍法度而任私意,奢侈行而仁義廢也。

 [A6]Since it is already very clear in the translation that “almost a millennium had passed” I skipped the explanation in the Chinese and added the approximate time Gong Yu’s wrote to Emperor Yuan.

 [A7]in actuality;

 [A8]Dogs and horses can also be trained to use their labor to support their owners. 

 [A9]Where parents are concerned, their child’s illness is a major cause for worry . See Lectures by Venerable Master Hua, translated into English by Yong Wei Kwong and Liew Yen Chong; http://www.drbachinese.org/vbs/publish/485/vbs485p019.pdf

 

 「孟武伯問孝」:孟武伯也是當 時魯國一個做官的人,也問怎麼樣孝 順父母。孟武伯有病,什麼病呢?不 是喝酒的酒病、就是貪財的財病,總 之,是「酒、色、財、氣」才有的毛 病,很厲害的。「子曰」:所以孔子 就答覆他說,「父母唯其疾之憂」: 父母就是怕子女有病,一有病,那就 是不孝了!

 [A10]I replaced them with famous westerners.

 [A11]Honesty, non-corruptible,

 [A12]was discussed in detail in Mozi, Book 1, “Indulge in Excess.”  Master Mo commented….

See http://ctext.org/mozi/indulgence-in-excess 墨子 辭過

 

 

 [A13]古之民未知為舟車時,重任不移,遠道不至,故聖王作為舟車,以便民之事。其為舟車也,完1固輕利,可以任重致遠,其為用財少,而為利多,是以民樂而利之。故法令不急而行,民不勞而上2足用,故民歸之。

 

當今之主,其為舟車與此異矣。完1固輕利皆已具,必厚作斂於百姓,以飾舟車。飾車以文采,飾舟以刻鏤,女子廢其紡織而脩文采,故民寒。男子離其耕稼而脩刻鏤,故民饑。人君為舟車若此,故左右象之,是以其民饑寒並至,故為姦袤。

姦邪2多則刑罰深,刑罰深則國亂。君實欲天下之治而惡其亂,當為舟車,不可不節。

 [A14]Is this from Mozi, or Guanzi, I checked the internet and found the text from Mozi.  See comment A12 above.

 [A15]國侈則用費,用費則民貧,民貧則姦智生,姦智生則邪巧作;故姦邪之所生,生於匱不足;匱不足之所生,生於侈;侈之所生,生於毋度

八觀

 

 [A16]Book of Sayings of Confucius and his Disciples,

 [A17]丘聞之:民之所以生者、禮為大。非禮則無以節事天地之神;非禮則無以辯君臣、上下、長幼之位焉;非禮則無以別男女、父子、兄弟、婚姻、親族、疏數之交焉。

是故君子以此為之尊敬,然後以其所能,教順百姓,不廢其會節。

 …

 

  卑其宮室,節其服御,車不雕璣,器不彫鏤,食不二味,心不淫志,以與萬民同利。古之明王,行禮也如此。

http://ctext.org/kongzi-jiayu/wen-li

 [A18]: 不圓的珠子

 

: inlay, engrave, carve,

 

http://www.zdic.net/z/26/js/93E4.htm

 

http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E5%99%A8

 

 [A19]公曰:「今之君子,胡莫之行也?」孔子對曰:「今之君子,好利無厭,淫行不倦,荒怠慢游,固民是盡,以遂其心,以怨其政,以忤其眾,以伐有道;求得當欲,不以其所;虐殺刑誅,不以其治。夫昔之用民者由前,今之用民者由後。是即今之君子莫能為禮也。

 

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