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【解讀新聞】攝取碳水化合物<50%熱量會早死?
2018/08/21 15:19:03瀏覽1461|回應0|推薦18

哈佛在刺烙針(Lancet)雜誌發表的期刊我看到的新聞,大多只說一半甚至說錯了(應是50~55%最長壽),大眾應該要搞清楚,以免反而走向錯誤的飲食方式 

全文見https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanpub/article/PIIS2468-2667(18)30135-X/fulltext pdf可下載

 此文研究對象年齡45~64分析裡,需注意的包括﹕

1)     碳水化合物佔熱量50~55%最長壽,>70%<40%一樣活較短 (U型或J型關係)a percentage of 50–55% energy from carbohydrate was associated with the lowest risk of mortality. …both low (<40%) and high carbohydrate consumption (>70%) conferred greater mortality risk than did moderate intake, which was consistent with a U-shaped association (pooled hazard ratio 1·20, 95% CI 1·09–1·32 for low carbohydrate consumption; 1·23, 1·11–1·36 for high carbohydrate consumption).

2)          而且,該文表ㄧ(見下)可見,平均每組都達過重糖尿病每組至少都佔10%以上,且正好碳水化合物低比例(Q1,2)糖尿病、抽菸比例有意義的較高啊事實上吃"最少"碳水化合物組Q1特徵為﹕年輕男性、非非裔、教育程度大學、高BMI、少休閒運動、較高收入、抽菸、糖尿病Participants who consumed a relatively low percentage of total energy from carbohydrates (ie, participants in the lowest quantiles) were more likely to be young, male, a selfreported race other than black, college graduates, have high body-mass index, exercise less during leisure time, have high household income, smoke cigarettes, and have diabetes.》》》》美國現在標準BMI 25.0 ~ 30, 屬於 overweight range過重,>30%為肥胖。所以此研究較適合體重過重者當參考,台灣是指BMI24,可點此連結去算您的BMIhttp://health99.hpa.gov.tw/OnlinkHealth/Onlink_BMI.aspx

https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/adult/defining.html

 參考族群未必適用於每一個族群,雖然研究一定會以統計方式校正糖尿病、抽菸與體重因素及其心血管風險造成的影響,基本上這就是個本身就是潛在疾病風險較高的族群。

 3)          碳水化合物低比例者,早死可能來自其多吃的蛋白質食物比例中的油與蛋白質尤指羊、牛、豬、雞肉 Low carbohydrate dietary patterns favouring animal-derived protein and fat sources, from sources such as lamb, beef, pork, and chicken, were associated with higher mortality》》》》雞肉非紅肉,為何上榜?我認為甚至與美國喜油炸料理有關,尤其此文調查時間在健康意識尚不健全的10多年前[Visit 1 (1987–89) and Visit 3 (1993–95).],重要的是,盡量不吃油炸,不吃皮,吃瘦肉;魚相對較佳,建議中型海魚不吃皮,較不會吃到重金屬與環境賀爾蒙汙染。

4)          蛋白質/脂肪食物來源很重要﹕碳水化合物"低比例",但其他以植物性蛋白質/脂肪替代者(plant-based),活得更久!來源如堅果、花生醬、全麥麵包results varied by the source of macronutrients: mortality increased when carbohydrates were exchanged for animal-derived fat or protein (1·18, 1·08–1·29) and mortality decreased when the substitutions were plant-based (0·82, 0·78–0·87) / plant-derived protein and fat intake, from sources such as vegetables, nuts, peanut butter, and whole-grain breads, were associated with lower mortality, suggesting that the source of food notably modifies the association between carbohydrate intake and mortality 》》》》全麥麵包要注意,有些是加入許多奶油以增口感的反而不好。理論上好的植物性蛋白質還包含豆類,文章未提及,原因不明。另,核果一天以一把微參考量,因油脂含量高,鼓勵吃是與肥肉來比較油脂來源,不是吃很多! 

蛋白質來源如大豆製品,富含蛋白質, 甚至您直接吃豆類料理,還富含纖維質。但是不同的豆類,有的是以含碳水化合物為主(如紅豆、綠豆、刀豆、花豆、蠶豆)要當碳水化合物,有的是蛋白質含量豐富(毛豆、黃豆、黑豆都屬同一種豆),可視為蛋白質類。請參考此文 http://www.storm.mg/lifestyle/341339

 

5)         補充: 該文表ㄧ亦可見,膳食纖維(Dietary fiber)、油類(fat) 食用量與碳水化合物食用量呈反比趨勢,且全體研究者平均吃的動物性油脂都高於植物性Overall, mean consumption of energy from animal fat and protein was higher than from plant fat and protein across all carbohydrate quantiles》》》》油類在第1點已經提及,應與所吃動物性蛋白質上的油類有關。而膳食纖維本身就與血糖調節、腸道健康防癌有關。所以多吃肉類蛋白質者,要注意膳食纖維攝取量是否足夠,因為它們都在植物裏!這更證實多吃豆類蛋白質的好處。來源請見https://www.canceraway.org.tw/page.asp?IDno=273

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