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震撼報告!6萬澳洲兒童遭性侵 6成是神職人員犯案
2017/12/16 15:24:21瀏覽112|回應0|推薦0

(中央社雪梨2017/12/15日綜合外電報導)一份歷經5年調查的最終報告今天指出,澳洲相關機構過去數十年來在兒童照顧方面「嚴重失職」,導致數以萬計兒童性侵害案件發生。報告稱之為「國家悲劇」。

法新社報導,在長達10年要求針對遍及全國的性侵害指控展開調查壓力之下,澳洲政府2012年下令成立澳洲皇家回應兒童性侵委員會(Royal Commission intoInstitutional Responseto Child Sexual Abuse)。

超過1萬5000名性侵害倖存者跟這個委員會聯繫,他們詳細描述涉及教會、孤兒院、體育俱樂部、青年團體和學校的兒童性侵害問題,往往可以追溯到幾十年前。

。針對澳洲的兒童性侵問題,澳洲皇家調查委員會做出震撼性的報告,揭示受害兒童多達6萬人,4千個涉案機構中,超過6成是天主教組織,報告狠斥這是全國災難,建議教廷取消強制禁慾,以及告解保密規定,打擊兒童性侵惡行。

最終報告指出:「數以萬計兒童曾在澳洲許多機構遭到性侵害,我們永遠不會知道真實的數字。」委員會提出數百項改善兒童安全的建議,讓戀童癖者更難以逍遙法外。

報告提到,幾乎所有兒童棲身或參與教育、娛樂、體育、宗教、文化活動的場合都會發生性侵害。

有超過1800名性侵害嫌疑犯。女性受害時的平均年齡為10歲,男性為11歲。聖若望神兄弟會(St John ofGod Brothers)的宗教教團評價最糟,稍稍超過4成的成員都遭控性侵。

(譯者:中央社陳彥鈞)1061215

A national compensation scheme for abuse victims was supposed to be up and running by now. Why isn't it?

Updated Fri at 6:25am

In 2015, the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse recommended a national redress scheme for victims of institutional child sexual abuse be up and running by mid-2017 "at the latest".

But the $4 billion scheme is still not in place.

The Federal Government has introduced a bill into Parliament, but the states and territories are reluctant to sign up to the proposed scheme.

And the major institutions which will pay the compensation to survivors are waiting to see what the states do.

Which leaves around 60,000 Australians anxiously waiting for their chance to apply for compensation.

What's the hold-up?

The Federal Government is hoping its bill will be debated in February and get bipartisan support.

Applications for redress could then be made to the scheme from July 1, 2018.

But the scheme will not be truly national unless the states get on board.

Under the scheme, all Commonwealth institutions are automatic participants.

But for state institutions to participate, the state must have "opted in" to the scheme.

And non-government organisations, such as a Catholic orphanage, can only participate if the relevant state, and then their organisation, have "opted in".

But there is no sign any jurisdiction will be giving its whole-hearted support any time soon.

Why not?

One of the major sticking points appears to be the states' roles as so-called "funders of last resort".

Under the proposed scheme, the institution where the abuse occurred is to pay the compensation to survivors.

But where an institution no longer exists, the Commonwealth and, more often, the states, will have to step in and foot the bill as a funder of last resort.

In October, South Australia announced it was definitely not taking part.

There's no doubt the states are wary of the ultimate cost to them, and they often point out the Commonwealth will be a funder of last resort less often than them.

Survivor advocate Leonie Sheedy from Care Leavers' Australasia Network (CLAN) believes the states are stalling to cut their costs.

"How much longer do these states want? They signed the Royal Commission patent more than five years ago," she said.

"They knew it had redress in the terms of reference. They're waiting for people to die."

The positions of each state and territory

South Australia: It won't join the scheme but is happy to enable South Australian institutions to take part.

SA claims it differs from other states because for many years it has had an ex-gratia compensation scheme for victims who were sexually abused as children in state care. And no cases against the state have had to go to trial.

Victoria: It is sticking by the 'in principle' support it's had for a national redress scheme since 2015 and says it still believes that is the best outcome for survivors.

But Victoria says its support for a national scheme depends on the costings and design work provided by the Commonwealth.

It is working through that detail before deciding on opting-in or setting up its own a state-based scheme.

New South Wales: It says it is continuing to work with the Commonwealth and other jurisdictions to develop a redress scheme that is "comprehensive, sustainable and best meets the needs of survivors".

And "its primary objective remains ensuring appropriate recognition of the ongoing hurt experienced by survivors and their families".

Queensland: Premier Annastacia Palaszczuk says she welcomes and supports her state's continued involvement in the development of the Federal Government's redress scheme.

But Queensland is seeking more detail and assurances that the scheme will be in the best interests of Queenslanders who have suffered from child sexual abuse in Queensland institutions.

The Queensland Government, for example, wants further clarification on the definitions, scope and potential costs of being a "funder of last resort".

Western Australia: Premier Mark McGowan says the Federal Government has not provided adequate information to WA that would allow it to opt in.

He believes the scheme has "a number of critical problems and disincentives for entities to opt in" — and those matters will be considered by Cabinet before a decision is made.

Tasmania: It says it's continuing to participate in discussions with the Commonwealth and other states and territories to finalise the arrangements for the Commonwealth Redress Scheme and the technical details underpinning it.

It says many of the key elements of the proposed redress scheme as it relates to Tasmania are not settled.

ACT: It says it strongly supports a national redress scheme. It sees the Commonwealth Bill, as "a starting point for a nationally consistent scheme but many key details still need to be worked out".

The ACT says it will "keep working with other jurisdictions and the Commonwealth to ensure that the royal commission's recommendations are implemented as broadly and consistently as possible".

Northern Territory: It says it's committed to working with the Commonwealth and all other jurisdictions on the development of a proposed national redress scheme.

It says, as with all jurisdictions, there could be significant budgetary implications for the Northern Territory.

And there are specific technical issues that need to be considered in the context of the Northern Territory as it was administered by the Commonwealth prior to self-government starting in 1978.

The NT says it will make a decision on whether to opt in to the scheme once it knows more about the scheme's design and its financial exposure.

What does the Federal Government say?

Federal Social Services Minister Christian Porter has had the difficult task of designing the scheme and negotiating with the states and institutions.

A lawyer before entering parliament, Mr Porter said earlier this year that negotiating the scheme has been one of the hardest things he has ever had to do.

"The Government is continuing to discuss the Commonwealth redress scheme with states and institutions," Mr Porter said this week.

"And I remain hopeful that, in the not too distant future, we will start to see positive decisions from a number of states and institutions".

But the process may now be slowed down even further, after Labor referred the bill to a Senate committee for an inquiry in November.

The committee's report is due by March 13.

Labor is concerned the Federal Government has rejected the Commission's recommendation of a maximum payment to survivors of $200,000, and dropped it to $150,000.

Nonetheless, Federal Labor is urging all states and institutions to sign up to the redress scheme as quickly as possible.

The position of the institutions

Of all the major institutions, the Catholic Church is the only one to have given the scheme its unequivocal support from the time the Commission recommended it.

The Church estimates it will be required to pay out $1 billion to survivors under the scheme.

"The Church leadership made it clear. Part of the way the Catholic Church atones for its history is participating in a national redress scheme," chief executive of the church's Truth Justice and Healing Council Francis Sullivan said.

He is urging the states to opt in.

"Under the constitution, the state governments need to transfer powers to the Commonwealth for churches and private institutions to be able to participate," he said.

"Our latest advice through Minister [Christian] Porter is that there is no barrier for those states to refer the powers. Once that occurs, then the Catholic Church leadership will opt in.

"We're wanting the constitutional obstacle to be removed so that the Church leadership can be true to its word … and can participate in the national redress scheme."

In September, the Salvation Army reiterated its support of a single national redress scheme for victims of institutional child sexual abuse.

But it is not commenting further until it sees what happens with negotiations between the Commonwealth and the states.

Can the Commonwealth force the states to act?

Anne Twomey, a professor of constitutional law at the University of Sydney, says where matters are contentious it can be difficult for the Commonwealth to get the states to enact the legislation needed to refer their powers to the Commonwealth.

"Section 51 of the constitution allows a state to refer a 'matter' to the Commonwealth, which allows the Commonwealth to legislate about it," she said.

"This can be done by referring a subject matter, for example terrorism, or by referring the substance of a bill.

"That confines the Commonwealth's legislative power to enacting a law in the same form as that particular bill."

Professor Twomey said it would depend "very much" on how much good will there is and whether there is inter-governmental consensus concerning the scope of the proposed legislation.

"Some states, usually WA, also have an ideological aversion to referring anything to the Commonwealth," she said.

"However, there is also an alternative procedure by which a state can 'adopt' the law enacted by the Commonwealth.

"WA normally takes this approach instead, as it keeps the power in state hands."

Zehntausende Kinder missbraucht

Die Zahl ist erschütternd. Zehntausende Australier sollen als Kind sexuell missbraucht worden sein. Auch wenn die Aufarbeitung schwer fällt: Australien ist damit weiter als andere Länder.

Bericht der „Königlichen Kommission“

von Christoph Sator

Sydney – Paul Gray war zehn, als er von einem Geistlichen vergewaltigt wurde. Das geschah in den 1960er-Jahren in einem Heim einer australischen Kleinstadt nördlich von Sydney. Jetzt erst sprach Gray zum ersten Mal darüber. Seine Aussage gehört zu den erschütterndsten Dokumenten des Abschlussberichts, den Australiens „Königliche Kommission“ zum sexuellen Missbrauch von Kindern nach fünf Jahren Arbeit veröffentlichte. Demnach wurden zwischen 1950 und 2015 Zzhntausende Kinder Opfer sexueller Gewalt – oft in Einrichtungen der Kirche (vor allem der katholischen), aber auch in staatlichen Schulen und bei den Pfadfindern.

Wie viele Opfer waren es? Im Bericht heißt es: „Die genaue Zahl werden wir nie wissen. Die wichtigsten Institutionen der Gesellschaft haben schwer versagt.“ Premierminister Malcolm Turnbull sprach von einer „nationalen Tragödie“. Die katholische Kirche bat förmlich um Entschuldigung. Die Kommission schätzt, dass heute noch etwa 60 000 Opfer Anspruch auf Entschädigung geltend machen könnten. Nach ihren Recherchen wurden Kinder in mindestens 4000 Einrichtungen missbraucht, in Schulen, Kirchen, Heimen, Internaten. In vier von fünf Fällen blieb es nicht bei einem Mal.

Die große Mehrheit der Täter waren Männer – oft Priester und Lehrer, aber nicht nur. Eine der schlimmen Zahlen: Im Durchschnitt der Jahrzehnte sollen sich sieben Prozent von Australiens katholischen Priestern an Kindern vergangen haben. Im Johannes-Orden „St. John of God Brothers“ machte fast jeder zweite Priester mit. Wer erwischt wurde, musste nach Feststellungen der Kommission keine großen Konsequenzen fürchten. „Obwohl die Kirchenführung wusste, dass sie eine Gefahr bedeuten, hatten mutmaßliche Täter oft weiterhin Zugang zu Kindern. Wir haben gehört, dass sie oft versetzt, aber selten angezeigt wurden.“ Auch die „Zeugen Jehovas“ sollen 1000 mutmaßliche Täter toleriert haben.

Zudem gab die „Königliche Kommission“ Politik und Kirchen 400 Ratschläge, was verbessert werden könne. Dazu gehört, dass Buben und Mädchen an Kindergärten und Grundschulen künftig besser vorbereitet werden sollen. Australien soll eine Behörde zum Kinderschutz und einen „Kinder-Minister“ bekommen. Wer sexuellen Missbrauch beobachtet und nicht meldet, soll selbst bestraft werden können.

Der katholischen Kirche legte die Kommission nahe, eine Lockerung des Zölibats zu prüfen und auch eine teilweise Aufhebung der Beichtgeheimnisse: Wer als Priester im Beichtstuhl von sexuellem Missbrauch hört, soll künftig zur Polizei gehen können. Der Vorsitzende der australischen Bischofskonferenz, Melbournes Erzbischof Denis Hart, lehnte dies ab. „Die Strafe für jeden Priester, der das Beichtgeheimnis bricht, ist die Exkommunikation.“ Gleichwohl bat der Erzbischof nochmals ausdrücklich um Entschuldigung für die „beschämende Vergangenheit“.

Im März hat Australiens höchstrangiger Katholik, Kurienkardinal George Pell (76), seinen nächsten Termin vor Gericht. Ihm wird vorgeworfen, mehrere Buben missbraucht zu haben. Pell streitet dies ab. Als Finanzchef des Vatikans ließ er sich beurlauben.

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